PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

VOLUME 42, NUMBER 1, SPRING 1996
The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

Table of Contents

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
CSSP Meets in Midst of Government Budget Turmoil    2
Past Prisident's Symposium to be held at Annual Meeting    3
News from the Developmental and Structural Section    4
Financial Support for the BSA    4
BSA Represented at 90th Meeting of Italian Botanical Society    4
BSA Symposia for the 1996 Annual Meeting    5
Committees of the Botanical Society 1995-1996    6
Publications of the Society    7
Representative to Various Organizations    7
Other News
Association of Systematics Collections Moves    7
Articles
Botany Teaching Deja Vu    8
Dry as Dust: Lichens a Study Tool?    10

Commentary
Livable Planets are Hard to Find    10

Announcements
Calls for Nominations    11
Call for Applications    11
Personalia   11
In Memorium    12
Winfried Remy 1924-1995    12
Educational Opportunities    13
Positions Available    14
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings    15

Book Reviews    19
Books Received    25
1996 Young Botanists Awards: Nomination Deadline Extended    28
BSA Logo Items Available from the Business Office    28

Volume 42, Number 1: Spring 1996 ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Joe Leverich
Department of Biology,
Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave.,
Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
314/977-3903 FAX: 314/977-3658
e-mail: leverich@sluvca.slu.edu

Picture

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

Council of Scientific Society Presidents (CSSP) Meets in Midst of Government Budget Turmoil

The BSA has been a member of CSSP for several years. During this time CSSP has grown in size and now represents over one million scientists world-wide from many scientific societies. CSSP has its headquarters in Washington DC where two meetings are held each year, one in May and one in December, in or near the American Chemical Society Headquarters. Each meeting runs from Saturday through Tuesday noon and includes a variety of workshops, panel discussions, individual speakers, and of course a business agenda. Past President Greg Anderson was BSA's first representative, and Harry Horner is the present representative.

Last December's meeting covered major issues facing science, particularly the federal government's goal of reducing support for research in order to balance the budget. The major speakers were: Daniel Golden, Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration; Bruce Alberts, President, National Academy of Sciences; Harold Liebowitz, President, National Academy of Engineering; Kenneth Shine, President, Institute of Medicine; Phillip Griffiths, Director, Institute for Advanced Studies; Charles Larson, Executive Director, Industrial Research Institute, Neal Lane, Director, National Science Foundation; Peter Magrath, President, National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges; John Peterson, President, The Arlington Institute; Peter Denning, Past President, Association of Computing Machinery; and Marye Anne Fox, Vice Chair, National Science Board and Vice President, University of Texas. This all-star cast of speakers addressed the following topics: "Enhancing Federal Research, Leading the Fundamental Research Enterprise in the New Era," "Strategic Direction for Ph.D. Supply and Demand," "Key 21" Century Issues in Cyberspace and Electronic Publishing," "Allocation of Federal Resources for Science & Technology," and "Changing Opportunities for Science: What to Do and How to Do It."

During the two-and-one-half day meeting a number of Congressional legislators visit CSSP and either speak formally to or informally with the CSSP members. Also, on Tuesday morning at each meeting, the entire CSSP membership has a congressional breakfast on the Hill. The topic of the December breakfast was "Science Policy Issues in Progress." The breakfast was well attended by several senators and their representatives. On that morning there was little said about the ongoing budget negotiations because everything seemed to be in turmoil. As everyone knows, that environment has lasted into the New Year, and is still and will be a major issue probably through election time.

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519   email: KHJSER@MACNUS.ACS.OHIO-STATE.EDU

2

The take-home lesson for this meeting seemed to be, that based on the present political climate, scientific funding will be affected in many areas; in part because science literacy and confidence in science are problems, as well as the high cost of doing science, in general. With these major problems in the forefront, it is evident that if the US loses its edge in science and technology due to reduced funding, it is placing itself in great jeopardy. Added to this, there is minimal science literacy in Congress and other legislative bodies (including the general public). Therefore, it is clear that the BSA, as well as all other scientific organizations, must develop proactive and decisive strategies to educate federal, state, and local governments and the general public about the importance of botany and the work we carry out as professionals. This can only be done through communication and education. As members of BSA, we have an obligation to do this. Hopefully our thrust through Botany for the Next Millennium will further this purpose.

— Harry T. Horner

Past President's Symposium to be held at August Annual Meeting

The title for the symposium is "BOTANY for the NEXT MILLENNIUM - THE CHALLENGES." Its theme is a take-off of BSA's major efforts over the past several years which culminated in Botany for the Next Millennium - A Report from the Botanical Society of America. This report was published by the Society last summer in response to a 1992 challenge by then President William L. Culberson to identify "research and educational opportunities in the botanical sciences as we (the Society) approach the 21" century." After its publication, the BSA Council enlisted the help of all the Society sections to begin to identify those specific areas where they can have an impact, and to plan ways to accomplish these goals. Reports from the sections on progress toward these goals will bean integral part of our meeting in Seattle. The Past President's Symposium, to be held on Monday morning August 5, will focus on four major areas of importance for the next millennium: research, education, industry, and society and the world. These topics will be addresses by four speakers who have distinguished themselves in at least one of these areas. Following their presentations, the speakers, will field questions and comments from the audience. This panel format should provide a setting for further stimulation of the Society's plans and directions as it moves toward the next millennium. Because of the importance of this symposium to the Society, an excellent attendance is anticipated.

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Editorial Committee for Volume 42
Robert E. Wyatt (1996)
Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens GA 30602

James D. Mauseth (1997)
Dept. of Botany
University of Texas
Austin TX 78713

Allison A. Snow (1998)
Dept. of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
Columbus OH 43210

Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Dept. of Biology
University of California
Riverside CA 92521
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis MO 63166
 

3

News from the Developmental and Structural Section

The Developmental and Structural Section will sponsor two symposia at the 1996 meeting in Seattle: "The Morphology and Evolution of Flowers: A Tribute to the Work of Shirley Tucker", co-chaired by Pamela Diggle and Larry Hufford (speakers include Peter Endress, Peter Leins, Lynda Dclph, Pamela Diggle, Scott Hodges, Susanne Renner, Jeffrey Conner, Charles Fenster, Michael Frolich, Andrew Douglas, John Frucdenstein and Larry Hufford) and "Use of Global Morphological Characters in Green Plant Phylogeny and Evolution" co-chaired by Linda Grahan, Patricia Gensel and Elizabeth Zimmer.

The section will also make the Katherine Esau award for an outstanding graduate student paper in developmental and structural botany and the Maynard F. Moseley award for a student paper that hest advances our understanding of plant anatomy and/or morphology of vascular plants within an evolutionary context. The Botanical Society will also announce the Jeanette Siron Pclton Award, given to ascientist at a relatively early stage of his/ her careers for outstanding contributions to the study of plant morphogenesis.

— Nancy Dengler

Financial Support for the BSA

Over the past several years, the Executive and Financial Advisory Committees have developed strategies for improving the financial base of the Society. The goal has been to develop an endowment that will provide sufficient return to help support ongoing programs and initiate new ones as needs arise. It is clear that the Society must have sufficient funds to support the new initiatives for moving the Society into the Next Millennium. This will require efforts from the entire membership. The BSA over the years has provided an excellent membership package, at very low cost, to all of its members: yearly membership, 12 issues of the American Journal of Botany, free pages in AJB to publish articles, 4 issues of The Plant Science Bulletin, a Directory, and other publications such as Botany for the Next Millennium, The Guide to Graduate Studies in Botany, and Careers in Botany.

The Executive Committee and the Council struggle with keeping costs down so that membership dues can continue to stay relatively low. However, this approach is not providing the needed income to help the Society grow and expand its expertise in the very important areas of education, teaching, research, and service. There is no doubt that the Society can and must do more in all of these areas.

As BSA members we have an obligation to society, and ourselves, to grow and provide the best professional expertise in the field of botany that is possible. The society is made up of an extremely talented group of scientists and educators ranging from students at different levels to senior scholars who have achieved greatness. It is from this body of members that must come the additional financial support to sustain the Society into the 21" Century.

To accomplish this financial goal, I urge every member to consider contributing annually, anywhere from $5 to a major contribution toward the BSA Endowment Fund, beyond the annual dues. Such contributions can be received anytime by the BSA Office or Treasurer, and they are tax deductible. As a long-time member of BSA (student membership in 1960), I have reaped many benefits from the Society. I know many of you feel the same way. Therefore, I urge you to think about making that special effort to give at a time when it can help the most.

— Harry Horner, Past President, Past Treasurer, and Financial Committee Member

BSA Represented at 90th Meeting of Italian Botanical Society

The 90th annual meeting of the Italian Botanical Society was held at Palermo, Sicily December 9-13, 1995 in conjunction with the celebration of the Bicentennial of the Palermo Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico di Palermo). Professor P.B. Tomlinson, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, represented the Botanical Society of America at these meetings. Other invited members of theB.S.A. were Dr. James D. Mauseth, University of Texas at Austin and Dr. John S. Sperry, University of Utah. The meetings involved several symposia, including one on "Botanical Gardens Towards the Third Millennium" and a large poster session.

4

BSA Symposia for the 1996 Annual Meeting

Past President's Symposium:
Botany for the Next Millennium - The Challenges

Developmental and Structural Section:
The Morphology and Evolution of Flowers: A Tribute to the Work of Shirley Tucker

Ecological Section (cosponsored by Genetics Section):
Wild-crop Hybridization and the Ecological Impact of Escaped Transgenes

Economic Botany Section:
Sustainable Development and Conservation of Botanical Resources

Genetics Section:
Molecular and Physical Mapping of Plant Chromosomes

Genetics Section (cosponsored by Systematics):
The Use of 18S rRNA Sequence in Plant Phylogeny

Mycological Section (cosponsored by Teaching Section):
Recent Advances in Mycology for Undergraduate Botany Teachers

Paleobotanical Section (cosponsored by Systematics):
Use of Global Morphological Characters in Green Plant Phylogeny and Evolution

Pteridological Section:
Ecological Adaptations in Ferns

Teaching Section and AIBS:
Traveling the Information Highway: Biology Teaching and Research on the World Wide Web

Teaching Section:
The Search for Tenure: Relative Importance of Teaching and Research

Picture

5

COMMITTEES OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 1995-96

Annual Meeting Committee

Carol C. Baskin (1996) (Chair)

The Secretary of each Section

Archives and History Committee (2 members; 5 year terms)
James D. Mauseth (1998) (Chair)
Christopher Haufler (1997), Immediate Past Secretary, ex officio
Alan Whittemore (1999)

Conservation Committee (6 members; 3 year terms)
Kathleen Shea (1996) (Chair)
Jeffrey L. Walck (1996; student member)
Timothy P. Spira (1997)
Margaret S. Devall (1997)
Stanwyn G. Shetler (1998)
Linda Watson (1998)

Corresponding Members Committee (Past Presidents)
Harry T. Horner (1998), ex officio (Chair)
Grady L. Webster (1997), ex officio
Gregory J. Anderson (1996), ex officio

Darbaker Prize Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Joby M. Chesnick (1996) (Chair)
Jeffrey R. Johansen (1997)
Gary Floyd (1998)

Education Committee (6 members; 3 year terms)
Stephen G. Saupe (1996) (Chair)
Bruce K. Kirchoff (1996), Past Chair, cx officio
Ken Curry (1996)
Barbara Schaal (1996), President, ex officio
Lawrence J. Davenport (1997)
Eugene G. Bozniak (1997)
Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio
Donald S. Galitz, (1997), Secretary of the Teaching Section, ex officio
Gordon E. Uno (1998)
David W. Kramer (1998)
Joe Leverich (2000), Editor of the "Plant Science Bulletin," ex officio

Election Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Harry T. Horner (1996), Past President, ex officio (Chair)
Scott D. Russell (1996)
Linda E. Graham (1997)
Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio
Donald R. Kaplan (1998)

Esau Award Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Michael Christianson (1996)(Chair)
Elizabeth M. Harris (1997)
William Freidman (1998)

Executive Committee
Barbara Schaal (1996), President
Harry T. Horner (1996), Past President
Daniel Crawford (1996), President Elect
Carol M. Baskin (1996), Program Director
Charles Daghlian, Council-representative (1996)
Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary
Judith A. Jernstedt (1998), Treasurer

Financial Advisory Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Harry T. Horner (1996), (Chair)
Representing Barbara Schaal, President, ex officio Joseph Armstrong (1996)
Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio
Gary Floyd (1998) reappointment
Edward Schneider (1998)
Judith A. Jemstedt (1998), Treasurer, ex officio

Membership and Appraisal Committee (5 members; 5 year terms)
Pamela Soltis (1996)
Joseph E. Armstrong (1997)
James Hancock (1997) (Chair)
Marshall Sundberg (1998)
Judith A. Jernstedt (1998), Treasurer, ex officio
Leo Bruederlc (2000)
Kim Hiser, Business Office Manager, ex officio

Merit Awards Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Pat Holmgrcn (1996), Chair
Barbara Schaal (1996), President, ex officio
Ann E. Antlfinger (1997)
Jerry Baskin (1998)

Moseley Award Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Edward Schneider (1998)(Chair)
Charles Daghlian (1996)
Pamela Diggle (1997)

Pelton Award Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)
Nancy G. Dengler (1996) (Chair)
Todd J. Cooke (1997)
Lewis Feldman (1998)

Committee on Committees (6 appointed members; 3 year terms)
David Dilcher (1996)
Alan R. Orr (1996)
Daniel Crawford (1996), President Elect, ex officio (Chair)
Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio
Rebecca W. Dolan (1997)
Ann E. Rushing (1997)
Peter Hoch (1998)
Lynn King (1998)

6

PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY

Other News

The American Journal of Botany Karl Niklas, Editor-in-Chief

The Plant Science Bulletin Joe Lcvcrich, Editor

Editorial Committee

Robert Wyatt (1996)

James D. Mauseth (1997) Allison Snow (1998)

Nikolas M. Waser (1999) Mick Richardson (2000)

REPRESENTATIVES TO VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

AAAS Council - Judith Verbeke (1998)

AAAS Professional Society Ethics Group - Brian M. Boom (1995, reappointed by BS)

AIBS Meetings - Carol C. Baskin (1995, reappointed by BS)

AIBS Council - Muriel Poston (199?)

