PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
1966 Volume Twelve Number Three
The Past as Prelude1
is customary for one who has been chosen as presiding officer for a group
of scientists to pay for this privilege by presenting an address which attempts
to instruct, admonish, or exhort his hearers. The efforts of such men are
not unlike those of Commencement orators. Both are among the mores that must
be observed in our particular culture. Occasionally one finds an officer with
wit and resources enough to break the mold and offer something really original.
In the history of the Botanical Society of America one of these appeared forty-five
years ago in the person of Dr. N. L. Britton, a modest man who disliked public
show. When the time came for him to give his presidential address, he failed
to appear, but he sent his manuscript to the Secretary, who presented it to
the Society at its annual dinner—a check for $1,000! This laudable precedent,
so economical of time and patience and so permanently productive, has never
been followed, so far as I know. I certainly shall not do so now, and for
more than one reason.
on this happy occasion let me congratulate the Botanical Society of America
for having established a section on the History of Botany. The past has a
charm for almost everyone, as witness the hundreds of books that are written
about it every year and the thousands of thriving antique shops whose breath
of life it is. As botanists it is both necessary and appropriate that we concern
our-selves with the past to a more immediate purpose, not only as paleobotanists,
or phylogenists, or evolutionists but as students of the history and accomplishments
of that interesting and indefatigable organism Homo sapiens botanicus. In
these days of crashing change and revolutionary ideas it is important to remember
that our science was not born yesterday but stretches back to Theophrastus
and beyond. I have never been among those who caution their students not to
read papers that are more than ten years old since everything important now
has happened during that time. This is not always even a safe thing to do.
Some years ago, I deliberately searched through the earliest volumes of some
of our leading botanical journals for material in my own field and found many
valuable papers that had missed getting into later bibliogra-
at the Historical Section meeting, Botanical Society of America, August 16,
1965, at Urbana, Illinois.
of important facts that had been overlooked, and not a few good ideas for further
work. Before that, I had done what seemed to me a rather neat piece of work
in turning a small dormant horizontal maple branch through 180° and seeing
the rather marked effect on the shape of the next season's leaves. Before publishing
this, I thought it would be safer, if only as a formality, to go over some of
the earlier work on anisophylly, and to my surprise—and chagrin—I
found that one of those indefatigable Germans had published the same result
in the Botanische Zeitung of 1870! There is certainly a lot of gold still to
be found in the hills of bibliographical investigation.
sort of scavenging in the refuse heaps of past research, however, though often
turning up nuggets of lost knowledge, is not, I take it, the sort of historical
study that our section has been set up to do. Botanical history is not simply
a heterogeneous collection of more or less unrelated happenings but has a
logical course, with definite trends and necessary modifications over the
years. A knowledge of these is important for every botanist to have if he
is to possess a sound understanding of his subject. Fields of research, like
organisms, evolve by a sort of selective survival not unlike that in the organic
world. In our paleozoic period, so to speak, all botanists were taxonomists,
as in the mind of the public they still ought to be, at least so far as to
be able to name any pretty flower they may be shown. Later, with the acceptance
of the fact of evolution, a reconstruction of the past history of the plant
kingdom became the chief concern of many, and phylogeny assumed a central
place in botany. This field is intensely interesting, for it is nature's jigsaw
puzzle which we are attempting to put together. I remember that as an enthusiastic
youth I was determined to devote my life to working out the entire phylogeny
of the angiosperms 0), a goal that certainly showed my profound inexperience.
Many less ambitious problems were attacked, however, such as the relative
position of the Abietineae and Araucarineae among the conifers, the place
of the Amentiferae and the Magnoliaceae in the dicotyledons, and what to do
with the Gnetales. Morphology, called by Darwin the very soul of natural history,
now assumed a central place in botany. Life histories were carefully worked
out, and many a doctoral dissertation was based on one of them and little
more. Paleobotany, long studied in Europe, soon found its devotees in America
botanists began to see that even if plant relation-
were all discovered and every life history known, much still remained to be
accomplished. Physiology, its roots far back in our science, had a new lease
of life. Cytology was studied for its own sake, ecology as a modern science
was born and some of its pioneers were members of our Society. The rediscovery
of Mendel's Laws turned the attention of many to problems of inheritance,
and we tried to see which characters "mendelized" and which did not. This
"three-to-one" stage of the science of genetics was soon outgrown, and cytogenetics
began to locate genes precisely in the chromosomes. Less than a decade ago
came one of the greatest forward steps of all—the discovery of the actual
chemical configuration of the genes and an understanding of some of the important
processes in gene action.
mention these things, well known to every student of elementary botany, not
only because they are important steps in the history of our science but because
they give us an insight into how science moves ahead. At every stage, the
new and now dominant field of work partakes somewhat, to its enthusiastic
practitioners, of ultimacy. The early taxonomists could see nothing more important
than the names and classification of plants. Evolution made such a profound
change in biological thought that to answer the questions it raised seemed
to be the end of the road. A college classmate of my father's said he was
not going to continue his work in biology because Darwin had solved all its
important problems. Phylogeny was merely the working out of the grand idea
of evolution. Cytogenetics, to many graduate students in the 1920's, seemed
to be another end point. If one could locate genes precisely in the chromosomes,
what more was there to do. The same finality is evident in biochemical genetics
today. There are not lacking those who say that all biology will ultimately
turn out to be only a study of the properties of DNA, and that all else is
stamp collecting or mere natural history. These enthusiasts forget that the
problems of organic form, of organizing relations, and the deeper one of the
organism itself are still essentially unsolved. The fact that there is such
a vast amount of undiscovered territory in botany, as in other sciences, is
what makes science an occupation so adventurous and exciting. As soldiers
of research, men probe the long line of the unknown, and where a weak spot
is found they pour through the gap, now here, now there. These local concentrations
of interest are not simply fads. Most of them have a necessary place in the
development of a science. Botany could go nowhere until plants had names.
There could be little physiology until something was known of chemistry and
physics. There could be no phylogeny until evolution was accepted, or modern
genetics until chromosomes were discovered. To be sure, there is still some
chasing of botanical band-wagons as interest comes and goes, but most of these
excursions have left a substantial body of men to occupy the new territory
and give opportunity for further advance. We are by no means sure of where
the most vulnerable point for a new attack will turn out to be. A botanical
historian should examine these shifts of interest and accomplishment, and
study their relation to the growth of our science. If a graduate student,
in choosing a subject for his research, is perspicacious enough to examine
the trends that have been evident in recent years he will be more likely to
find a rewarding field of work than if he simply follows current fashions
and does r what others now are doing. One who studies the past intelligently
will do better than one who recognizes only the problems of the present.
of Botany, Washington State University
P. Banks, Cornell University
H. Boke, University of Oklahoma
S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
L. Stern, Smithsonian Institution
Steiner, University of Michigan
1966 Volume Twelve Number Three
of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
America, Inc., Dr. Harlan P. Banks, Department of Botany,
University, Ithaca, New York.
for libraries and persons not members of the Bo-
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $2.00 a
orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of
Inc." to the Treasurer.
submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow
style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
history of any science, however, includes much more than a study of fields
and trends and directions of development. It involves the people who embody
the ideas 11, of the science, who actually participate in its advance. The
history of botany is the history of botanists. When the definitive story of
the Botanical Society of America is written, as I hope it will be, it will
necessarily include an account of the many men and women who have contributed
to its progress and success. It has been my privilege, for well over half
a century, to know most of the more notable members of our Society, and I
wish it were possible to speak about each of them, both as to their personal
qualities, which gave so much interest to the botany of past days, and as
to the contributions for which they are still remembered. But if a garrulous
old man should undertake a task like this, no time would be left for the other
things on your program. It seems only fitting, however, that at this first
meeting of the Historical Section some recognition should be given to a few
of the men and women who were active in molding American botany a generation
or two ago when it was much simpler and more unsophisticated than it is today.
The few about whom I shall speak here will present, I hope, a little of the
flavor of botany in their time.
notable among them, perhaps, was that grand old man of American botany, Liberty
Hyde Bailey. Leading taxonomist of the cucurbits and the palms, he was much
more than this. As Dean of the College of Agri-culture at Cornell for many
years and an indefatigable writer and speaker, he did more than any other
man to make agriculture intellectually respectable. He also brought to his
many friends a vivid picture of the Michigan of
youth, with its Indians, wild pigeons, and the life of the frontier. Well
into his tenth decade he led collecting expeditions into the tropics that
were often too strenuous for younger men.
E. Bessey, who carried modern botany and its symbol, the microscope, across
the Mississippi and planted them firmly in Iowa and then in Nebraska, was
a great teacher who learned his taxonomy from Asa Gray but went on to develop
what is still recognized as an excellent phylogenetic classification of the
higher plants. I met him only once, for he was much older than my generation,
but was much impressed by him.
F. Blakeslee, whose doctoral dissertation established the astonishing fact
that even breadmolds have sex, went on to amplify the chromosome theory by
a new line of attack through heteroploidy in Datura. He was a born teacher,
who took delight in dramatic demonstrations, long remembered, as when he set
up a booth at one of our meetings to test the ability of everyone to taste
PTC, thus demonstrating the genetic basis of this physiological trait.
Lord Britton, endowed with the acumen that enabled him to persuade hard-boiled
politicians of the City of New York to set aside a large tract of land in
the Bronx for the Botanical Garden he was soon to found, was also a distinguished
botanist, author of the Illustrated Flora of North America and chief spokesman
for the so-called American school of plant taxonomy.
that knew him can ever forget A. H. R. Buller? He was a mycologist who brought
to his science not only sound research but a vivid sense of showmanship that
fascinated his hearers. To listen to him describe, with models and gestures,
how basidiospores are shot off was an experience long to be remembered. Ask
any oldster who ever heard him!
M. Coulter, botanical statesman and chairman of the department at the University
of Chicago, gathered around him there a galaxy of botanists in a department
recognized by many as the most distinguished in the country and which Iong
had a predominating influence on the teaching of botany throughout the middle
C. Cowles, another of the Chicago group, was an ecologist who was a keen observer
of plants but did not need to clutter up his subject with terminology, and
was willing to call a spade ā spade and not a geotome. He was almost
always present at our meetings, and his booming and infectious laughter never
failed to lighten moments that tended to become too serious.
G. Farlow, his great mind housed in a small body, was the real founder of
the science of cryptogamic botany, not only at Harvard but in the United States.
A man of tireless energy and encyclopedic knowledge, he was also a Boston
patrician whose keen wit and delightful personality attracted all who knew
C. Ferguson was a charming lady and a most careful worker whose exhaustive
study of the life history of the pine is a classic. She was also a great teacher
and at Wellesley built up a distinguished department of botany.
L. Fernald, a State-of-Maine Yankee, came as a young taxonomist to the Gray
Herbarium where for many years he infected students with his enthusiasm. To
go on a field trip with him was a botanical adventure. He brought to taxonomy
not only a keen knowledge of plants but a vivid interest in their geographical
distribution and the factors that governed it. His criticisms of others were
vigorous but almost always justified.
A. Harper, a botanist's botanist, acquainted with every phase of our science,
gained from his years in Germany, he brought a knowledge of them home, first
to Wisconsin and then to Columbia. He was not afraid to be in the minority,
and though working in the same building with T. H. Morgan, differed with him
radically in his interpretation of the facts of genetics.
C. Jeffrey, founder of the science of comparative anatomy of the vascular
plants, aroused the keen interest of his students in problems of phylogeny.
Personally, I am deeply indebted to him. He was a vigorous and outspoken champion
of Darwinian orthodoxy against all those who would follow the "false gods"
of Mendel and de Vries.
D. Merrill, a great taxonomist in the tradition of Linnaeus, who early in
life went to the Far East when it was almost virgin territory botanically,
was said to have given names to more plants than anyone since Adam. He developed
in America an interest in the plant life of the Orient and of Latin America.
C. Newcombe is best known, perhaps, as the father of the American Journal
of Botany, which he brought to birth at a notable meeting of the Botanical
Society of America at Atlanta in 1914. His own research was with tropisms
and—remarkable as it must seem to a physiologist of today—he learned
much of importance about them years before auxin was ever heard of.
J. V. Osterhout, who described himself as a disillusioned cytologist, left
his work in that field just as it was becoming most interesting. His great
ability found expression in other ways, especially in the problems of permeability.
Working at first with apparatus so primitive that it would be the despair
of a physiologist today, he laid the foundation of our knowledge in several
fields. His undergraduate students, of whom I was one, will never forget his
sly smile and the twinkle in his eye as he showed us how simple protoplasm
Thaxter, combining his mother Celia's aesthetic temperament with the rigorous
standards of a man of science, gloried in working with fungi that had no conceivable
economic importance, the Laboulbeniales, parasites on insects. He not only
described the strange structures of these tiny organisms but illustrated his
papers with exquisitely stippled drawings that were the despair of his students.
there were many others. To use St. Paul's words, "and what shall I say more,
for time would fail me" to speak of Charles E. Allen, Joseph C. Arthur, Douglas
H. Campbell, C. J. Chamberlain, William Crocker, Benjamin M. Duggar, Alexander
Evans, C. Stuart Gager, William F. Ganong, Albert S. Hitchcock, Lewis R. Jones,
Ivey F. Lewis, Burton E. Livingston, George T. Moore, Erwin F. Smith, Gilbert
M. Smith, Edgar N. Transeau, William Trelease, Karl M. Wiegand, and many more.
are among the men and women to whom our thoughts go back with gratitude today
as we formally
to retrace the history of the botanical past and the changes in emphasis and
direction that it has undergone. Of our history we have every reason to be
proud, and as we turn our faces to a future that seems so limitless and unpredictable,
let us remember that our predecessors have given us a firm foundation upon
which we can build with confidence. The chief significance of the past of
botany, both here and in other lands, is not simply for itself but because
it serves as prelude to a future that we hope will be even more productive
FROM THE EDITOR
good intentions to have this issue ready for distribution early in October
have been thwarted by a combination of events that is not likely to be repeated.