AIBS Government Relations - James L. Reveal (1995, reappointed by BS)

Biennial Incorporation, State of Connecticut - Kent E. Holsinger (1997)

Biological Stain Commission - Graeme Berlyn (1995)

Council of Scientific Society Presidents (each third President-elect)   - Harry T. Horner (1997)

Liaison to American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society - Reid G. Palmer (1995) (established by Gregory J. Anderson)

National Research Council Commission on Life Sciences Board of Basic Biology - Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio

Local Representative - 1996 Meeting - University of Washington

Joe Ammirati or designate (1996) Association of Systematics Collections Moves

The Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) has recently moved. Please note the following new address:
Association of Systematics Collections 1725 K Street NW, Suite 601 Washington, D.C. 20006-1401
telephone: (202) 835-9050 fax: (202) 835-7334
e-mail: asc@ascoll.org
www: http://www.ascoll.org/

The Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) is an association of North American institutions that house systematics collections. ASC exists to promote systematics collections, the institutions responsible for them, and the biosystematics community for which they are an essential resource. ASC works toward these goals by providing representation to governmental agencies and policymakers, serving as a clearinghouse of information affecting the systematics community, organizing meetings and workshops, producing and distributing two regular newsletters and special publications, and inter-acting with other societies and groups both in North America and around the world. To learn more about ASC, its current activities and projects, please contact the staff at the address above.

Picture

7

Botany Teaching Deja Vu

David R. Hershey
Biology/Horticulture Department,
Prince George's Community College, Largo MD 20772

Bozniak's recent discussion of "Challenges Facing Plant Biology Teaching Programs" (PSB 40:42-46) and the November 1994 discussion of botany teaching problems on the plant-education newsgroup (PSB 40:114) brought to mind the often similar discussion of the early 1900s, a period with which contemporary plant educators and students usually seem unfamiliar. Be-cause it was a period when education was much discussed by the leading botanists, some quotes from that era follow:

John M. Coulter. University of Chicago. 1911:

The method of introduction of modern botany into American institutions was unfortunate, in the sense that it long delayed a proper recognition of the subject. It came in as a part of general courses in biology, the texts and laboratory guides for which were always written by zoologists. As a consequence, zoology received so much the greater emphasis that to this day it is thought of as synonymous with biology, and botany lagged behind in development and in recognition. The real segregation of botany from animal biology in university courses began with the appearance of Bcssey's Botany (1880) ... Since that time botanical laboratories and texts have multiplied; in one institution after another botany has emerged from its zoological submergence; and although delayed, it has now become established in most universities as one of the major subjects.(A Cyclopedia of Education 1:425-429. New York: Macmillan.)

George E. Nichols, Yale University, 1919:

The fact remains that, while there are plenty of ardent zoologists and ardent botanists, there are few, if any, ardent biologists. In charge of either zoologists or botanists how can a course in general biology help be-coming one-sided? ....There are altogether too many good zoologists, for example, whose knowledge of biology outside their own field is extremely limited. Only too often their familiarity with plants is little more than skindecp.("The general biology course and the teaching of elementary botany and zoology in American colleges and universities." Science 50:509-517.)

William F. Ganong, Smith College, 1910:

Our plant physiology in some cases is so erroneous that it is only the general badness of our teaching which saves us from the humiliation of having our errors pointed out by those we are trying to teach.

I think we do not make enough use in our teaching of the heroic and dramatic phases of our science, of the biography of our great men and the striking incidents of our scientific history.

... there is continual pressure on the teacher to subordinate his teaching to research.... I agree that he is the best teacher who is also an active investigator, but I maintain that in the case of college teachers the investigation ought to have some kind of connection with the teaching. This is entirely possible, for a vast and fruitful field for research lies open in educational organization, in the introduction of more logical, useful and illuminating topics, experiments and methods, in the fitting of science better to the growing mind, in local floras and the natural history of common plants, in ways for better collation and diffusion of knowledge.("Some reflections upon botanical education in America." Science 31:321-334.)

Raymond J. Pool, U. of Nebraska, 1919:

We have argued about "pure science" and "applied science," about botany and "agricultural botany," about "practical botany" and "economic botany," etc. until all of the arguments both pro and con have been repeated so often that the whole business has flattened out like a slice of Cycad in xylol.

...[in introductory botany courses] the drudgery of long and often painful periods at the compound micro-scope are relieved only by fingering over musty or sodden cadavers to the exclusion of many fundamental facts and phenomena of great importance in the life of the world of plants about us.

... we have the fragmentation and ramification of the subject of agriculture coming in to lop off one phase after another of plant science, until about all that is left for some botanists whom I know is their microscopes and jars of botanical cadavers. The agriculturist has crept in while the botanist slept and stolen the very soul of his subject. ... Surely, if botanists sternly and persistently refuse to teach much of the botany of the field, of the garden, orchard and forest, we cannot wonder, much less object, if the agriculturists attempt to devise ways and means to do these things for themselves. For what other single factor is of as great consequence in the foundation of agriculture as plants and plant life?

We have got to put new life (a lot of it) into botany as did the botanical masters of the past generation. I would direct this remark with all emphasis possible not only to high school botany but also to the elementary or introductory courses in our colleges and universities. I have absolutely no sympathy with the state of mind that concludes that the introductory course in general botany should be given for the particular benefit of some special class or classes of students. ... If we were to plan the course with reference to the outlook of the majority of the class in mind we should surely make it broad and of general interest and value to the class as a whole rather than highly particularized for some small fraction of the class.

Too frequently the botany in high school has been a very poor grade of stuff culled from the Freshman course in college, and unfortunately it often happens that that was absolutely all that our poor teacher has had to draw

8

from because she did not go on to advanced work in college. ... We might help to remedy the situation if we were allowed to demand more extensive training for prospective teachers. ("About high school and college botany." School Science and Mathematics 19: 487-500.

Liberty Hyde Bailey, Cornell University, 1903:

A great difficulty in the teaching of botany is to determine what are the most profitable topics for consideration. The trouble with much of the teaching is that it attempts to go too far, and the subjects have no vital connection to the pupil's life.... Every person is interested in the evident things, few in the abstruse and recondite. Education should train persons to live, rather than to be scientists. (Botany: An Elementary Text.for Schools New York: Macmillan.)

V.A. Suydam, School Principal, Ripon, WI. 1902:

Botany is the unsettled study in our high schools today, and is likely to remain so until it is taught from the standpoint of the practical in education.... Simply to study plants is not enough. There should be a purpose in that study. Particular plants should be studied because they are worth knowing about, and particular facts should be studied about these plants because they have a bearing upon our lives. ... What the public demands, and rightly so, is high school botany in the high school, and not the ridiculous attempt at teaching college botany in the high school, and that, in most cases, by teachers unfit for the work. ("High school botany." School Science and Mathematics 2:435-438.

J.E. Kirkwood, University of Montana. 1918:

One may almost search in vain in the earlier texts for an interpretation of botanical science in relation to every-day human interests. ... Students seeking their doctorates in American universities were assigned to some narrow research problem, the satisfactory consummation of which was rewarded by the degree. Thus equipped, the newly fledged doctor went forth to teach in high school or college, often with little knowledge of botany beyond the restricted field of his thesis.

Taking all these things into consideration, viz., the inadequacy of the textbooks, the incompetence of the teachers, and the expense of the work, it is not strange that botany as a subject for secondary schools has had difficulty in gaining recognition and maintaining its place. Where it has prospered under this system it has perhaps been due more to the personality of the teacher than to the attractiveness of the subject. ("Opportunity and obligation in botanical teaching." School Science and Mathematics 18:579-587.)

Francis E. Lloyd, Columbia University, 1904:

...it may fairly be claimed that botany lends itself to an especial degree to the teacher and student for the study of physiology by the experimental method. The materials are on the whole easier to obtain and keep in good condition, and illustrate most of the physiological processes of animals and plants equally well. Plants are more easily controlled than animals, and experimentation with them does not offend the sensibilities so easily.

People are more or less interested in plants and their behavior, and get pleasure from their contemplation. But wider knowledge brings more materials for the mind to work with, and a heightened pleasure. As pure interest and enjoyment are the mainspring of human activity in general, as they are of the naturalist in particular, to increase the interest of the people in botany makes for more pleasurable and better living. (The Teaching of Biology in the Secondary School New York: Longmans Green.)

William F. Ganong, Smith College, 1910.

... most of our students come into high school and college with so scant a knowledge of the commonest facts about plants, and with so little idea of how to use their senses and minds upon natural objects, that most of our teachers find it needful to make their courses, even for college students, more or less of the nature-study type.

The best basis for abotanical education [forabotany teacher] is derived from a college course in which especial attention is paid not only to Botany as a science, but also to its teaching.

... I have myself often noted the interest taken by students in economic subjects once presented. But there is no doubt that our courses should give more careful and systematic attention than heretofore to these matters. Whenever the work of students can thus be linked with the important affairs of practical life, it is an immense advantage, both as making them more truly educated persons, and giving them a better understanding of, and interest in, their work.

We turn next to ask what Botany is of most worth as knowledge to the average man of education. An elementary course must take careful account of this, since the great majority of students go no further in the subject, and the course must be made complete in itself for them, as well as a foundation for those who continue into higher work. The most important knowledge, I should say, is that which, when a man looks upon the world of plants, enables him to know those facts about them which are most fundamental, wide-reaching, and illuminating. His knowledge must, therefore, include an acquaintance with the main facts as to what they are made of and their architectural construction: what they are doing in their daily lives, and how these lives are interwoven with those of animals: why they have the shapes and colors and sizes and other notable peculiarities they exhibit: what different kinds of them there are, and how they have evolved from lower to higher groups.

1 believe that the next great wave of botanical interest which will sweep over the country will be educational, and that it will lift our science into more nearly its rightful place in the life and interests of the community, and will leave botanical education a recognized and permanent department of botanical investigation. (The 7'eaching Botanist. New York: Macmillan.)

9

Dry as Dust: Lichens a Study Tool?

Samuel Hammer
Department of General Studies, Boston University

There's nothing as dry as a lichen it seems, at least from a student's perspective. Take your i ntroductory students on a field trip, and unless it has rained recently, the lichens will be crackling underfoot. You can prove your point (that lichens are dull, uninteresting artifacts of evolution) by showing students herbarium specimens or plastic mounts of lichens. With the exception of a few history majors, most students will not respond to yellowing packets of specimens, usually damaged by reagent stains. Lichens, it would appear, are dead.

On the other hand, biodiversity and conservation biology are still lively topics from what I hear. Why not introduce students to lichenology from a conservation perspective? In a recent article in American Scientist, Vernon Ahmadjian of Clark University pointed out that lichens are the dominant terrestrial vegetation on about eight percent of the Earth's surface. Your university may be near part of that. Your local portion of Lilliputian lichen delights is probably called a "barren" or "scrub," and more than likely it is endangered by pollution, subdivisions, or recreation.