Not only were the President, the Past President, and the Secretary of the
Botanical Society all in the Far East at the same time, but even after the
President returned it was not possible to reach him by telephone since the
long-distance switching terminal in Moscow, Idaho, had been completely destroyed
by fire a few days earlier, and only emergency calls could be transmitted
for about one week. Whether PSB business rates for "emergency" calls was not
tested! A new feature that is being planned for future issues of the Bulletin
will be headed (tentatively) as Guidelines to Botanical Teaching. These are
intended to be up-to-date lecture outlines both for introductory and advanced
botany courses. Each will be accompanied by limited bibliographies. In these
days of paperbacks, and seemingly limitless publication of symposium and review
papers, there is certainly no dearth of up-to-date information on a wealth
of botanical topics; few of these, however, are written for the beginning
student or for the instructor who is less than a specialist for many of the
topics he must cover in a general course. A number of ideas for topics have
already been received, but none is as yet in suitable form for publication.
You are hereby invited to submit copy for the Guidelines, but should be reminded
that permission will be needed for the publication in the Bulletin of any
materials previously published by you or others.
on Book Reviews—Revised
misunderstanding seems to have evolved from the statement under this heading
in our last issue. The 1964 ad hoc committee's recommendation did not prohibit
our publishing book reviews, but only observed that "long book reviews" are
probably not the best use of our limited space. Henceforth as space is available,
or until there is considerable objection, we shall list new books of interest
with short notes as to their contents. Here are a few to begin our new "policy":
W. et al. Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis. North-Holland Publishing
Co. and Inter-science Publishers, 1966. 209 pp. $9.75.
presented at the fourth International Symposium on Cell Differentiation held
at the Agricultural University of Wageningen (The Netherlands), April 26-29,
1965, are the contents of this volume. Three of the seven chapters are specifically
about plants. These are: "Factors affecting differentiation of plant tissues
in vitro," by R. J. Gautheret; "Leaves and buds: mechanisms of local induction
in plant growth," by C. W. Wardlaw; "Hormonal regulation of plant development,"
by J. A. D. Zeevaart. W. Beerman's chapter on "Differentiation at the level
of the chromosomes," although based largely upon work with salivary and lampbrush
chromosomes, includes considerable information that should be of interest
A. B. R. and J. Dykstra, editors. Viruses of Plants. North Holland Publishing
Co. and Interscience Publishers, 1966. 342 pp. $12.75.
book presents the proceedings of a conference held at Wageningen, The Netherlands,
July 5-9, 1965. Thirty papers presented during the course of five symposia
plus five "free lectures" are the contents of this volume. The ideas presented
in this book are effectively coordinated by both an author and a subject index.
E. Y. Marine Botany. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1966. 371 pp.
is the definitive presentation in English of the field of marine botany. At
about the time that this book began to be distributed its author met his death
from drowning while collecting algae in the Red Sea. Dr. Dawson will long
be remembered for this distinguished treatise as well as for his earlier books
and papers about algae and cacti.
W. A. and L. G. Kavaljian, editors. Plant Biology Today, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth
Publishing Company, Inc. 1966. 2 08 pp. (paperback)
second edition of this compendium, like the first, is a collection of symposium
papers sponsored by the A.A.A.S. and the Botanical Society. The first five
chapters of the second edition bear the same titles and are by the same authors
as in the first edition, but each has been revised to various degrees and
a selected list of references, not to be found in the first edition, now concludes
each chapter. The second edition has six additional chapters, and all except
the last of these has a listing of references. Chapter titles and authors
are as follows: "Molecular botany," J. Bonner; "The problem of cell development
in plants," W. A. Jensen; "Photosynthesis," L. Bogorad; "The measurement of
time in plants," B. M. Sweeney; "Translocation: the movement of dissolved
substances in plants," F. B. Salisbury; "Biochemical methods in systematics,"
R. E. Alston and B. L. Turner; "Some recent developments in our understanding
of pteridophyte and early gymnosperm evolution," H. N. Andrews; "Electron
transport systems in plants," W. D. Bonner, Jr.; "Cultural and physiological
aspects of the lichen symbiosis," V. Ahmadjian; "Modern research on evolution
in the ferns," W. H. Wagner, Jr.; "Phytochrome and the red, far-red system,"
R. and C. W. Reimer. The Diatoms of the United States (exclusive of Alaska
and Hawaii), Volume 1. Monograph 13 of the Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia. 700 pp. $18.50.
650 species of diatoms are covered in the first treatise, in English, of the
diatoms of the United States including family, genera and species keys and
members of the Botanical Society have. been appointed as 1966-67 National
Lecturers for the Society of the Sigma Xi and the Scientific Research Society
of America, as follows:
Kenneth V. Thimann of the University of California, Santa Cruz, will speak
on the topic, "Tropisms; The Responses of Plants to Light and Gravity." His
schedule is as follows: Arizona State University, October 31; New Mexico State
University, November 1; Texas Christian University and Arlington State College,
November 2; University of Texas and Central Texas RESA, November 3; Sam Houston
State College, November 4; Louisiana State University and Southern University,
November 7; Southern Regional Research Laboratory RESA and Louisiana State
University in New Orleans, November 8; East Texas State University, North
Texas State University, and Texas Women's University, November
of Arkansas Medical Center, November 10; University of Oklahoma, November
W. Gordon Whaley of the University of Texas, Austin, will speak on the topic,
"The Cell and Its Components in Growth and Development." Dr. Whaley's schedule
is as follows: Southern Michigan and Whirlpool RESA, October 31; Michigan
Technological University, November 1; Ford Motor RESA, Wayne State University,
and Wyandotte RESA, November 2; University of Michigan, November 3; Wittenberg
College, November 4; Denison University, November 7; Wooster Ohio, November
8; Kent State University, November 9; Indiana State University, November
University and Wabash College, November 11.
International Association for Plant Physiology has pre-pared an International
Directory of Plant Physiologists associated with its fifteen constituent national
organizations. Copies may be purchased for $1.00 from the Secretary-Treasurer,
Professor Arthur W. Galston, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven,
of a Conference on Drainage for Efficient Crop Production, held in Chicago,
Illinois, December 6-7, 1965, and of which the Botanical Society of America
was one of the sponsors, have been published by the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers. Twenty-three papers from four sessions are included: I—Drainage
Requirements, II—Characterizing Soil Properties for Drainage Design,
III—Materials and Methods, and IV—Design Criteria. It should be
of interest to botanists, particularly those in plant physiology and applied
fields. The Proceedings may be obtained from the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers, Saint Joseph, Michigan 49085, at a cost of $5.00.
Nominum Genericorum Project
Index Nominum Genericorum project was established at the 8th International
Botanical Congress, Paris, 1954, following passage of a resolution proposed
by the taxo-
section. The lack of a complete index of validly published generic names had,
until then, led to the publication of a great number of illegitimate later
homonyms. This led to further burdening of the literature because of subsequent
necessary name changes. Without an index, avoidance of such homonyms involved
an enormous waste of time in searches through the appropriate literature.