Lichens actually make great field biology topics. Similar to plants, they are photosynthetic, sessile organisms. Lichens are physiologically active at all times of the year. They are perennial, so you can visit a lichen plot all year, year after year. Lichens can be used for all sorts of research; long term, short term, ecological, physiological, structural, and systematic. For introductory or non-major students, these areas of study can translate to their special skills in art, engineering, even English and history. You can go "high tech," using light meters, chemical analyses, and even DNA probes, or you can opt for a more basic program and have your students draw, measure, and learn the meaning of the Latin species names. You don't need to bean organic chemist to run thin layer chromatography on lichen substances, but your science majors who have done TLC will have a head start in orgo lab thanks to their experience with you.

Conservation biology? Lichens are the sine qua non bellwether organisms for air pollution studies. You can put together a long-range research project on air quality for your course based on the presence of lichen species over a period of time. You may even be able to get some local grant money for your project. Lichens are active in soil binding and water retention, and they may participate, like other fungi, in substrate decomposition. They are perfect subjects for disturbance studies. You can work with your local environmental agencies to document a real headache: off-road-vehicle traffic on public lands. Your students can get involved with conservation projects and develop their expertise in biology at the same time. Counting, measuring, and estimating become desirable, even coveted tasks under the rubric of Ecological Monitoring.

Lichens yield indoor lessons as well. They are beautiful when examined close-up. The dissecting microscope may have been designed solely to give students an appreciation of lichen form. Once you've hooked students on the dissecting scope, introduce them to hand sectioning and mounting. Tough concepts in symbiosis, mycology, ecology and physiology can come alive with lichens in focus.

Lichens are an understudied group, and this leaves the field open for your (and your students') creativity. There are few set rules in lichenology, and your students can have the satisfaction of becoming "specialists" with the help of a little elbow grease. Lichens are alive. Dry? Often. Brittle? Sometimes. Rig-id? Never. Relax and enjoy them. Add enthusiasm. You may find lichens to be a wonderful tool in drawing out

Editor:

I wish to bring to the attention of the readers of PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN a book I recently published. Livable Planets are Hard to Find is a new book for laypersons or college students who need an education as to the severity of destruction which is going on in their earthly home. The book covers such topics as air, soil, water, the rainforest and its creatures, extra-tropical forests, ozone layer, acid rain, overpopulation, endangered species act, cities, and many other topics. About 170 examples pro or con are given to prove a point. Illustrations are by Ding Darling and Mr. Stayskal. The author has had extensive training in the life sciences, including field work with the USDI and foreign travel. For information on obtaining this hook, please write Dr. I. Knobloch, 6104 Brookhaven, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. (The book is $12 plus $1.50 domestic postage).

— Irving W. Knobloch
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology
Michigan State University

Ed. Note: Dr. Knobloch has been a member of the Botanical Society of America more than over 50 years —since 1943.

your students' strengths and interests.

Commentary

10

Announcements

Call for Nominations

The 1996 Jesse M. Greenman Award

The Jesse M. Greenman Award, a certificate and a cash prize of $1,000, is presented each year by the Missouri Botanical Garden. The award recognizes the paper judged best in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. Last year's award was won by Lynn Bolls for her publication " Cyphomandra (Solanaceae)," published as Monograph 63 of Flora Neotropica. This studt was based on a Ph.D. dissertation from Harvard University under the direction of Dr. R. E. Schultes.

Papers published during 1995 are now being accepted for the 28th annual award, which will be presented in the summer of 1996. Reprints of such papers should he sent to Dr. P. Mick Richardson, Greenman Award Committee, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, USA. In order to be considered for the 1995 award, reprints must be received by 1 June 1996.

1996 Darbaker Prize in Phycology

The Botanical Society of America is accepting hominations for the Darbaker Prize in Phycology. This award is presented for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The Darbaker Award Committee will base its judgment primarily on papers published by the nominee during the last two full calendar years (1994-95). The award is limited to residents of North America and only papers published in the English language will be considered. A monetary prize is presented to the recipient at the BSA society banquet during the annual meeting.

Nominations f award should include all of the nominee's work th

to be considered Tor the 1 95 period and a statemer the nominee's merits dressed to the committ The materials must be ceived no later than April 1996. Please send nomir tion materials to: Joby N Chesnick, Chair Darbaker Committee, Departmcnt or Biology Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042, fax: (610) 250-6557, e-mail: chesnick@lafayette.edu

Call for Applications: Rupert Barneby Award

The New York Botanical Garden invites applications for the 1996 Rupert Bameby Award. The award of $1,000.00 is to assist researchers to visit The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit their curriculum vitae and a detailed letter describing the project for which the award is sought. Travel to NYBG should be planned for sometime in 1997. The letter should be addressed to Dr. James L. Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126 USA, and received no later than December 1, 1996. Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th. Anyone interested in making a contribution to The Rupert Barneby Fund in Legume Systematics, which supports this award, may send their check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Luteyn.

Personalia

University of Guelph Honors Tomlinson

At the winter convocation of the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, on February 2, 1996, the honorary degree of Doctor of Science was conferred on Professor P. Barry Tomlinson, E.C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology, Harvard University. This was the first occasion that a botanist has been so honored at Guelph. Professor Tomlinson was cited for his pioneering work on the growth and structure of tropical plants in relation to the biodiversity of life forms in the tropics. His current research concerns the reproductive biology of the conifers, a group of plants of major economic significance.

Botanist Knighted

Botanical Society of America memberGhillean T. Prance, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom, was knighted in late July of last year by Queen Elizabeth II.

Lewis Receives 1995 Barneby Award

The New York Botanical Garden has announced that Gwilym Lewis of the Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew, is the recipient of the 1995 Rupert Barneby Award. Mr. Lewis will be working on the legumes of Ecuador.

Picture

11

In Memorium
WINFRIED REMY 1924-1995

On December 3] th, 1995 Prof. Dr. Winfried Remy peacefully passed away after a long illness. He was born on March 21, 1924 in Breslau, Silesia (now Wroclaw, Poland) but grew up in Berlin. He began studying geology in 1946 at the Humboldt University in East Berlin. Walther Gothan, who gave him a student assistantship in 1948, aroused his interest in palaeobotany. Because of the political climate, Remy who lived in West Berlin but worked in the East, received his Ph.D. in 1952 in Tubingen from Schindewolf and Zimmermann on a study of Late Palaeozoic pteridosperm fructifications. Three years later he received his habilitation.

After Gothan's death Remy became the leader of the research institute of palaeobotany and coal science in East Berlin. In the 1950s and early 1960s he authored numerous publications, primarily on Carboniferous and Permian plants. Apart from the more classical hiostratigraphically oriented papers, he also published a series of contributions on fructifications, on in situ spores and pollen, and cuticular analysis. Many of these papers were written together with his wife Renate. In addition, he published two richly illustrated books on Palaeozoic floras: the first with Gothan on paralic coal basins (1957) and the second with his wife Renate on limnic coal basins (1959). A synthesis on Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian floras was published by Remy and Remy in 1977.

The construction of the Berlin wall in 1961 forced the Remys to leave their work in the Berlin institute and move to Munster where Winfried was offered a lectureship in the geology department. In 1965 he became professor, and in 1968 head of the newly founded Forschungsstelle fur Palaobotanik, a position he held until his retirement in 1989. For nearly thirty years, and without a permanent staff, he managed to develop a well-equipped, internationally recognized palaeobotanical institute. Although he rarely left Munstcr until a few years ago, he continued to be an active researcher as is well documented by his numerous publications. In 1968 he and hi s wife started the joumalArgunmenta Palaeobotanica of which eight issues have been published.

In 1978 Winfried Remy published the first of what would become a long series of papers on the Rhynic Chert flora, and in so doing returned to a subject that he had briefly addressed early in his career (1952). Although he continued to publish on Carboniferous and Permian floras, his interests had clearly shifted to the earliest land plants, thereby concentrating on the anatomically pre-served material from the Rhynie Chert, and on compression floras from the Lower Devonian of western Germany. Although the Rhynie Chert flora was discovered and first described in the beginning of this century, Winfried Remy, his wife Renate and colleagues were responsible for a series of important new contributions.

They described several types of anatomically preserved gametophytes of the earliest land plants, including examples still showing exceptional details such as sperm preserved in antheridia, and neck and egg cells of archegonia, which are documented by numerous specimens of each taxon. The Rhynie Chert plants possessed gametophytes and sporophytes which were in many respects very similar in organization and size, but unlike those found in modern vascular plants. Various stages in the life cycle of these Early Devonian Rhynie Chert plants were demonstrated, ranging from the sporogenesis, dispersal of spores, germination to the various growth stages showing the development of the vascular system and the formation of the gametangia. As a result of these investigations the life history biology of these 400 million year old plants is now better documented and understood than for many extant plants. In addition to the detailed work on gamctophytes, other aspects of the Rhynie Chert flora were studied as well. Some of these include the general and functional morphology of the sporophytes, various in situ algae and fungi, and the general ecology of the Rhynic Chert biotope. Noteworthy in Remy's Rhynie Chert studies are fungi, illustrating several stages of the life cycle, examples of parasitism, and the recent discovery of the oldest anatomically preserved lichen. With his work on Devonian compression floras, e.g., the discovery of gametophytes in the Lower Devonian of Germany and one of the earliest Trimerophytes which still shows anatomical details, Remy demonstrated that even `ordinary' compression floras can, if they are carefully studied, yield much more information than is commonly believed.

Remy continued his research after his formal retirement in 1989. In his later years he developed successful cooperation with several North American palaeobotanists. Highlights of this later phase in his career included visits to the United States in 1991 as the guest of the Botanical Society of America, to Argentina in March 1994 where he participated in the Symposium on "The Paleobiology of Fossil Plants: New Insights and Perspectives", and the International Workshop on Early Devonian plants held in September 1994 in Munster which attracted specialists from all over the world. Al-though he was increasingly slowed by his illness, he continued to work and visited the institute he founded until a very few days before his death.

Winfried Remy never promoted himself or his work; for a long time he even refrained from attending scientific meetings, but when he reappeared on the congress scene a few years ago many were thrilled to meet the author of these meticulously documented papers, that showed incredible details such as germinating spores. He had a very broad, interdisciplinary and flexible approach to his science that integrated biological and geological, information that was directed at understanding the functional morphology of fossil plants, their ecology and role in the community structure, and the mutual influences

12

that existed between plants and their environment mil-lions of years ago. He was not hampered by dogmatic concepts and theories, and often challenged traditional views by showing the botanical and geological communities the exciting potential of fossil plant studies. His innovative work on Lower Devonian floras has had an impact reaching well beyond the limits of our discipline. He was elected a corresponding member of the Botanical Society of America in 1994 and in that same year was awarded the W.J. Jongmans Medal at the 4th European Palaeobotanical and Palynological Congress in Heerlen.

His friends and students will remember him as an original and devoted scientist, a warmhearted col-league and an enthusiastic, inspiring and often thought-provoking teacher. Winfried Remy had a passion for palaeobotany that is reflected in his work, and that will be greatly missed by his colleagues. His contributions to the discipline he so greatly loved will serve as an inspiration for those that follow.
— Hans Kerp, Hagen Hass and Thomas N. Taylor

The Botanical Society has been notified that the following members have passed away:

Henry Schneider of the Department of Plant Pathology, Univeristy of California, Riverside, a member since 1954.

Estiti B. Hidayat of the Biology Department, Institut Teknologi Bandug, Indonesia.

Picture

Educational Opportunities

Workshop on Tropical Plant Families 18-23 May 1996

Restricted to college faculty, the workshop is designed to facilitate instructors in incorporating tropical plant materials in their courses. It will be conducted at Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, where participants are encouraged to photograph and collect specimens. Short lectures will provide orientation to field and technical characters, systematic placement and subdivision, and uses of the major tropical families. Costs include only travel, lodging, incidentals, and a $40 registration fee; tuition is provided by an NSF faculty development grant. Applications available from the Science Education Center, Univ. Texas (512) 471-7354. For questions about content, contact the instructor, Roger Sanders, Botanical Research Inst. Texas, Fort Worth (817) 332-4441; rsanders@brit.org.   -

Biodiversity of Tropical Plants 10 June - 5 July 1995

Harvard University Summer School, in collaboration with Fairchild Tropical Garden, will offer a course entitled Biodiversity of Tropical Plants at Fairchild Tropical Garden from June 10th through July 5th 1996. The instructor will be P. Barry Tomlinson, E.C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology, Harvard University.