1954, the project to prepare an Index Genericorum has been based in Utrecht,
Netherlands, and has been carried on under the auspices of the International
Association for Plant Taxonomy. A grant has just been awarded to the Association,
through its regional treasurer, Dr. Richard S. Cowan, by the National Science
Foundation to support activities leading to the completion of the project
within the next three or four years. Quarters are being made available to
house the staff of botanical bibliographers in the Smithsonian Institution's
Department of Botany, in Washington, D.C.
bibliographic work is being directed by Mrs. Ida K. Langman, who is working
in conjunction with Dr. J. Lanjouw, general editor, and Dr. F. A. Stafleu,
technical editor, both of whom will remain in Utrecht. Mrs. Lang-man, who
comes from Philadelphia, is the author of A Selected Guide to the Literature
on the Flowering Plants of Mexico, which was published by the University of
Pennsylvania Press in December, 1964. In August, 1965, this work was selected
to receive the Oberly Memorial Award, granted by the References Services Division
of the American Library Association for the best bibliography submitted in
the field of agriculture and the related sciences in 1963-1964.
of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America
of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
meeting was called to order by President Bold at 11 a.m. in Room 29 of the
Business and Public Administration Building. Approximately 125 members were
present during the meeting.
of the minutes of the Business Meeting of the Society at the University of
Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, on August 16, 1965, were provided to the members
present, and were approved as presented.
the absence of Secretary Starr, and in accordance with the Bylaws of the Society,
the President presented the names of those on the second nominating ballot
who stood in the top three places as a result of the balloting in which 1467
votes had been cast. A notarized tabulation of the balloting had been prepared
by Mrs. Laura Lee Terrell, secretary to Dr. Starr. These candidates, listed
in order, with the highest in each category first, were as follows:
H. Wagner, Jr.
of the Editorial Committee
Journal of Botany Program Director
L. Stern C. Ritchie Bell
F. Palser Janet Stein
N. Andrews, Jr. S. N. Postlethwait
motion was made, seconded, and carried unanimously, that the candidates with
the highest number of votes in each category be elected. The officers for
1967, therefore, are:
Committee; William L. Stern
Director: C. Ritchie Ball
the absence of the Secretary, the President presented for consideration the
proposed amendments to the Bylaws which had been duly circulated by mail to
the membership along with the second nominating ballot. These amendments were
considered one at a time and after brief discussion of each, the following
amendments were approved:
Delete "and" before (e), substitute comma for period after "retired members,"
and add: (f) sustaining members. Add section (f) as follows:
Sustaining Members. Any commercial organization may apply for sustaining membership
in the Society by filing with the Treasurer an application in writing, together
with payment of annual dues amounting to $250.00. Sustaining members shall
receive the publications of the Society, shall have the privileges of active
members except that of the vote and that of holding office in the Society,
and shall be entitled to 10% discount on advertising rates in the journal.
First sentence shall read:
officers of the Society shall be:—the President, the Vice-President,
the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Program Director, the Editor-in-Chief and
the three elected Editors of the American Journal of Botany, the Business
Manager of the Journal, and the Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin.
sentence:—No change. Third sentence shall read:
President and Vice-President shall serve each for one year; the Secretary
and Treasurer, and the Business Manager of the American Journal of Botany
each for five years; the Editors (other than the Editor-in-Chief of the American
Journal of Botany and Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin) each for three
years, one to be elected each year; the Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal
of Botany and the Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin each for five years;
the Program Director shall serve for three years.
IV. Election of Officers
IV shall read:
All officers named in Article III except the Editor-in-Chief and Business
Manager of the American Journal of Botany, and the Editor of the Plant Science
Bulletin shall be elected by the members of the Society according to the following
the autumn of each year, the President shall name an Election Committee
of five members to consist of the Secretary and four appointed members.
The term of service for appointed members of this committee shall be four
years, one new member being appointed each year. The senior appointed
member shall serve as Chairman.
after its appointment, this Committee shall canvass by mail each voting
member of the Society for nominations for such offices as must be filled
that year from the following:—President, Vice-President, Secretary,
Treasurer, Program Director, and an Editor of the American Journal of
Election Committee shall prepare a slate of four names for each office
to be filled as follows: To the names of the two persons receiving the
highest numbers of votes in the member canvass for nominations, the Committee
shall add two more names of its own selection. Consent to serve, if elected,
shall be obtained from all nominees. Election by mail ballot shall be
carried out by the Committee at that time each year which proves most
expedient in the overall program of the Society. The Committee shall be
responsible for opening and tallying the ballots. That candidate for each
office who receives the largest number of votes shall be recognized as
elected by the Committee. The results of the election shall be reported
by the Committee to the President who shall at once notify each candidate
of his election and invite him as an incumbent officer to attend the annual
meeting of the Council. The Secretary shall make known promptly to the
members of the Society the results of the election.
The selection of the Editor-in-Chief or the Business Manager of the American
Journal of Botany, or of the Editor for the Plant Science Bulletin shall be
the responsibility of the Council. To fill each vacancy in the above offices,
imminent or actual, the President shall appoint a Committee consisting of
the incumbent Editor-in-Chief as Chairman and two other members. Confirmation
of the candidate selected by the Committee by the Executive Committee of the
Council shall be required.
VI. The Council
Sentence 1. The Council shall consist of the President, Vice-President, Secretary,
Treasurer, Program Director, Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Botany,
Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin, Business Manager of the American Journal
of Botany, the presiding officer of each section or other representative selected
by the Section for such purpose, and three past Presidents of The Society,
and at intervals, the retiring Secretary.
XI. General Prohibitions
any provision of the Constitution or By-laws which might be susceptible to
a contrary construction:
Society shall be organized exclusively for scientific and educational
Society shall be operated exclusively for scientific and educational purposes.
part of the net earnings of The Society shall or may under any circumstances
inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
substantial part of the activities of The Society shall consist of carrying
on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation.
Society shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing
or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf of a
candidate for public office.
Society shall not be organized or operated for profit.
Society shall not
any part of its income or corpus, without the receipt of adequate security
and a responsible rate of interest to;
any compensation, in excess of a reasonable allowance for salaries or
other compensation for personal services actually rendered, to;
any part of its services available on a preferential basis to;
any purchase of securities or any other property, for more than adequate
consideration in money's worth from;
any securities or other property for less than adequate consideration
in money or money's worth to; or
in any other transactions which result in a substantial diversion of its
income or corpus to any officer, member of the Council or substantial
contributor to The Society.
prohibitions contained in this subsection (7) do not mean to imply that The
Society may make such loans, payments, sales, or purchases to anyone else,
unless such authority be given or implied by other provisions of the Constitution
Xll. Distribution on Dissolution
dissolution of The Society, the Executive Committee shall distribute the assets
and accrued income to one or more organizations as determined by the Executive
Committee, but which organization or organizations shall meet the limitations
prescribed in Sections (1)-(7), Article XI immediately preceding.
proposed amendment to Article VII concerning the American Journal of Botany
was not approved, pending restudy of the editorial function of the Journal
by the present Editorial Committee and the Council.