Instruction is carried out within the educational facilities of Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida, whose living collections, the largest collection of tropical plants in the continental United States, provides the main focus of teaching activity. Field instruction will further involve the diversity of natural ecosystems in South Florida. Emphasis will be on reproductive biology, morphology, and anatomy within a strong systematic frame-work. Groups (both systematic and biological) of special interest include cycads, palms, tropical monocotyledons, epiphytes, lianes, mangroves, and sea grasses, as well s breeding mechanisms and architecture of tropical trees. The objective of the course is to provide advanced students of botany with a guided introduction to the diversity of plant form and function in the lowland tropics.

Applicants should have reasonably extensive training in the botanical sciences and familiarity with the major plant groups. Admission is based on the Summer School application and a supplementary statement that includes the following information: course work in biology an related fields, relevant experience, travel experience in the tropics, and reasons for wanting to take the course. All application materials must be received at the Harvard Summer School by March 31, 1996. Preference will be given to graduate students.

Estimated expenses are tuition $1400; application fee $35; food and accommodation $50 per day. Partial tuition and partial travel support are available for qualified students. Students will be housed collectively in comfortable and reasonably inexpensive accommodations close to Fairchild Tropical Garden.

For further information and supplementary application forms, contact professor P.B. Tomlinson, Harvard Forest, Harvard University, PO Box 68, Petersham, MA 01366 or Christine Santos, Division of Continuing Education, Harvard University, 51 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.

13

Recombinant DNA Lab Courses 3-14 June 1996

During the summer of 1996, Indiana University's Department of Biology, in cooperation with the I.U. Division of Continuing Studies, will offer two week-long laboratory courses focusing on the techniques and procedures used in recombinant DNA research and their application. Participants also have the opportunity to work with a DNA sample of their own research organism. Both courses will be taught on the Indiana University campus in Bloomington.

Recombinant DNA Technology - The first course, "Recombinant DNA Technology," will introduce participants to procedures involved in recombinant DNA work and to the molecular aspects of genetic engineering. Most of the procedures that are taught to biology graduate students in the recombinant DNA section of a graduate techniques course at Indiana University will be covered. Participants can make arrangements to isolate genomic DNA from their own research organisms during the course.

The following techniques will be included: DNA and cloning vector manipulation, PCR technology, preparation of recombinant DNA, transformation of bacterial cells, selection and assay of cloned and amplified fragments of "foreign" DNA, transfer of DNA for probing (Southern blot) and preparation of nonradioactive DNA probes. "Recombinant DNA Technology" is de-signed for those with a basic understanding of the structure of DNA and elemental genetics and with a minimal understanding of enzymes and biochemistry. The course is scheduled for June 3-7, 1996. Registration deadline is May 17.

Application of Recombinant DNA Technology: RFLP and Fingerprinting Analysis, RAPD Analysis and DNA Sequencing - This course will provide participants with the opportunity to learn about the materials and techniques used in recombinant DNA research. Participants may bring a DNA sample to sequence during the course. This course will emphasize the following techniques: DNA sequencing using non-radioactive methods, DNA sequencing using automatic DNA sequencer, RAPD analysis ofgenomic DNA, fingerprintingandRFLPanalysis of genomic DNA, clectroporation of bacterial cells, chemiluminescent detection of nucleic acids, application of computers to DNA sequencing data analysis, preparation of random fragment sequencing libraries and double-stranded DNA for sequencing, and use of bioneb cell and hipolymer disruption systems.

A basic understanding of the structure of DNA and elemental genetics is assumed for participants in this short course, as is a minimal understanding of enzymes and biochemistry. Previous experience with PCR orRFLP analysis and DNA sequencing is not a prerequisite, nor is completion of "Recombinant DNA Technology." This course is scheduled for June 10-14, 1996. Registration deadline is May 24.

The instructor for both courses is Dr. Stefan J. Surzycki, Associate Professor of Biology at Indiana University. Fees for these courses include all instruction, laboratory supplies, use of equipment, and lab manuals. For additional information, contactJane Clay, Division of Continuing Studies, Owen Hall 204, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, phone 812/855-6329.

Workshop: Botany of Alpine New Mexico August 11-18, 1996

Spent primarily in the field, the workshop will focus on adaptations to physical factors and species interactions that are characteristic of alpine tundra, subalpine conifer forests and meadows. It carries one semester credit hour and is open to anyone interested in the natural history of the Southwest. SMU's Fort Burgwin, a reconstructed frontier cavalry fort, is an interdisciplinary re-search and teaching facility located at an elevation of 7,400 feet in the Sangre de Cristo Range above Taos, New Mexico. Cost of $570 includes tuition, housing, and fees. Instructor: Roger Sanders, SMU Adj. Prof. & Res. Assoc., Botanical Research Inst. Texas, Fort Worth. For more details and applications call (214) 768-3657.

Positions Available

Terrestrial Plant Systematics/Biodiversity University of British Columbia

The Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, invites applications for a tenure-track position as Assistant Professor. Appointment at a higher rank may be considered for a woman with exceptional qualifications. Candidates must have a PhD degree in modern plant systematics. The candidate will be expected to establish a strong competitively-funded research pro-gram and to participate as a member of the Centre for Biodiversity Research which promotes interaction among botanists, zoologists, microbiologists, and forest biologists. Specific research interests could include molecular plant systematics, plant evolution, or conservation biology of plants. Preference will be given to candidates with excellent communication skills, a strong publication record and enthusiasm for teaching excellence. The Department shares in the teaching of 1st and 2nd year Biology courses, and preference will be given to individuals who can also teach an upper level course in one or more of plant systematics, plant evolution, conservation biology, biodiversity, and field botany for graduate students.

The University of British Columbia welcomes all qualified applicants, especially women, aboriginal people, visible minorities and persons with disabilities. In accordance with Canadian immigration requirements, priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents of Canada. The position is subject to final budget approval. Anticipated starting date: January 1, 1997. Applications, which must include a curriculum vitae, copies of publications, a statement of research and teaching interests, and the names of at least three referees,

14

should be submitted by May 1, 1996 to: Dr. Iain E.P. Taylor, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 3529-6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4.

Program Director Organization for Tropical Studies

Director of Undergraduate Semester Program in tropical biology, language, and culture. The Organization for Tropical Studies, a consortium of 50 universities, seeks a Ph.D. biologist to plan and implement a new program which teaches tropical biology in a cultural context: direct faculty, coordinate with universities, ad-ministration, and limited teaching. The successful candidate will have knowledge of Costa Rica, Spanish and English skills, experience with study abroad programs, exceptional interpersonal skills, willingness to travel 50% of the time and reside in Costa Rica. Position is full-time beginning May, 1996. Salary range is $35,000 to $40,000 with Duke University benefits. Review begins March 1, until position is filled. Send application including phone numbers of 4 references: Dept.B, OTS, Box 90633, Durham, NC, 27708. Equal Opportunity Employer.

Botanist-Ecologist Carr Research Laboratory, Inc.

We are seeking a botanist-ecologist interested in wetlands and aquatic systems. Ph.D. or ABD preferred. The work entails independent field work, wetland border delineation under federal, state, and local wetland regulations in New England, development of wetland replication programs, wetland wildlife habitat studies, and at-tending meetings and hearings related to permit applications. Skills in limnology, riparian ecosystems, wetland banking, and stewardship via science based resource management is a plus.

The Carr Research Laboratory, Inc. is a tiny independent consulting and research firm located about 15 miles west of Boston. The learning environment is excellent and professional growth is very strongly encouraged. Full benefit program. Equal Opportunity Employer.

Please submit a copy of your resume, including a list of all technical courses and publications to: Jerome B. Carr, Ph.D., Carr Research Laboratory, Inc., Suite 5, 5 Wethersfield Rd., Natick MA 01760.

Plant Cell Biologist/Physiologist Northeast Missouri State University

Northeast Missouri State University invites applications for a tenure-track position at the Assistant Professor level, starting August 1996. We seek a broadly trained individual to teach a sophomore-level Cell Biology course, a junior-level Plant Physiology course, and rotate through a majors or nonmajors General Biology course. Teaching and research arc mutually supportive activities at Northeast; candidates should be strongly committed to both teaching and developing a research program involving undergraduates and M.S. students. Laboratory space and start-up funds will be provided.

Ranked third in the nation by Money Guide, Northeast is Missouri's only statewide, highly selective public undergraduate liberal arts and sciences university. We are nationally recognized for our innovative assessment program and total commitment to a broad-based liberal arts and sciences education. Students benefit from a university-wide 16:1 student/faculty ratio and the opportunity to work closely with faculty conducting re-search.

Candidates must possess a Ph.D., or have a targeted completion date, by August 1996. Complete applications include a curriculum vitae, statements of teaching philosophy and research goals, undergraduate and graduate transcripts, and three recent letters of reference. Application materials should be sent to Dr. Gary Sells, Division of Science, Northeast Missouri State University, Kirksville, MO 63501. Completed applications will be reviewed starting 1 April 1996.

NMSU is an AA/EOE institution committed to cultural diversity and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Symposia, Conferences, Meetings

Evolution and Conservation on Islands 4 May 1996

The Santa Barbara Botanic Garden will hold a symposium entitled "Plant Evolution and Conservation on Islands - A Global Perspective" on May 4, 1996. Topics include phylogenetic patterns, floristic diversity, biology of rare plants, and conservation strategies. Speakers include Ian Atkinson, Bruce Baldwin, Sherwin Carlquist, Sarah Chaney, Vicki Funk, J. R. Haller, and William Halverson. The keynote address will be given by Peter Raven. Post-symposium events include excursions to selected California Channel Islands. For details please contact Dieter Wilken, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Rd., Santa Barbara, CA 93105. Telephone: (805) 682-4726 ext 124; e-mail: wilken@lifesci.lscf.ucsb.edu.

8th International Lupin Conference11-16 May 1996

Scientists from throughout the world will be gathering May 11-16, 1996 for the 8th International Lupin Conference in the scenic Asilomar Conference Center near Monterey. The scientists convening at Asilomar in 1996 will report on a number of topics that will be of interest to scientists and growers alike—new

15

crop development, human and animal food uses, nitrogen fixation, ecological importance, as well as the agronomic aspects of lupin.

A full agenda is planned for the conference, with three days of symposia scheduled in the mornings. Afternoons will be devoted to concurrent contributed papers and poster sessions in one of the following categories: agronomy, genetics, alkaloid chemistry, ecology, and utilization of lupin. A field trip is scheduled for Tuesday, May 14, and will include visits to field plots that demonstrate the diversity of lupin and other crops grown in California.

"California is an important gene center for native species of lupin," said Barbara Bentley, professor of Ecology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Bentley is also president of the international Lupin Association. "Of the 190 species of lupin world-wide, 120 occur in California. This conference is an exciting opportunity to foster cross-disciplinary discussion on the prospects for lupin as a crop, as well as its role in natural systems."

The registration fee is $250 if received by April 10, 1996. Housing at Asilomar starts at $48 per day, depending on the level of luxury and number of occupants per room. The housing fee includes all standard meals at Asilomar. This conference is being organized by the International Lupin Association and is co-sponsored by the Department of Agronomy and Range Science at the University of California, Davis and the North American Lupin Association. This is the first time the conference has been held in the United States. For further information or registration materials, write to Conference & Event Services (lupin), University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8766, USA or contact by phone at (916) 757-3331, FAX at (916) 757-7943 or by e-mail at jebarnes@ucdavis.edu. Please provide full name and address with appropriate postal codes, phone numbers, country and city codes and e-mail addresses.

Association of Systematics Collections Annual Meeting 19-22 May 1996

"Global Genetic Resources: Access, Owner-ship and Intellectual Property Rights" will be the topic of the 1996 Annual meeting of the Association of Systematics Collections, held in conjunction with the Beltsville Symposium at the Beltsville, Md., Agricultural Re-search Center, May 19-22, 1996. Scientists worldwide will explore issues related to ownership of and access to genetic resources and biological specimens around the world. Among the subjects discussed will be access to collecting and collections; the international distribution of germplasm; the exchange of scientific information on biodiversity; and current policies and trends related to ownership and exchange of genetic and biological re-sources. International experts will address subjects related to biological resources for comparative taxonomic study, including food and fiber crops, insects that are natural enemies of crop pests and microorganisms like fungi, yeasts and parasites.

The Association of Systematics Collections will also sponsor a 1 1/2-day, presymposium-workshop on public affairs advocacy (May 18-19). For more information about the presymposium-workshop call Elaine Hoagland (202) 347-2850; fax (202) 347-0072; e-mail mnhasO01@sivm.si.edu. For more information about the symposium contact Amy Y. Rossman (301) 504-5364; fax (301) 504-5810; e-mail amy@fungi.arsgrin.gov.