Dr. A. J. Sharp, immediate past President, as Chairman of the Committee on
Corresponding Members, presented four names in nomination. These names together
with the citations follow.
Hans Burstrdm of the University of Lund, Sweden, founder and editor of Physiologia
Plantarvm. has such a breadth of Botanical interests that he might be considered
a Botanist of the "old school." He has constructively and effectively contributed
to many phases of Botany at the international, as well as the national, level.
He is an enthusiastic and devoted teacher and has encouraged many students
to become Botanists. In addition, he is one of the outstanding leaders in
the field of plant nutrition and growth.
Roger Jean Gautheret, Professor of Botany, at the University of Paris is one
of the world's leading authorities in the field of plant tissue culture research.
Among his special contributions are the establishment of plant tissue culture
on a mass production basis, his studies of the water relations and mineral
nutrition of tissue cultures, the effects of growth regulators on them, and
their general physiology and histogenesis. He also pioneered in the use of
tissue cultures in research in plant pathology. Professor Gautheret is the
author of over 400 scientific papers, a cytology text, and two important books
on plant tissue culture. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences
and has been decorated by the French government. Professor Gautheret is an
inspiring teacher and probably has trained more students than any other worker
in this field.
Harry Godwin's most widely known research has related the refined botanical
history of East Anglia's fenlands to the changing climates and sea levels
of postglacial time. His leadership has enhanced the already great reputation
of Cambridge University's Botanical School. There Godwin's hearty collaboration
with geologists, archeologists and many others has instilled excitement in
his institute for Quaternary studies. Breaking across boundaries between disciplines
and between nations has dispatched that excitement around the world. Professor
Godwin has met the growing demands upon his time as a statesman of science,
while extending, instead of losing, his first-hand participation in research
and inspiring teaching.
Otto Schi.iepp, associated with the University of Basel in Switzerland, is
best known for his fundamental contributions to developmental anatomy during
the past forty years. His classic monograph on plant meristems has influenced
the work of generarions of anatomists. Dr. Schiiepp introduced the use of
mathematical analysis to the structure and growth of meristems. He originated
the graphic "schemata" now commonly used to depict the distribution of growth
and the displacement of cell lineages derived from the shoot apex. His innovations
have given morphology a quantitative dimension which was largely lacking before
appropriate motion, all four were elected unanimously to corresponding membership.
Business Manager, Dr. L. J. Crockett, briefly re-ported on the financial
condition of the American Journal of Botany. He stated that plans were
underway to increase the size of the issues to 130 pages each during 1967.
He is planning to poll the membership regarding a proposal to make page
charges for all pages of all articles instead of the present excess pagination
interim report of the Business Manager and the proposed budget for 1967 for
the American Journal of Botany were discussed and approved by the membership.
(Copy of the approved Budget is filed with the Secretary.)
David Bierhorsr, Cornell University, presented a proposed budget for the
Society which had been prepared by the Treasurer, Dr. H. P. Banks, who
was absent in Europe. It was pointed out that the Society is continuing
to operate at approximately a $1,000 loss each year and that this is depleting
our reserves. Because of increasing costs of clerical help, supplies,
section expenses, and postal rates, it is probable that members of the
Society will face a dues increase in 1968.
President explained that the Council recommended that the Society budget and
hold in escrow, each year for the next three years, the sum of $700 as its
contribution to the entertainment of foreign botanists who will attend the
International Botanical Congress at Srattle in 1969. The Council recommended
that this entertainment be in the form of a reception for foreign botanists,
which reception would be hosted by the Botanical Society of America.
Treasurer's Budget for 1967 (copy filed with the Secretary) was approved.
Bold reported on a number of miscellaneous items which had been discussed
or acted upon at the Council Meetings of the Society, as follows: (1)
A new edition of the Career Booklet of the Society is in preparation.
by a subcommittee of the Committee on Education, under the Chairmanship
of Dr. Robert Page, Stanford University. A draft of the text for the new
booklet is to be circulated among Council members for their suggestions
and approval. (2) The Council approved a suggestion of the Treasurer that
the category of student membership in the Society should be limited to
four years. (3) The Committee on Education, largely through the efforts
of Dr. Adolph Hecht, has prepared an impressive "Guide to Graduate Study
in Botany for the United States, 1966." This 48-page booklet is available
at $3.00 per copy and may be obtained through the office of the Secretary
of the Botanical Society of America. Receipts from the sale of this publication
will be held in escrow with a view to updating it periodically. (4) The
Editor-in-Chief and Business Manager of the American Journal of Botany
have plans which they expect to implement promptly in an effort to reduce
quickly the present backlog of manuscripts awaiting publication in the
American Journal of Botany.
William Jacobs raised a question regarding the present pattern of AIBS
meetings and proposed that the Society not always meet with AIBS. Although
it was voted to meet with AIBS at Texas A & M University, College
Station, Texas, in 1967, it is probable that the membership will be polled
through the initiative of Drs. Jacobs and the newly elected Program Director,
Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, regarding the pleasure of the membership concerning
the meetings of the Society. It was pointed out that AIBS is currently
planning two small meetings, the first in June, 1967 at the University
of Maine on the topic of 'Development" and a second in 1968 in Utah, the
topic to be "Environmental Biology."
following resolution, prepared by a committee chaired by C. J. Alexopoulos,
was presented by Dr. Ian Ross and adopted:
Botanical Society of America is grateful to the administrative offices of
the University of Maryland, to the staff of the American Institute of Biological
Sciences and to its local representative, Dr. R. A. Patterson, for the arrangements
and facilities provided for the 1966 meeting."
motion duly seconded and approved, the meeting adjourned at 12:09 p.m.
minutes are to be published in an early fall issue of the Plant Science Bulletin.
Corrections or additions should be reported to the undersigned who gratefully
acknowledges the assistance of Dr. Shirley Tucker who served as recorder because
of the absence of Secretary Starr.
submitted, Harold C. Bold President
of the Dinner Meeting, Botanical Society of America
University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland August 17, 1966
annual "Dinner for All Botanists" sponsored by the Botanical Society of America
was held in the Main Ball-room of the Student Union at 6:30 p.m., August 17,
1966. This room held only 456 dinner guests so that a number of people could
not attend the dinner, but followed the proceedings through a public address
system in the adjacent lounge.
President welcomed members, friends, and distinguished guests and reported
briefly on exchanges of correspondence he had had with three living retired
members, namely, Dr. H. A. Gleason, Dr. Edgar W. Olive, and Dr. P. L. Ricker.
Telegrams of greetings were dispatched to these retired members.
President announced that four new corresponding members had been elected and
read their citations. (See minutes of the Business Meeting.)
following awards were presented to the recipients or their representatives:
Cooley Award (of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists) : Dr. James M.
Kane of the University of Wisconsin (Madison) for his paper entitled "Biosystematics
of the genus Actaea (Ranunculaceae) in North America."
Darbaker Award in Phycology: Dr. Richard D. Wood, Department of Botany. University
of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, for his monograph of the Characeae.