12th Annual Southwest Botanical Systematics Symposium 24-25 May 1996

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden at Claremont, California is pleased to present its 12th Annual Botanical Systematics Symposium on May 25, 1996. This year's symposium topic will be "The Linnean Hierarchy: Past, Present and Future," and will review the history of the hierarchy and examine its attributes. Presentations will discuss the hierarchy's possible limitations, including the difficulty in incorporating phylogenetic information, and consider modifications or alternative systems. Early Registration (prior to April 30th) is $40.00 ($25 for students). Regular Registration (May 1-17) is $55.00 ($40 for students). For further information contact: Ann Joslin, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont CA 91711-3157, Phone: (909) 625-8767 ext. 251, Fax: (909) 626-3489, e-mail: joslina@cgs.edu.

NAFBW - XIVth Meeting 16-20 June 1996

The XlVth Meeting of the North American Forest Biology Workshop will be held from 16-20 June, 1996, at Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The theme will be "Forest Management Impacts on Ecosystem Processes." Contact: Ms. Dominique Houde, Agora Communication. 2600 bowl. Laurier (#2680), Sainte-Foy (Qc) G 1 V 4M6. Tel. (418) 658-6755. FAX. (418) 658-8850. Voluntary workshops, contact: Pierre Bernier, CFS. Tel. (418) 648-4524. More information at WWW site: http://forestgeomat.for.ulaval.ca/

In Vitro Biology 22-26 June 1996

The 1996 World Congress on In Vitro Biology carries the title "Biotechnology: From Fundamental Concepts to Reality." It is scheduled to meet at the San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, June 22-26, 1996. The abstract deadline is January 12, 1996. For further information, contact meeting coordinator Tiffany McMillan, tel. 410-992-0946, fax 410-992-0949.

16

1996 International Conference Society for Ecological Restoration 20-22 June 1996

The Society for Ecological Restoration will hold its 1996 International Conference June 20-22, 1996 at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. The theme of this year's conference is Restoration in the Urban/Rural Context, which will be examined through presentations of scientific and case studies. Conference highlights include speakers, poster session displays and accompanying guild session. Pre- and post-conference fields trips will explore actual restoration projects in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area. For additional information, please contact SER '96 Conference Center, 144 Blake Hall - Red Oak Lane, Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0231, tel. (908) 932-2917. e-mail ser96@aesop.rutgers.edu.

Canadian Botanical Association 23-27 June 1996

"Prince Edward Island: Conservation in Action" will be the topic of the 1996 Annual meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association, held at the University of Prince Edward Island in Atlantic Canada, June 23-27. The organizing committee welcomes submissions from the following fields of research in plant science: ecology, mycology, systematics and phytogeography, structure and development. The annual conference symposium is entitled: Biodiversity and Conservation in Canada. Other conference activities include: workshop on the pre-review process by the editor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Botany, and a demonstration on scanning electron microscopy digital imaging. Social events include: lobster dinner, harbour cruise, deep sea fishing, and canoeing. Field trips to dune systems and offshore islands have also been scheduled. The Association extends a special invitation to BSA members. The basic registration fee is approx. $120 US for regular participants and $50US for students and includes a full year membership in the Canadian Botanical Association. For more information contact: CBA'96 c/o department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI, CIA 4P3, Canada. Tel. 902-566-0974 Fax. 902-566-0740 E-mail CBA96@upei.ca

IOPC-V 30 June - 5 July 1996

The Fifth International Organization of Paleobotany Conference (IOPC-V) will take place on the campus of the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara, California, USA, from 30 June through 5 July 1996. The theme of the conference is floristic evolution and biogeographic interchange through geologic time. The program will include eight morning symposia and four afternoons of contributed papers and posters, followed by two optional?-day field trips. The first circular, containing a detailed description and registration information, is available from Bruce H. Tiffney, Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Fax: 805-893-2314, e-mail: tiffney@magic.ucsb.edu.

Extant and Fossil Charophytes 7-13 July 1996

The 2nd International Symposium on extant and fossil Charophytes (Charales) at Madison, Wisconsin, will cover a wide scope of topics dealing with extant and fossil forms and fossil/extant relationships; a session will be devoted to the evolutionary position and taxonomic status of the Charophyta. For more information, please contact Dr. Linda Graham (Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1381, fax 608-262-7509, e-mail graham@macc.wisc.edu) or Dr. Monique Feist (Colloque Charophytes, Laboratoire de Paleobotanique, UM2, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France, fax 33.67.04.20.32, e-mail mofeist@isem.univ-montp2.fr).

Biothechnology and Natural Products 27-31 July 1996

The 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) will be held in Santa Cruz CA from July 27 - 31, 1996. The primary theme of this meeting will be "Biotechnology and Natural Products." Six symposia will feature an outstanding group of scientists in this field. In addition to the plenary sessions, a large number of contributed oral and poster sessions will be scheduled, which will cover a broad spectrum of current research in the field of natural products. A unique feature of the ASP meeting, the Young Investigator's Symposium, will feature promising researchers within the first few years of their first independent possitions. For additional information, contact Roy K. Okuda, Department of Chemistry, San Jose State University, San Jose CA 95192-0101 USA, e-mail okuda@ sjsuvm l .sj su.edu.

Sixth International Symposium On Vaccinium Culture 12-17 August 1996

The Vaccinium Symposium is to begin at the University of Maine on August 12. There will be field tours of Maine wild blueberry activities on August 12 and 13. On August 14 and 15 we will have oral and poster presentations and discussion sessions. The Symposium will conclude with a field tour of Massachusetts cranberry research, production and the Ocean Spray Processing Plant on August 16 and 17.

Registration: Final registration forms, a complete program, tour and lodging details will be sent by

17

March 15, but only to those who return the preliminary application form to the conveners. Symposium Costs The registration fee for the symposium will be approximately 320 US$ for ISHS members and 350 US$ for non-members. Exact cost will depend on the number of participants and sponsor contributions. The fee will include one copy of the symposium proceedings in Acta Horticulturae for registered participants. This fee will also cover the bus tours and banquets.

Deadlines: Titles of contributed oral presentations or posters must be submitted by February 1, 1996. An abstract of the poster or paper (maximum: 200 words) must be mailed, faxed or Emailed by March 15, 1996. Deadline for receipt of papers and final registration forms by the symposium conveners is May 15, 1996. To receive more information on the Symposium, mail, fax or Email the following information to the conveners: David E. Yarborough and John M. Smagula, University of Maine, 5722 Deering Hall, Orono, Maine, 04469-5722 USA, Fax: (207) 581-2941 or (207) 581-2999, Phone: (207) 581-2923 or (207) 581-2925, Email Davey @umce.umext.maine.edu

Natural Science Collections Symposium 20-24 August 1996

The Geological Conservation Unit and the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Cambridge are organizing the Second International Symposium and World Congress on the Preservation of Natural History Collections to occur August 20-24, 1996 at St. Johns College, Cambridge, U.K. The theme will be "Natural Science Collections - A Resource for the Future"

The second Congress will continue the work of the first Congress by bringing leading figures in industry, research, education and natural science museums together to discuss future developments and a joint cooperative approach towards the challenges presented by the preservation of natural science collections, and to look at the practical aspects of putting the strategies in place. The Congress is co-sponsored by several collections support organizations, including the Association of Systematics Collections and the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections.

For more information, please contact: Chris Collins, Natural Sciences Congress '96, Geological conservation Unit, Department of Earth Sciences, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB 2 3EQ, United Kingdom, tel: (0223) 62522, fax: (0223) 60779.

34th Systematics Symposium at MBG 4-5 October 1996

This year's Systematics Symposium at the Mi ssour Botanical Garden has been organized by George Schatz and Bette Loiselle. The topic is "New Tools for Investigating Biodiversity." The symposium will be held on Friday and Saturday October 4th and 5th. Further details will be posted on the Garden's Web Page (http:// www.mobot.org) as they are received. You will be able to register by e-mail but it will still be necessary for you to mail in your check or credit card information (do not send your credit card information by e-mail).

A symposium notice will also be mailed. If you wish to add yournameto the symposium mailing list, send the information to Systematics Symposium, Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299.

The format will follow the traditional one to which many of us have become accustomed. There will be a social mixer on the Friday from 7:30-9:00 p.m. The seven presented papers will be on the Saturday, beginning at 8:30 a.m., with the final paper at 8:00 p.m. after the symposium dinner. For more information, contact P. Mick Richardson, Missouri Botanical Garden (richards @mobot.org).

2nd Crop Science Congress 17-23 November 1996

The second International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is scheduled 17 to 23 Nov. 1996 at the Hotel Ashok, Chanakyapuri, in New Delhi, India. In-creasing population and declining assets of natural re-sources constitute a major challenge to global food security. This concern has led congress organizers to choose the theme: Crop Productivity and Sustainability: Shaping the Future. Three categories of presentations at the congress will be plenary, symposia, and posters. In addition, working groups will deliberate on topics of' specific interests for framing policy documents. Popular lectures will also be organized on some evenings. Registration is US$300 by 1 June 1996, $400 thereafter. Accompanying members cost $100 each, as does a student registration without proceedings. For more information contact: Prof. S.K. Sinha. Secretary-General, 2nd ICSC, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012. INDIA, Fax No.: 91-11-5753678, Telephone Nos.: 91-11-5753677 / 5753713.

International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution 26-30 November 1996

An International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution is being organized by the Inter-national Society of Environmental Biologists and the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. The conference will include a number of sessions and lectures from 26 to 30 Novemebr, 1996. For further information, please contact Dr. K. J. Ahmad, Organising Secretery ICPEP-96, National Botanical Research institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow - 226 001 (India). Tel. 91 (0522) 271031-35 ext. 209/221. Fax: 91 (1522) 282881; 282849. E-mail manager@nbri.sirnetd.ernet.in.

18

Book Reviews

In this Issue:

Systematic:

p. 19 Orchids of Jamaica. Ancile Gloudon and Cicely Tobisch (1995) — Joseph Arditti

p. 20 A New Key to Wild Flowers, revised edtion. John Hayward (1995) — Neil A. Harriman

p. 20 Experimental and Molecular Approaches to Plant Biosystematics. Peter C. Hoch and A. G. Stephenson, eds. (1995) — Curtis Clark

p. 22 An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India. K. M. Matthew (1995) — Neil A. Harriman

Physiological:

p. 23 Introduction to Plant Physiology. W.G. Hopkins (1995) and Plant Physiology. H. Mohr and P. Schopfer (1995) — Helen G. Kiss

p. 23 The Physiology of Fungal Nutrition. D.H. Jennings (1995) — Samuel Hammer

Molecular Biology:

p. 24 Signals and Signal Transduction Pathways in Plants. Klaus Palme, ed. (1994) —John Z. Kiss

Orchids of Jamaica. Ancile Gloudon and Cicely Tobisch 1995. ISBN 976-640-002-4 (paper US$25.00). The Press, University of West Indies, I A Aqueduct Flats, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. — According to some accounts the first tropical orchid species to reach Europe may have been Brassavola nodosa which was sent ca. 1630 to the mayor of Liverpool, Charles Horsfall, by William Parker of Kingston. This species was also sent to Holland (not necessarily from Jamaica) before 1675, was cultivated there by Casper Fagel and flowered by 1698. The first extensive collection of Jamaican plants was made by Sir Hans Sloane between 1687 and 1689. He recorded his findings in The Natural History of Jamaica (published between 1707 and 1725) which contains information on orchids. Orchids from Jamaica were also included in Joseph Banks's private herbarium which was bequeathed to the British Museum. The plants were collected by William Houstoun (1729-1733), William Wright (1771-1785), Roger Shakespcar [no "e" here] (1780-1782), Francis Masson (1781) and Olof Swartz (1784-1786). Other collectors, James Macfayden (1825-1850), W. Purdie (1843-1844), Nathaniel Wilson (1846-1858), R. C. Alexander Prior (1849-1850), W. T. March (1857) and others sent their plants to the Kew Herbarium. In 1879 a herbarium was started in Jamaica by Sir. Daniel Morris who also collected orchids and send them to the New York Botanic Garden. He maintained the herbarium until 1886. William Fawcett (1851-1926) who was Di-rector of Public Gardens and Plantations in Jamaica supervised the Herbarium from 1887 until 1908 with William Harris as collector. Fawcett also supervised Miss Helen A. Wood who executed many fine drawings. Another collection of orchids from Jamaica was made by H. R. Wullschlaegcl in 1847-1849. It was deposited at the Munich Botanical Museum.

When Fawcett returned to England after 21 years of service in Jamaica [I never cease to wonder why British botanists who serve(d) many years in tropical paradises where the plants are fascinating and the food is great eventually return(ed) to cold, dank and dreary England where the food is had and the plants merely nice, instead of remaining in the wonderful countries where they spent their careers; why in the world would one leave Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia or Jamaica and return to the U. K. is beyond me] he and Alfred Barton Rendle (1865-1938), Keeper of the Department of Botany at the British Museum produced the classic work on Jamaican orchids, Flora of Jamaica Vol. 1. Orchidaceae which was published by the British Museum of Natural History in 1910. This book has been long out of print. It was reprinted (technically and mechanically very poorly) in a "re-arranged but unexpurgated" form by George W. Hart in Kingston, Jamaica in 1963, but even this edition is rare at present (the paper is certainly not acid-free and several pages in my copy are starting to turn yellow).

Several books which include coverage of orchids that can be found in Jamaica were published during the last 40 years. However the present volume is the first since Fawcett and Rendlc's work to deal exclusively with the orchids of Jamaica. The authors, growers associated with the Jamaica Orchid Society, have collected and grown orchids for 30 years and clearly know their plants. They provide a description for each species as well measurements for floral segments. These measurements are valuable, but I wonder why the width of many gynostemia is not given. Also, it is not clear whether these measurements represent one or many plants. I would have preferred an average of several measurements with standard deviations. Also, consistency in the presentation of data is lacking because information is sometimes missing. Distribution within Jamaica is given for the orchids listed in the book as well as flowering periods, cultural advice and information about hybridization.

The book was produced in Japan and Korea but many of the color photographs are not printed well. This

19

is a pity since the deficiency which appears to have been caused by the printing and publication processes, not by the authors, detracts from the book. There a two additional problems with the book. One is the lack of uniformity in the bibliography. Some first names are spelled in full whereas in other cases only the initials are given. The second problem is the style of writing. Most sentences, many of them consecutive, start with "the." This gets boring pretty fast and could/should have been eliminated by a good copy editor.

Orchids of Jamaica is neither a scientific work nor a purely hobby book. It fits between these categories, but does not fall between the cracks. Instead, it manages to incorporate some good characteristic of both. The problems I mentioned above do detract from Orchids of Jamaica, but not enough to make it a bad book. In fact I found it to bean enjoyable book which can and should be of interest to both basic botanists and practical growers. —Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717.

A New Key to Wild Flowers [of the British Isles], revised edtion. John Hayward, 1995. ISBN 0-521-48346-8 (ring-bound, soft cover US$24.95) x + 278 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211. — One feels compelled to add the bracketed information to the title of this book, because that's what it is. Next, the whole title needs to be recast, because this is really keys to all the vascular plants of the British Isles, including ferns and fern allies, all the elms, maples, oaks, grasses, and so on. Even conifers are nicely covered. These are surely not what most people mean by "wild flowers."

"Putting a name to an animal or plant remains a fundamental part of most forms of biological fieldwork" (page x). Indeed, and it appears this book will serve its intended users admirably, if they are not too fussy about terminology. For example, in Rumex the key says the fruits have warts (tubercles), or not, but in fact it is the inner sepals that are tuberculate, not the achenes proper. Pappus arises above a single-seeded fruit in Asteraceae; sometimes, the body below the pappus is labelled fruit, sometimes seed. With respect to calyx and corolla, if they are clearly differentiated they are said to be distinct; problem is, the word "distinct" also means separate or not united. "Spike" is illustrated as having pedicellate flowers, page 11; but "raceme" is not defined, nor is it (apparently) used anywhere in the book, so no problem will arise until the reader checks some other book. This could be troublesome.

In the family keys, horsetails (Equisetum) are said to be without true leaves. Evidently, microphylls don't count as leaves in scouring rushes, though they do in other British floras, such as Clive Stace's "New Flora of the British Isles," also published by Cambridge University Press, the book mentioned as a kind of companion volume to this pictured key. Microphyllous Isoetes, Selaginella, and Lycopodiumn are all credited with leaves.

Some groups of Asteraceae are said to have florets flattened like a dandelion; but he really means the corollas of the florets are flattened (ligulate); the excel-lent accompanying drawing does in fact make the meaning clear. Hawkweeds (Hieracium, with Pilosella segregated out) and dandelions (Taraxacum) in the British Isles produce seed without the need for fertilization (p. 185); however, this of itself does not give rise to microspecies — rather, it's the rare, exceptional fertilization that gives rise to microspecies. All these the author wisely excludes from further consideration. Oddly, agamospermy and its occasional breakdown (in addition to rampant hybridization) are not mentioned for an array of rosaceous genera, including Rubus, Alchemilla, Sorbus, and Cotoneaster.

I think this book will attract the amateur, in every best sense of that word. Then he or she will graduate to Stace, or even to Clapham, Tutin, & Moore, "Flora of the British Isles," third edition, also from Cambridge University Press. — Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901.

Experimental and Molecular Approaches to Plant Biosystematics Hoch, Peter C. and A. G. Stephenson, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-915279-30-4 (cloth US$62.00), 391 pp. Monographs in Systematic Botany form the Missouri Botanical Garden, Volume 53. Department Eleven, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166-0299, USA. — This volume represents the proceedings of a symposium of the same name held in June of 1992 at Missouri Botanical Garden, under the auspices of the International Organization of Plant Biosystematists. I was initially intrigued by the title. When I was a graduate student many years ago, "experimental systematics" was often used as a synonym for "biosystematics," but the term more properly applied to experimental manipulations of plants and populations in common garden settings or in the wild in order to better understand the nature of variation. I was interested to see what constituted "experimental approaches" two decades later. I also wanted to see how pervasively the phylogenetic (cladistic) world view had penetrated the older field of "biosystematics."

The book begins with and introduction by Hoch and Raven that addresses changing approaches to the systematic study of the Onagraceae. The authors suggest that anthropogenic extinction and computer databases are two factors that are in the process of completely changing biosystematics. Both of these topics are mentioned in later papers, but so far the change seems less abrupt than that occasioned by phylogenetic systematics. Recent

20

advances have greatly refined studies in the Onagraceac, but the introduction fails to capture the diversity of viewpoints and methods contained in the rest of the volume.

The remainder of the book is divided into four sections, reflecting sessions in the symposium. The first is "DNA and Plant Biosystematics." In "Fossil DNA: Its Potential for Biosystematics," Soltis and her collaborators surveyed DNA amplification from fossil plants. including their own work, and concluded that despite the problems of degradation and especially contamination (problems that are inherent to PCR in all settings), DNA sequences from fossil plants could provide useful information about relationships and rates of evolution. Bachman. in "NuclearDNA Markers for the Evolution of Microseris (Asteraceae)," showed that a variety of standard DNA techniques provided information about the phylogeny of the genus and the relationships of species in Chile and Australia that resulted from long-distance dispersal.

The use of the gene for the large subunit of Rubisco to unravel phylogeny is an ongoing effort, and "A Phylogeny of Seed Plants Resulting From Analysis of DNA Sequence Variation Among the rbcL Loci of 499 Species, With Particular Emphasis on Alliances Among Monocotyledons" by Duvall etal., although updated after the symposium, is certainly not the last word on the subject, although it is a useful "progress report." The title is somewhat misleading, as the monocots are the only seed plants for which a phylogeny is presented.

in "Patterns of Transposable Element Evolution in the Grasses," MacRae explores the utility of `jumping genes" for systematic studies. Considering that the phenomenon was discovered nearly 50 years ago, it is unfortunate that its significance went unrecognized for so long. The paper provides a good explanation of transposons, discusses the value and pitfalls of theirusein systematics, and demonstrates that a specific transposon shared by Zen and Pennisetum likely originated over 25 million years ago. Zea is also the subject of "Genetics, Development, and the Morphological Evolution of Maize" by Doebley, which addresses the level of genetic differentiation between maize and teosinte, and begins to fill in with hard data the speculation that has surrounded this topic.

The second section, "Plant Growth Patterns apd Biosystematics," deals with lines of evidence that always seemed to me to be underused in biosystematics. Rothwell summarizes our understanding of sporophytc branching patterns in "The Fossil History of Branching: Implications for the Phylogeny of Land Plants." i plan to use the information from this paper in my undergraduate morphology course, since it provides a rationale fora lot of features that are unexplained in classic texts. For those of us that don't keep up as well as we would like with the paleobotanical literature, this paper serves as a summary of recent work. In "Ecological and Systematic Implications of Branching Patterns in Bryophytes," Proctor and

Smith address the branching of gametophytes in modern bryophytes. These two papers cry out for a synthesis: branching of gametophytes and sporophytes arc both aspects of the same evolutionary history.

Kaplan and Groff take a different approach to growth in "Developmental Themes in Vascular Plants: Functional and Evolutionary Significance." They explore the similarities in function between ferns and seed plants that share similar growth forms, and show that the fundamental differences in the construction of these two groups has not stood in the way of their evolving strikingly similar approaches to common problems. They effectively (in my estimation) give the phrase "develop-mental constraints" a bad name; perhaps we would better say "developmental opportunities."

In "Distribution of Architecture Across a Taxonomic Spectrum," Hall provides a rather idiosyncratic and typological view of architectural models. It is unfortunate that the paper is somewhat inaccessible, because the concepts can be profitably put into practice, as shown in the next paper, "Branching Patterns in the Solanaceae" by Bell and Dines. They describe branching patterns in the family, and show that these patterns more often reflect function than evolutionary history. The final paper in the section, "Plasticity of Branching Patterns in the Clonal Herbs Trifolium repens L. and Gleclioma hederacea L." by Hutchings and Turkington, takes a very different approach to branching, looking at the effects of changing environment on branching pattern in clones. The authors state at the outset that branching pattern is an unreliable taxonomic feature, placing them somewhat at odds with other authors in this section. It seems clear to me that although a typological approach such as that of Hall may be counterproductive, similarities in branching pattern among both closely and distantly related plants are common, and should not be ignored.

The third section is entitled "Plant Reproductive Strategies." The study of reproductive biology has long played an important role in biosystematics, but it is apparent from these papers that there is much left to be done. Dilcher takes the broad view of flowering plant reproduction in "Plant Reproductive Strategies: Using the Fossil Record to Unravel Current Issues in Plant Reproduction," showing that many basic issues in the evolution of flowers and fruits can better be understood in context of recent fossil discoveries. In "Genotype-Environment Interaction, Parental Effects, and the Evolution of Plant Reproductive Traits," Schmitt addresses reproductive phenology in the context of the broader question of interaction between inherited traits and responses to environmental conditions. Some of the earliest "experimental systematics," per se, involved studying phenotypic plasticity in common gardens, and this paper investigates a type of phenomenon that would likely have been misinterpreted in those classic experiments. Hamrick and his colleagues discuss some of the factors affecting pollen movement and subsequent gene flow in plants of different life history strategies, and how gene flow can be mea-

21

sured, in "Gene Flow Among Plant Populations: Evidence from Genetic Markers." They point out that recent evidence suggests much greater gene flow among populations of outcrossers than previous studies had sup-ported.

The early studies of pollen competition of almost two decades ago were exciting, because they showed that even in flowering plants, gametophytes mattered. In "Consequences of Variation in Pollen Load Size," Stephenson et al. review their recent work, which sup-ports earlier studies and extends them with respect to fruit maturation and abortion. They also find a good use for zucchini. In "Regulation of Flower, Fruit, and Seed Production: Phaseolus coccineus, a Study Case," Rocha and Stephenson look at reproduction of scarlet runner bean, isolating the effects of flower phenology, pollination, and fruit maturation. The last paper in this section, "Systematics and Reproductive Biology," by Gregory Anderson, discusses the crucial role played by reproductive biology in the evolutionary process.

The last section is "Phylogenetic Analysis and Population Biology." The effects of the "cladistics revolution" in biosystematics are pervasive, and most of the papers in the other sections rely on phylogenctic inferences at one level or another, but this section focuses on the connection with population biology, another key component of biosystematics. Maddison, in "Phylogenetic Histories Within and Among Species," makes a case for a "tree-centric" view of population genetics, with the trees in this case being gene trees. He shows how common problems such as gene flow and effective population size can be addressed from this angle. The arguments are convincing, and it is clear that the historical approach has much merit for studying populations, but there are yet few studies using these techniques, so we must wait to see how well they work in practice. In "Genealogical Perspectives on the Species Problem," Baum and Shaw discuss what is to my mind an intuitively pleasing species concept, but one that has flaws mentioned in this volume by Maddison.