Henry Alan Gleason Award: Dr. Philip Alexander Munz, world authority on Onagraceae.
This award is made, in general, for the total contribution he has made to
our knowledge of this family, and, specifically, because of his recent monumental
treatment of the Onagraceae in North American flora.
New York Botanical Garden Award: Professor Elso Barghoorn and Mr. William
Schopf, Harvard University, for their contributions, several of which were
published in Science during the past year, dealing with the oldest known,
structurally preserved plants.
of Merit were made to: Dr. Robert H. Burris, Department of Biochemistry, University
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin: distinguished as a teacher of plant biochemists
and for his outstanding contributions to the role of nitrogen in plants. Dr.
Henry N. Andrews, Jr., Department of Botany, University of Connecticut, Storrs,
Connecticut: original investigator in the field of paleobotany and author
of several significant volumes on plant life of past ages. Dr. George F. Papenfuss,
Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California: eminent
investigator of the world's marine algae from the view-point of their comparative
morphology, reproduction and systematic relationships.
retiring President, Dr. A. J. Sharp of the University of Tennessee, presented
a thought provoking address entitled "The Botanist as Scientist and Citizen."
The dinner meeting was adjourned at 8:55 p.m. and was followed by an informal
gathering in the banquet hall.
Memoranda from the Business Manager, American Journal of Botany
Proposed New Page Charge Policy
Council of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., at its August, 1966, meeting
at the University of Maryland considered a proposal of the business manager
of the American Journal of Botany to (1) abolish the present excess pagination
charges and (2) institute a voluntary charge of 830 for every page published
in AJB, commencing with the January, 1967 issue.
page charge would be levied after a paper has been accepted for publication
and would not in any way whatsoever influence the publication of any paper.
Each author would receive a request to honor the voluntary charge or any part
of it, after acceptance of his paper. The assumption is that botanists with
grants or at institutions which support publication will pay the charges.
Many authors, publishing in a variety of scientific journals, are already
familiar with this type of charge, as a number of well known botanical publications
levy such charges (e.g.,
Physiology, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Mycologia, Economic Botany).
number of scientific journals adopting a policy similar to what we propose
is growing. Granting agencies and many institutions have begun to realize
that publication is an increasingly expensive proposition and support for
scientific journals is required. Considering the original investment required
to create a single page of a scientific paper (from hundreds to hundreds of
thousands of dollars) the publication of such studies at less than $50 per
page is hardly excessive.
private, relatively small scientific societies to publish journals is becoming
more and more difficult. The mounting costs and the mounting volume of manuscripts
each work against the other. Fundamental support for AJB comes from institutional
subscribers not from the Society (dues payment to AJB supports all activities
for about 2.5 months per year).
new plan, if approved, will aid AJB to continue its expansion, to keep its
quality, and to aid its editor with his mounting work load. Editing AJB today
involves about 1.5 times the amount of work of a decade ago (ignoring 1956,
a special anniversary year) and soon will involve about twice as much editing.
This is asking a very great deal of editors who are usually scientists with
teaching, research, -and administrative, as well as family responsibilities.
not immediately envisioned, the day may arrive when privately published journals
will have to receive outright public support over and above tax freedom and
page-charge allotment in grants. Indeed, in a decade or two it is perfectly
possible for the societies to find it too costly, and the members too slow
a method for reporting their scientific results. Getting published early,
before one's work is obsolete, and getting to the airport in less time than
it takes to jet across the country are two modern problems which will have
to be solved soon.
send your views on the proposed new page charge policy to reach the Business
Manager, Dr. Lawrence J. Crockett, The City College, New York, N. Y. 10031,
on or before December 5, 1966.
New Cover for AJB
August, 1966, the Council of the Botanical Society and the Editorial Board
of AJB approved a design for a new cover proposed (but not designed) by the
business manager. You will see it on the first issue of the expanded 1967's
volume. The cover paper will be light green, over-printed in dark green. The
word BOTANY will receive emphasis, appearing in large, light-green letters
surrounded by a solid, dark-green oblong place near the top of the cover.
It is hoped that the new cover will be more attractive and present a better
image than does the old one.
will contain approximately 130 pages (including advertising) as of January,
1967. The increased page number will be supported by an increase of three
dollars in the cost to institutional subscribers.
backlog of papers has built up over the last two years, and the publication
block which they represent will be overcome by publishing a "giant" issue
issue in 1966). The Journal's reserve funds will be used to cover the cost
of this special issue.
American Journal of Botany is financially sound and in the black, but must
constantly face increasing costs, increasing volumes of papers, quality improvement
problems, and, therefore, plans must be created and activated which will constantly
increase the amount of money avail-able to run the Journal.
J. Crockett, Business Manager, AJB
Smithsonian Institution has appointed Dr. Edward S. Ayensu to the position
of Associate Curator in the Division of Plant Anatomy, Department of Botany.
Dr. Ayensu has recently completed doctoral studies with C. R. Metcalfe at
Kew and the University of London, and will continue his research on monocot
anatomy and phylogeny.
George Dehnel of the College of San Mateo has received a one-year appointment
as Scientist-in-Residence at the U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory
in San Francisco. This is the 13th such appointment since the Scientist-in-Residence
program was started in 1960. Dr. Dehnel will be working with Dr. B. E. Vaughan,
Head of the Biophysics Branch, on the uptake by foliage leaves of radionuclides
from the atmosphere.
death of Dr. Bohumil N6mec, Professor Emeritus of Charles University, Prague,
on April 7, 1966, at the age of 93 has terminated the career of an outstanding
Czech botanist in research, scholarly writting, and dedicated teaching.
Nemec was born in Prasek near Novy Bydov, Bohemia, March 12, 1873. He was
educated at Charles University, but visited many foreign universities, too.
He began his career as zoologist at the Department for Comparative Anatomy
and Embryology of Professor F. Vejdovsky; in 1895 he transferred to the Botany
Department and became Assistant of Professor L. Celakovsky; in 1899 he was
appointed Docent and in 1903 Professor of Plant Anatomy and Physiology at
Charles University. He founded here the Department for Plant Anatomy and Physiology,
the parent of all similar younger institutions in Czechoslovakia, and was
its chairman until 1939 when he re-tired. After World War II he was also,
for some years, Chairman of the Plant Physiology Department at Comenius University,
Bratislava. During his active career that lasted over 40 years and after his
retirement he educated many pupils not only in plant cytology, anatomy, and
physiology, but also in genetics and microbiology. He edited Studies from
the Plant Physiological Laboratory of Charles University (1923-1937), and
since 1959 the quarterly Biologia Plantarum, published by the Czechoslovak
Academy of Sciences.