McDade discusses reticulation in "Hybridization and Phylogenetics." She outlines the features to be expected of "primary hybrids," those that have evolved little since their creation, and shows that while they can often be identified, no single technique will invariably point them out, and that "secondary hybrids," that have evolved after hybridization, may be even more difficult to identify. Ricsberg and Morefield, in "Character Expression, Phylogenetic Reconstruction, and the Detection of Reticulate Evolution," evaluate a technique for detecting species of hybrid origin, and find that it works for artificially created homoploid hybrid species in Gilia, but is less successful for natural hybrid species in Helianthus. Finally, Weller et al. tie phylogeny to reproductive biology in "The Evolution of Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: A Phylogenetic Approach." Their analyses suggest that self-compatibility is ancestral in angiosperms, and that sporophytic self-incompatibility arose independently in every major lineage that possesses it.

The book is generally well-edited and constructed, although the few black-and-white photographs are not especially clear. The price, at $0.145/page, is not excessive, although it might find wider use as a text if it were a $30 paperback. I noticed a couple of trivia that apparently went without comment in the review and editing process. On p. 34, Duvall et al. use the phrase "non-monophyletic clades"; I've always called these paraphyletic groups "grades." Bothwell refers to "isostomous" and "anisostomous" branching patterns on p. 71; he must mean isotomous and anisotomous. I was also amused by the phrase "gene genealogies" used by Maddison on p. 276. The words share a common ancestor, but had separate etymological histories prior to this co-occurrence.

The title of the book is unfortunate. Only a few of the papers used experimental techniques. That is not an indictment; systematics has always been of necessity a largely observational discipline, and many classes of important problems are not amenable to experiment. Nevertheless, those looking for experimental systematics will find little of it here. Molecular approaches are used in several of the papers, and their results are employed in many others, but the volume is notable more for the diversity of nonmolecular techniques that are included. And the term "biosystematics" is in some circles taken as a relict from the past. A better title might have been "Beyond the DNA and the Cladogram: Modern Plant Biosystematics." If anyone thought that biosystematics was uninteresting, this volume should dispel that notion. Phylogenetics and molecular biology have provided much-needed tools, but biosystematics remains an active discipline where integrative and comparative biology are brought to hear on systematic problems. — Curtis Clark, Biological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768, USA.

An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India. K. M. Matthew. 1995. ISBN 90-5410-286-1 (Cloth, U.S. $115.00). xlv + 682-pp. + two fold-out maps. A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR, Rotterdam, Nederland. — The author's four-volume (bound in six) Flora of the Tamilnadu Camatic appeared from 1981 to 1988. It apparently enjoyed a good sale, and all parts are still available at very reasonable prices from the author. Anyone with an interest in Indian Botany should buy the set, if only for the extensive and detailed illustrations. Complete ordering information is given on pages x and xi of the Excursion Flora.

The area covered is 27,794 km2 in southeast India, Tamilnadu (formerly Madras) State. This single volume is meant to be a portable distillation of everything contained in the earlier flora, and therefore with no illustrations and very limited synonymy, no literature

22

citations, and extensive use of abbreviations. The abbreviations, except those for Latin words, are amply explained near the front. There is no glossary. There are no common names given, and no mention of local uses of any of the plants. Both floras cover seed plants only (the introduction says flowering plants, but one cycad and one Gnetum are included) ; ferns and their allies are ignored, and no mention is even made of where one might look for help in naming them. The keys are extensive, entirely artificial and dichotomous, with every leg numbered.

From this, one may judge that the author has thought through very carefully what a flora ought to be, within the limits of portability. Cultivated plants are included, if they are planted out and not just in pots, as well as all the introduced species, which appear to be very numerous. The genera and species are all arranged alphabetically; I only wish he had taken the next logical step and arranged the families alphabetically, too.

The book is apparently entirely free of typos, very crisply printed on off-white paper, and sturdily bound. All these things do justice to Father Matthew's fine scholarship and tireless efforts. One can only hope that the book is made available to students (and professors) in India at a much more reasonable cost than the advertised price. — Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901

Introduction to Plant Physiology. W.G. Hopkins. 1995. ISBN 0-471-54547-3 (cloth US$75.95) 464 pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York NY 10158; and Plant Physiology. H. Mohr and P. Schopfer. 1995. ISBN 0-540-58016-6 (cloth US$59.95) 629 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386. — A difficult task for any instructor is the choice of an appropriate text for their botany course. Many of us have often searched for the "perfect" text and wished we could combine selected chapters from three or four books. This is especially true of textbooks-in plant physiology.

These two plant physiology texts offer new and exciting material as well as novel approaches towards presenting the information to the readers. In his last chapter, Hopkins discusses plant physiology and biotechnology, a very hot topic with students. While he explains the methodology for DNA recombination, there is the need for more examples of plant products currently on the market. And it would have been ideal for the chapter to end with a discussion on the controversy related with the creation of transgenic plants and the "escape of transgenes."

Mohr and Schopfer also have a novel chapter on the physiology of crop production which includes product formation, yield production, plant biotechnology, herbicides, and growth retardants. However, this chapter would better captivate the students attention if it was presented as the first rather than the last chapter of the text.

It is not unusual for an instructor in plant physiology to discuss the basics of plant cell ultrastructure and plant cell types before examining the translocation of water and solutes, and biochemical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. Both texts do an ad-equate job describing a mature plant cell with its cellular components. However, Mohr and Schopfer do not discuss cell types and tissues, and while Hopkins describes the various plant cell types, there are no illustrations to go along with the text. In contrast, Plant Physiology by Taiz and Zeiger (Benjamin/Cummings, 1991) gives a complete overview of different plant cells with illustrations. One criticism I have of both texts is that they need to update their figures to reflect the current literature cited at the end of every chapter.

I thoroughly enjoyed examining both textbooks in plant physiology. The chapters that especially held my interest included Mohr and Schopfer's "The cell as an oscillatory system", one of the best chapters I have yet read on endogenous rhythms in organisms, and Hopkins's "Plant movements- orientation in space", with an excel-lent section on gravitropism.

Of the two texts, I would recommend Hopkins's Introduction to Plant Physiology be used at the under-graduate level either for majors or non-majors, while Mohr and Schopfer' s Plant Physiology is more appropriate at he graduate level. — Helen G. Kiss, Department of Botany , Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056

The Physiology of Fungal Nutrition. D.H. Jennings 1995. ISBN 0-521-35524-9 (cloth US$150). Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211. —I was the twenty-ninth graduate student of Harry Thiers. One of the delights of having Thiers as a teacher was that in most of his classes on cryptogamic botany, you got a review of his introduction to fungi. We students thrilled to his simple diagrams of cxtracellular nutrition, basidiocarp formation, and sclerotium development. Asking him questions about the physiology of fungi was part of the fun. Mostly he told us that precious little was known about fungal nutrition, and that it was an open field. We sensed that he was trying to hook yet another one of us into a master's project that would guide the rest of our research career. We were certain that this mycologist's mycologist, in about his fortieth year of teaching and research knew it all, but that he just wouldn't let on. At about the same time, in the same department at San Francisco State University, a bright young plant physiologist, Nan Carnal, had us reading journals like Biochirnica et Biophysica A eta and the FEMS Microbiology Letters— journals we couldn't understand, but which we assumed held the secrets to the processes we couldn't

23

make happen in lab. It was an atmosphere of curiosity and scholarship, a strangely informal setting where we thought up research questions that are still worth following up a decade later.

D.H. Jennings poses research questions in his magnum opus on fungal nutritional physiology in much the same tone of curiosity, humility, and playfulness. Jennings, quotes another researcher in a statement that I think sums up the pursuit of this book, "forming a simplified concept of a hopelessly complex system." It is Jennings' struggle with that pursuit, his immersion in the literature that spans seventy years of physiological re-search, and his critique of the scientific method, that makes this book a requirement for every science library. Jennings' book is a brilliant, thought-provoking, elegant treatment of a body of research that is poorly understood and which is in fact, still an open field.

In this book Jennings explores nutritional modes of organisms as diverse as nectar fungi, rumen fungi, sewage fungi, and fungi that thrive in aircraft fuel. He also treats more "traditional" systems such as cellulose and lignin degraders, smuts, mycorrhizal fungi, and lichens. His focus is at the level of the membrane. Proton pumps, surface potential, and enzyme systems are his tools-intrade. But what he does with them !Instead of reducing his vision into the near-abstractions of physiology and metabolism, Jennings brings his extensive experimental vocabulary to work in order to elucidate any number of fungal problems. Fungal reproduction, morphology, and growth are explored. Jennings brings reality to all sorts of questions concerning fungi. His work is relevant at the level of the cell, the organism, or the ecosystem. The diversity of his investigations is reason enough for reading this book.

The generous literature cited section, with well over 100 pages of references provides further recommendation. I culled a number of papers from the citations, not least among them those of Jennings, that are of immediate interest to me and to my students. Peter Mitchell's classic work on chemiosmotic systems is cited with Buller's unconventional and strongly heuristic Researches on Fungi. Theoretical, philosophical works are juxtaposed with experimental papers and reviews. Throughout the literature that Jennings cites, questions about fungi arise, are approached, and are reconfigured. The research on fungal nutrition and the journals that are enriched by this research, may be as diverse as the nutritional modes themselves.

Jennings struggles within the confines that bind experimental science and we, the readers are informed of the limitations of this process. Plant cell models must sometimes be used because fungal models have not yet been constructed. Information gathered from work on laboratory creatures such as Neurospora, Aspergillis, and yeasts must suffice where there is little available on other fungi. Liquid cultures must do where other techniques have not been successful. Dry medium cultures in petri dishes must substitute for in vivo investigations. Jennings acknowledges that for most of the problems fungi pose, these are less than satisfactory conditions. He invites further research. We benefit as much from his critique as we do from the results of the experiments, Jennings challenges, prods, complains. He asks, "can we possibly do better?" We would like to answer in the affirmative.

A colleague who recently completed her doctorate asked me the other day, "What is lignin?" I might ask her to look at the review of carbon polymer utilization by Jennings. It is among the most interesting parts of the book, and the process of lignin degradation is as tantalizing to me as ever. But she might be dismayed. How can so little be known about such a biologically important process, one that has so much economic importance? (Subtext: Are botanists as lazy and stupid as they seem?). I might ask why lignin is a mystery to a shiny new Ph.D. But eyebrows were raised and a few laughs bubbled out of my non-mycologist colleagues when I expressed my enthusiasm over this book. In fact, I'm not sure my colleagues in fungal systematics would go out of their way to pick this book up. But they should. It is broader than its title, and it is central to our understanding of fungi. Like Harry Thiers' seemingly simple introduction to mycology, it is filled with potential.

One or two weaknesses need to be mentioned. A number of small distracting typographical errors pep-per the text. I shall assume that the three-page introduction was written last and in annoyance. There is a concentration of mistakes there. The binding is unfortunately weak. Librarians should budget a trip to the binders to reinforce the spine of this book, which will be used many times and for many years. The binding on my copy became uncomfortably loose after a dozen or so openings.

This work is too large to digest in one reading. A variety of foraging strategies will increase the reader's ability to absorb the information that is offered here. The book provides a wide variety of substrates and readers from many disciplines should find it nutritionally appropriate. I recommend it as a vital nutrient acquisition to all. — Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University

Signals and Signal Transduction Pathways in Plants. Klaus Palme, ed. 1994. ISBN 0-7923-3364-0 (cloth US$165.00) 552 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands. —The field of signal transduction in plant systems lags behind our understanding of transduction mechanisms in animal cells. However, because of the availability of molecular biology techniques, dramatic new steps are in progress regarding knowledge of signaling in plant cells. This increase in knowledge is reflected

continued on p. 25

24

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly!—Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review ** = book reviewed in this issue

Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests (Proceedings of the Neotropical Montane Forest Biodiversity and Conservation Symposium, 21-26 June 1993) Churchill, Steven P., Henrik Balslev, Enrique Forero, & James L. Luteyn, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-89327-400-3 (cloth) 702pp The New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications Department, Bronx NY 10458.

Carbon Dioxide and Terestrial Ecosystems Koch, George W. & Harold M. Mooney, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-12-505295-2 (cloth US$79.95) 443pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101-4495.

Colour in the Flower Garden Jekyll, Gertrude 1995. ISBN 0-88192-340-0 (cloth US$22.95) 190pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

*Conservation and Biodiversity Dobson, Andrew P. 1996. ISBN 0-7167-5057-0 (cloth US$32.95) 264pp. W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers, 41 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10010.

*The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity Frankel, Otto H., Anthony H.D. Brown, & Jeremy J. Bur-don 1995. ISBN cloth 0-521-46165-0

(US$54.95); paper 0-521-46731-4 (US$27.95) 299pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211.