Nemec himself or later with his collaborators studied many problems in plant
cytology, anatomy, and physiology, using very different plant material (bacteria,
Cyanophyta, algae, fungi, and higher plants). His first accomplishment was
the use of zoological micro-
in botany, but he also worked out a number of new methods in microtechnique
(see e.g., Botanical Microtechnique, 1962, written in Czech), and chiefly
ex-tended cytology to the experimental field. Professor Nemec observed that
statolith starch grains are normally present in geotropically sensitive organs,
and that they tend to congregate on the lower sides of the cells; he explained
it as an indication that they are concerned in geotropic perception (statolith
theory, 1901). He was one of the first who induced polyploidy artificially
(1904). Complete results of his cytological research, from the first decade
of this century, was published as a book entitled Das Problem der Befruchtungsvorgdnge
and andere zytologische Fragen (Berlin, 1910) that may serve as an ex-ample
of his numerous publications, very often cited in the foreign literature.
theme to which Professor Nemec returned several times was regeneration (cf.
Abdo-ha/dens Handbuch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden, 11/2, 801-838, 1923).
He focused his attention also on experimental morphology, galls (cecidia),
phytopathology, and experimented in the physiology of growth, irritability,
and tropisms. He further dealt with plant ashes, chiefly in regard to elements
which they contain in small amounts (reports on gold and other microelements).
Finally he wrote many papers on the history of botany and of biology as a
whole, and manuals for his students.
Nemec received many honors in recognition of his work in Czechoslovakia, as
well as in foreign countries (e.g. Dr. honoris causa of Charles University,
Member of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Member of the Linnaean Society,
Chairman of the Conference on Microelements, Harpenden 1947, Chairman of G.
Mendel Memorial Symposium, Brno 1965, etc.).
will long be remembered by his younger colleagues, students, and friends for
his many services to his fellow-men and the advancement of knowledge. "Gladly
did he live and gladly die ..." (R.L. Stevenson).
Maheshwari FRS 1904-1966
the sudden demise of Professor Panchanan Maheshwari on May 18, 1966 the world
lost an eminent botanist. He was 62.
was born November 9, 1904, schooled in his home town of Jaipur, graduated
from the University of Allahabad (B.Sc. 1925; M.Sc. 1927), and qualified for
the D.Sc. in 1931. He began his teaching career in 1928 at Allahabad, and
later served several other universities in different capacities. In 1949 Professor
Maheshwari was invited by Sir Maurice Gwyer, the then Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Delhi, to head the Department of Botany, which he did till his
Maheshwari's chief interest was plant morphology and particularly the embryology
of seed plants on which he carried out intensive research. His book An Introduction
to the Embryology of Angiosperms (McGraw-Hill, 1950) is a standard reference
text the world over. In 1956 Professor Maheshwari ventured into a new vista,
namely, physiological embryology, and soon discovered the vast application
of tissue and organ culture technique to embryology. At his hands embryology
grew rapidly into an experimental science and received worldwide recognition.
Of his works which stimulated extensive research both in India and outside,
those on embryology in relation to taxonomy, the life-history of Gnetum, and
test-tube fertilization in flowering plants are noteworthy. He not only devised
the technique of test-tube fertilization, but out-lined its promising applications
to overcoming the barriers to sexual incompatibility in angiosperms. He continually
encouraged his students to make contributions which would leave an impact
on contemporary knowledge. Experimental investigations of his pupils on the
endosperm of angiosperms are illustrative. Classical embryologists considered
the angiosperm endosperm a maimed tissue and to lack morphogenesis. Work done
in Maheshwari's laboratory has provided overwhelming evidence for the active
morphogenic expression of the endosperm. Through his unmatching abilities
he organized many all-India symposia and a UNESCO-sponsored International
Symposium on "Plant Tissue and Organ Culture" (December 1961) . So great was
his tenacity of purpose that he not only edited but also published the proceedings
of all of the symposia within a short period after their conclusion. In addition
to embryology he was vitally active in several other branches of plant science,
and made significant contributions to economic botany and anatomy._ Names
of more than half a dozen taxa ranging from microbes to angiosperms (to name
only a few: Panchanania jaipuriensis, a hypomycetous fungus; Isoetes panchananii,
a new species of quill-worts; Maheshwariella bicornuta, a compressed seed
from the lower Gondwanas of India; and Jatropha maheshwarii, a new member
of the spurge family) commemorate his keen interest in botanical research
of all kinds. The broad spectrum of botany he portrayed made him welcome in
laboratories of many lands.
Maheshwari was also a facile speaker and an able administrator, but above
all he was a teacher of capital caliber. His close associates can recall many
anecdotes about his prodigious memory and punctuality. He had an enviable
faculty for diligence, and tireless enthusiasm al-ways distinguished him.
He was contagiously active, but most of all his interest was in his pupils.
The professor acted as a magnet for many students, and when they be-came attached
to him, he radiated a feeling of paternal warmth; he had a penetrative effect
on every important aspect of their welfare and progress. Even after the students
left him upon completion of Ph.D. training, the professor kept in constant
touch with them and bestowed his encouragement through kindly acts rather
than mere oral best wishes. Professor Maheshwari's method of working reflected
his extraordinarily strong will. He was a man of precision and condemned substandards
forthright. He had a rough exterior and an outstanding intolerance for inefficiency.
Nonetheless, those who knew him well soon discovered that his annoyances were
evanescent, but they always left an uplifting impression on them. Although
it was difficult to win his appreciation, yet no good job remained unrecognized
Maheshwari was never complacently satisfied
his vast collection of botanical materials—be it exotic specimens, microscopic
slides, transparencies, or literature. He generously and very appreciatively
shared their use with his students, colleagues, and associates
view of the increasing research output in botany in India Professor Maheshwari
did not lose time to realize, as early as 1950, the necessity of a journal
truly international in character to disseminate knowledge. His unflinching
efforts bore fruit; the journal Phytomorphology, presently in its 16th volume,
was first issued in 1951 as the Official Organ of the International Society
of Plant Morphologists. Of this Society he was the Founder-President, and
of the journal the Founder-Editor.
laurels came to Professor Maheshwari, both at home and from overseas. He was
elected Fellow of several distinguished academies and institutes (among them
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences), President or Vice-President or
Secretary of several botanical organizations, and associate or honorary or
corresponding Member of many learned societies (among them the Botanical Society
of America) . The Birbal Sahni Medal of the Indian Botanical Society and the
Sunder Lal Hora Memorial Medal awarded by the National Institute of Sciences
of India are just two of the many coveted honors he received. With laurels
came heavy responsibilities which took Professor Maheshwari the world over
on many occasions and in many capacities—as UNESCO-sponsored Scientist,
Member of Scientific Delegations, Visiting Professor, and as Chairman, Indian
National Committee for Biological Sciences. He took his responsibilities very
religiously and not as perfunctory duties. For him work was worship; he lived
a karma-yogi. He held strongly positive views on reorientation of science
education in our country and staunchly advanced the cause of biology. Conspicuous
for his perennial service to botany and for his sustained contributions to
plant embryology, Professor Maheshwari was elected Fellow of the Royal Society
of London in March, 1965. It was characteristic of him that his reception
of these honors was often not known even to his immediate colleagues for quite
sometime. Through the numerous letters of condolence people at home learn
with a sense of pride that every one whom the professor wrote, met, or spoke
to felt elated, and even those whom he never knew derived inspiration from
others whom he had stimulated.
May 8, 1966, Professor Maheshwari was scheduled to leave Delhi for a six-week
visit to Japan and the U.S.A. But fate intervened. Instead of wishing him
a warm send off, the staff and students of the Department of Botany spent
a period of anxiety; he suddenly became infirm and was hospitalized for over
a week. On the afternoon of May 18 death, who is no respector of hopes or
desires, snatched him away, causing a great void in science that may never
be adequately filled.
Professor Maheshwari's passing away his pupils have been orphaned, his admirers
have lost a sagacious friend, his wife an understanding husband, and his children
an affectionately dutiful father. To me the demise of the professor is a loss
of an ever-stimulating guru who had an obsession for imparting training and
knowledge which invoked my inmost reverence and indebtedness for this stalwart
heavens have become richer with such a noble acquisition.
Heber Chase 18764966
nationally-known naturalist, Virginius Chase of Peoria Heights, Illinois died
on February 28, 1966. Although lacking even a high school education, Virginius
Chase trained himself in botany, and became widely known for his contributions
to the natural history of plants. The late Dr. Agnes Chase, Agrostologist
of the Smithsonian Instinuion, was his aunt, and was influential in guiding
his early attempts to identify plants. His collections numbering some 15,000
sheets covered areas from the mid-western United States, the South Dakota
Badlands and Black Hills, Yellowstone Park, what is now Craters of the Moon
National Monument, and into Nuevo Leon, Mexico. He contributed his collections
to the University of Illinois, The Chicago (then Field Museum) Museum of Natural
History, The Peoria Academy of Science and the United States National Herbarium.
Plants named after him include Aster chasei, Bouteloua chasei and Xanthium
Chase's first job was as a railroad telegrapher. Later he built a grain elevator,
operated a farm, worked in a wholesale grocery store, drilled farm wells,
managed a grocery store, and worked as a freight handler, a checker, and a
receiving clerk for the P and PU Railroad. He retired in 1951 after 28 years
with this company.
charter member of the Peoria Academy of Science, he served as its president
in 1937. Other of his member-ships included the Illinois State Academy-of
Science, the Illinois State Archeological Society, the Illinois State Historical
Society, the Society for American Archaeology, and the American Society of
Plant Taxonomists. He was active in Boy Scouts' affairs, serving as a committeeman
and a Scout Commissioner. For a ten year period he was the examiner for all
Scouts in his area taking examinations for the botany and the bird study merit
Chase held an honorary Master of Arts degree from Kenyon College, awarded
in 1949, and an honorary Doctor of Science, awarded in 1950 by Bradley University.
Virginius Chase was married to Mary Erma Neal, who died in 1961. He is survived
by one son, Ernest Chase of Pekin, Illinois, three grandchildren and two sisters.
following article appeared in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol.
92, No. 4, and was reprinted in The Garden Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6. Larry
Crockett urged the author to submit it for reprinting here in an effort to
reach a still wider audience, and permission to do so has been obtained from
the original publisher.
the occasion of his inauguration as second president of the Torrey Botanical
Club in 1873, Dr. George Thurber looked forward to the day when his generation
would have followed "the great botanist" into the hereafter, and younger botanists
having joined the Club would rightly ask, "What manner of man was this whose
name you bear?" He concluded that John Torrey's name was to be held in sacred
trust by the Club in order to advance botanical science which Dr. Torrey "loved
so much and for which he did so much."
it becomes a matter of historical necessity that the Club be true to this
trust, and raise nine hundred dollars to renovate and buy perpetual care for
Dr. Torrey's grave at Long Hill Cemetery in Stirling, New Jersey.
a tip from Dr. John Small, I went to Stirling last June to locate the grave.
I sent him the following note the morning after the discovery, "My search
ended in a tidy little cemetery, but Torrey's grave is in the midst of the
worst patch of poison ivy imaginable. The whole family is buried there. .
. Torrey's two grandsons, his son Herbert and his wife Marie, Torrey's three
daughters, and of course the Professor and his wife Eliza. The plot is completely
overgrown, and wading around in the under-brush during a thunderstorm left
me drenched, scratched, and covered with mosquito bites. The adventure was
like finding some rare plant when no discomfort can hold one back."
Torrey died of pleurisy at his Columbia College residence on 50th Street,
at 6 P.M., Monday, March 10, 1873. The funeral services were held on Thursday
at 3 P.M. in the West Presbyterian Church on 42nd Street. His funeral notice
observed that "the profuse offerings of flowers to mark affection for the
dead were certainly never more appropriate." But poison ivy ninety-two years
later is too great a botanical indignity to even label as irony.
March 14th, the morning after the church service, his remains were interred
in a rosewood coffin at Wood-lawn Cemetery in the Bronx. Years later when
Dr. Small tried to locate the grave, cemetery authorities informed him that
the body had been transferred to Stirling on April 29, 1873. It was this information
that inspired my trip last June.
to Stirling six months later on Nov. 3rd, I found the plot cleared, and big
piles of blackhaw, sassafras, and greenbrier thrown to the side. Inquiry led
me to Mrs. Emmett Herrmann, Secretary of The Long Hill Cemetery Association,
who has been working with her husband to clear off the Torrey property.
in 1890, Doctor Torrey's son and grandson, Herbert and John Gray Torrey, were
among nine local residents who met at the Torrey home to form The Long Hill
Cemetery Association. Herbert served as the Association's first secretary,
and following his example, Mrs. Herrmann has been working very hard at the
same post trying to build a cemetery that Stirling can always be proud of.
year a perpetual care plan was set up to further the renovation of the cemetery,
but there are no living, direct descendants of Dr. Torrey who could contribute
to this plan. The Herrmanns have been doing the renovation themselves, and
find it practically impossible to enlist volunteers to help in the work.
Torrey family owns three plots totaling seventy-eight by thirty one feet.
The perpetual care plan costs thirty-five dollars per grave, or three hundred
dollars for each full size plot. Each of the Torrey plots could accommodate
eighteen graves, and nine hundred dollars for the three plots seems like a
very reasonable price.
is much work to be done. Two stones are down, and one of them is broken. Dr.
Torrey's monument is leaning and needs resetting. A dirt road was cut through
one of the plots by a building contractor who needed a quick access to his
development. This road should be closed off, and the gap through the plot
relandscaped before it becomes an established thoroughfare. One plot ending
at the top of the Erie-Lackawana Railroad embankment should be landscaped
and screened with evergreens. There are also many roots and stumps to be grubbed
out of the recently cleared ground before it can be planted with grass.
of the plots contain members of Dr. Torrey's daughter-in-law's family, but
the whereabouts cif Mrs. Herbert Torrey's family, Snow and Albinola, are unknown.
Torrey memorabilia may be in their possession, and immediate efforts should
be made to locate them and ask for their permission and help in launching
pilgrimage to Stirling is in order. A work trip would be welcomed by the Cemetery
Association. The Passaic River's banks, nearby farmland, and swampy woods
beckon with flora. Afterwards, let us return and raise the nine hundred dollars.
TO GRADUATE STUDY IN BOTANY
for the United States, 1966
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from: Secretary of the Botanical Society of America Department of Botany