Crop Production: Evolution, History, and Technology Smith, C. Wanyc 1995. ISBN 0-471-07972-3 (cloth US$59.95) 469pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158.

The Desert Grassland McClaran, Mitchel P., & Thomas R. Van Devender, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-8165-1580-8 (cloth US$40.00) 346pp. University of Arizona Press, 1230 North Park Avenue, Tucson AZ 85719.

The Dirt Doctor's Guide to Organic Gardening Garrett, J. Howard 1995. ISBN cloth 0-292-72780-1 (US$35.00); paper 0-292-72781-x (US$14.95) 232pp. University of Texas Press, PO Box 7819, Austin TX 78713-7819.

*Dynamics of Weed Populations Cousens, Roger & Martin Mortimer 1995. ISBN 0-521-49649-7 (cloth US$79.95), ISBN 0-521-49969-0 (paper US$29.95) 332pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211.

Eastern Deciduous Forest: Ecology and Wildlife Conservation Yahner, Richard H. 1995. ISBN 0-8166-2395-3 paper US$18.95) 192pp. University of Minnesota Press, 111 Third Avenue S, Suite 290, Minneapolis MN 55401-2520.

Ecology, Conservation, and Management of South-east Asian Rainforests Primack, Richard B. & Thomas E. Lovejoy, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-300-06234-6 (cloth US$35.00) 304pp. Yale University Press, PO Box 209040, New Haven CT 06520-9040.

continued from p. 25

in this book, which is a collection of 24 review articles on various aspects of signal transduction in plant systems. The entire text of over 450 pages is a reprint of the December 1994 issue (volume 26, no. 5) of the journal Plant Molecular Biology.

The review articles arc by leaders in their respective fields and focus on signal transduction in higher plant systems. These reviews cite literature up to early 1994, although some of the articles are current only to 1993. Most major aspects of signal transduction are covered including phytochrome, calciumlcalmodulin, oligosaccharins, G-proteins, protein kinases, and ion channels. Some of the developmental processes considered in this volume are the cell cycle, flowering, embryogenesis, root nodulation, and transport of various metabolites. Six of the chapters focus on the role of plant growth regulators in signal transduction.

Scientists working in the field of signal transduction may want to invest in the purchase of this book. It also would provide a useful supplement of readings for graduate courses in physiology and for molecular biology of plants. Certainly, libraries that subscribe to Plant Molecular Biology would not want to acquire the book, but university libraries that do not receive this journal would want to add Signals and Signal Transduction Pathways in Plants to their collection. — John Z. Kiss, Department of Botany, Miami University Oxford, OH 45056

25

8th International Exhibition of Botanical Art and Illustration White, James J., Autumn M. Farole & Sharon M. Tomasic, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-913196-63-0 (paper US$22.00) 178pp. Hunt Institute of Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon university, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pitts-burgh PA 15213-3890.

*Flora de Manantlān, Sida, Botanical Miscellany, No. 13. Vazquez G., J. Antonio, Ramōn Cuevas G., Theodore S. Cochrane, Hugh H. Iltis, Francisco J. Santana M. & Luis Guzman H., eds. 1995. ISSN 0833-1475 (paper US$45.00) 358pp. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 509 Pecan Street, Fort Worth TX 76102-4060.

Flora of Australia, Volume 16, Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae 1 1995. ISBN 0-643-05693-9 (paper US$64.95, cloth US$79.95) 522pp. CSIRO Publishing, 150 Oxford St, PO Box 1139, Collingwood Victoria 3066, Australia, e-mail

sales @ publi sh.csiro. au

Flora of Ceylon, Volume 9 Dassanayake, M.D., F.R. Fosberg & W.D. Clayton, eds. 1995. ISBN 90-5410-267-5 (cloth US$150.00) 482pp. A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam Nederland.

Flowering Plant Origin, Evolution, & Phylogeny Taylor, David Winship & Leo J. Hickey, eds. 1996. ISBN -412-05341-1 (cloth) 403pp. Chap-man & Hall, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10003.

The Garden in Winter Verey, Rosemary 1995. ISBN 0-88192-337-0 (cloth US$24.95) 168pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Horticultural Reviews, Volume 17 Janick, Jules. ed. 1995. ISBN 0-471-57335-3 (cloth US$120.00) 456pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158.

Icones Pleurothallidinarum XII: Systematics of Brachionidium. Monographs in Systematic Botany v. 57. Luer, Carlyle A. 1995. ISBN 0-915279-36-3 (paper US$22.00) 146pp.Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166-0299.

In Vitro Embryogenesis in Plants Thorpe, Trevor A., ed. 1995. ISBN 0-792-33149-4 (cloth US$264.00) 558pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, 101 Philip Drive, Norwell MA 02061.

Introductory Mycology, 4th Ed. Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, & M. Blackwell 1995. ISBN 0-471-52229-5 (cloth US$84.95) 868pp. John Wiley &

Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158

The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage Harlan, Jack R. 1995. ISBN 0-521-401 12-7 (cloth US$49.95) 271pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211.

Manual of Bulbs Bryan, John & Mark Griffiths, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-88192-339-7 (cloth US$49.95) 446pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Manual of Orchids Stewart, Joyce & Mark Griffiths, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-88192-334-6 (cloth US$49.95) 448pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Molecular Biology: A Project Approach Karcher, Susan J. 1995. ISBN 0-12-397720-7 (cloth US$34.95) 280pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101-4495.

Mosses and Liverworts of Rainforest in Tasmania and South-Eastern Australia Jarman, S.J. & B.A. Fuhrer 1995. ISBN 0-643-05685-8 (paper US$24.95) 134pp. International Specialized Book Serivices Inc., 5804 N.E. Hassalo Street, Portland OR 97213-3644.

Multivariate Data Analysis in Ecology and Systematics - A methodological guide to the SYNTAX 5.0 package Podani, Janos 1994. ISBN 90-5103-094-0 (paper US$62.50) 316pp. Kugler Publications By, PO Box 1498, New york NY 10009-9998.

Native Orchids of Belize McLeish, I., N.R. Pearce, & B.R. Adams 1995. ISBN 90-5410-609-3 (cloth US$165.00) 278pp. A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam Nederland. email: sales@balkcma.nl.

Paleobotany : Plants of the Past, Their Evolution, Paleoenvironment and Application in Exploration of Fossil Fuels Agashe. Shirpad N. 1995. ISBN 1-886106-08-8 (cloth US$55.00) 359pp. Science Publishers, 52 LaBombard Rd. N., Lebanon NH 03766

Palms Throughout the World Jones, David L. 1996. ISBN 1-56098-616-6 (cloth US $49.00) 410pp. Smithsonian Instituion Press, 470 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7100, Washington DC 20560

Peonies Rogers, Allen 1995. ISBN 0-88192-317-6 (cloth US$34.95) 384pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

26

Phytochemisrty of Medicinal Plants Volume 29 Arnason, John T., Rachel Mata & John T. Romeo, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-306-45181-6 (cloth US$89.50) 364pp.PIenum Publishing Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New York NY 10013.

Phytochemistry of Plants Used in Traditional Med icine Hostettmann, K., A. Marston, M. Maillard & M. Hamburger, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-19-857775 3 (cloth US$130.00) 408pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016.

Plant Biotechnology Transfer to Developing Countries Altman, David W.& Watanabe, Kazuo N. 1995. ISBN 0-12-054505-5 (cloth US$69.95) 277pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101-4495.

Plant Breeding Reviews, Volume 13 Janick. Jules 1995. ISBN 0-471-57343-4 (cloth US$120.00) 383pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158.

Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd Edition Davies, Peter J., ed. 1995. ISBN 0-792-32985-6 (paper US$59.50) 833pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group. 101 Philip Drive, Norwell MA 02061.

Plant-Microbe Interactions, v. 1. Stacey, Gary & Noel T. Keen, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-41 2-9888 1-x (cloth US$95.00) 316pp. Chapman & Hall, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10003.

Preparing Scientific Illustrations Briscoe, Mary Helen 1996. ISBN 0-387-94581-4 (paper US$25.95) 204pp. Springer-Vcrlag New York, Inc., P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386.

-'Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests Bullock, Stephen H., Harold A. Mooney, & Ernesto Mediva, eds. 1995. ISBN C "' 43514-50 (cloth US$95 450pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20t1 Street. New York NY 10011-4211.

Soil and Water Management Systems, 4th Edition Schwab, Glenn O., Delmar D. Fangmeier & William J. Elliot 1995. ISBN 0-471-10973-8 (cloth US$75.95) 371pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third A cnue, New York NY 10158.

Sonoran Desert Plants: An Ecological Atlas Turner, Raymond M., Janice E. Bowers & Tony L. Burgess, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-8165-1532-8 (cloth) 504pp. University of Arizona Press, 1230 North Park Avenue, Tucson AZ 85719.

*Soybean: Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Biotechnology Verma, D.P.S. & R.C. Shoemaker, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-85198-984-5 (cloth US$90.00) 270pp. CAB International, Walling-ford, Oxon OXIO 8DE. U.K.

*Terrestrial Orchids: From Seed to Mycotrophic Plant Rasmussen, Hann N. 1995. ISBN 0-521-45165-5 (cloth US$64.95) 444pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211.

Time Scales of Biological Responses to Water Constraints: The Case of Mediterranean Biota Roy, J., J. Aronson & F. di Castri, eds. 1995. ISBN 90-5103-107-6 (cloth US$78.50) 243pp. Kugler Publications By, PO Box 1498, New york NY 10009-9998.

Tree Diseases and Disorders Butin, Heinz 1995. ISBN 0-1 9-85493 2-6 (cloth US$70.00) 252pp. Oxford University Press. 198 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016.

The Vegetation of Mongolia Hilbig, W. 1995. ISBN 90-5103-106-8 (paper US$78.50) 258pp. Kugler Publications By, PO Box 1498, New york NY 10009-9998.

We Made a Garden Fish, Margery 1995. ISBN 0-88192-341-9 (cloth US$19.95) 208pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

"=--' -_a Trees Coutts, M.P. & J. eds. 1995. ISBN 0-521-137-9 (cloth US$94.95)

85pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY

10011-4211.

The Year in Trees Tripp, Kim & J.C. Raulston 1995. ISBN 0-88192-320-6 (cloth US$44.95) 208pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.

Picture

27

1996 Young Botanists Awards: Nomination Deadline Extended

The Botanical Society of America requests nominations for the Young Botanist Awards for 1995-1996. The purpose of these awards is to recognize outstanding graduating seniors in the plants sciences, and to encourage their participation in the Botanical Society of America. Award winners will receive a Certificate of Recognition signed by the President of the Botanical Society, which is forwarded to the nominating faculty member for presentation.

Nominations should document the student's qualifications for the award (academic performance, research projects, individual attributes) and be accompanied by one or more letters from faculty who know the students well. Nominations should be sent to the Past-President, Harry T. Horner, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1020 no later than 29 March 1996.

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA LOGO ITEMS
always available to contributors to the

BSA Endowment Fund

Short sleeved T-shirts (100% cotton) Grey with small green log( on front, large purple and green logo on back.

Adult sizes S, M, L, XL, XXL — $14

Child sizes XS, S, M, L — $12

Long sleeved T-shirts

Adult sizes S, M, L, XL — $16

Totebags

Cotton canvas — $12

Cricket Hats

Sizes S, M, L, XL — $25

Cloisonnē pin

White with kelly green logo and gold border — $6 Botany for the Next Millennium Posters

Full-color, 16"x 20" beauty — $5

(please include $3 for shipping posters)

All prices (except poster) include $2.00 for postage and handling. Specify item(s), style(s) and size(s). Make checks payable to BSA Endowment Fund. Mail to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus OH 43210-1293

28


  American Journal of Botany

» Journal Aims and Scope
» Submit a Manuscript
» Instructions for Authors
» Instructions for Reviewers
» Institutional Subscription Information
» Advertising Information
» E-Journal Access & Proprietary
       Rights Notice

» Contact the Editorial Office
» AJB Editorial Board

  Plant Science Bulletin

» Contributions - Email psb@botany.org
» Submitting Books for Review
» Instruction for Reviewers
» A Strategy for Reviewing Books
       for Journals
» Post a Position, Opportuity
       or Announcement
» Search All Issues

» Contact the Editorial Office
» PSB Editorial Board

  BOTANY 2011

» BOTANY 2011 Website


  Special Announcements

» CURRENT American Journal of Botany
» CURRENT Plant Science Bulletin
» Renew Membership / Join BSA
» Employment/Research Opportunities

Planting Science Project
American Journal of Botany Plant Science Bulletin Careers in Botany BSA Image Collection www.PlantingScience.org