PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
1966 Volume Twelve Number Two
The United States National Herbarium
V. Morton and William L. Stern
United States National Herbarium dates back almost to the foundation of the
Smithsonian Institution in 1846. Collections of plants resulting from various
early government expeditions were first deposited in the National Institute,
named originally in 1840 as the National Institution for the Promotion of
Science. Later these plants were turned over to the newly founded Smithsonian.
Of particular interest among these were the large collections of the U.S.
South Pacific Exploring Expedition, under the command of Lt. Charles Wilkes,
U.S.N., which formed the real basis for a national herbarium. The earliest
expeditions sponsored in part by the Smithsonian Institution itself included
the explorations of Charles Wright in Texas and New Mexico in 1848. The early
Smithsonian plant collections, together with those gathered during government-sponsored
expeditions to the new West, were turned over to Asa Gray, a Regent of the
Smithsonian Institution and Professor of Botany at Harvard University, and
John Torrey, Professor of Botany at Columbia College. The assembled botanical
collections were in the actual custody of Torrey and were kept at Columbia
College in New York City.
Smithsonian assisted with all the U.S. Government exploring expeditions, among
others those of Emory, Whipple, King, Gunnison, Pole, Stevens, Hayden, and
Powell. Especially noteworthy were the botanical collections of Charles Wright
undertaken in conjunction with the U.S. North Pacific Exploring Expedition
under the command of Ringgold and Rodgers which provided plant specimens from
the Bering Straits, Japan, China, Hong Kong, and elsewhere.' A great many
botanical papers resulting from these expeditions were published in the reports
of the U.S. Railroad Surveys. The Smithsonian Institution itself published
several important monographs dealing with plants from these explorations,
namely, Asa Gray's "Plantae Wrightianae Texano-neo-mexicanae" (1853-1854),
John Torrey's "Plantae Fremontianae" (1854), and especially Professor William
Henry Harvey's "Nereis Boreali-Americana," the first general account of our
marine algae and still a fundamental reference work.
1868, only a few years before his death, Torrey decided that he could no longer
retain custody of the herbarium. In the absence of suitable quarters and staff
in the Smithsonian building in Washington, D.C., the first Secretary, Joseph
Henry, made arrangements that the Smithsonian collections be deposited with
the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which had been amassing a working collection
of herbarium specimens for the use of its personnel.
years later the noted paleobotanist Lester F. Ward began gathering another
collection of plants in the U.S. National Museum'' for use in comparing living
plants with fossil materials for the purpose of identification of the latter
and also because of his interest in the local Washington area flora. It is
of interest to note in this connection that in 1881 the Smithsonian Institution
published Ward's "Guide to the flora of Washington and vicinity." Ward was
given the title of Honorary Curator of Recent Plants at the Smithsonian Institution
and later was named Honorary Associate in Paleobotany, a position he held
until his death in 1913.
F. Baird, the second Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was concerned
about maintaining two herbaria in Washington. Because of this and his personal
desire to establish a great museum in the Capital, he made arrangements for
returning to the Smithsonian the plant collections that had been turned over
to the Department of Agriculture by Secretary Henry and also to bring along
the assembled Agriculture specimens. Thus was formed the U.S. National Herbarium,;
a joint project of the U.S. National Museum, under the Smithsonian Institution,
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Frederick Vernon Coville, Chief Botanist
of the Department of Agriculture, was appointed Honorary Curator of the National
Herbarium, March 28, 1893. He retained this post
1Some of these explorations are described in S. F. Baird. 1855. Report on American
explorations in the years 1853 and 1854. Appendix to the [Ninth Annual) Report
of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Beverley Tucker, Senate Printer.
2The U.S. National Museum is that branch of the Smithsonian Institution comprising
the Museum of Natural History and the Museum of History and Technology.
U.S. National Herbarium is a quasi-official organization previously administered
by the Division of Plants and now by the Department of Botany of the Smithsonian
Institution. It was established in 1894 as the name for the joint plant collections
of the U.S. National Museum and the Department of Agriculture.
his death in 1937. In 1894, Joseph Nelson Rose was made Assistant Curator
of the National Herbarium and thus became the first, full-time, professional
botanist associated with the Smithsonian Institution. The next year, C. L.
Pollard was appointed Assistant Curator and served in this capacity until
1903. At the time of the union which finally took place July 1, 1896, the
National Her-barium contained an estimated 250,000 specimens.
1899 William Ralph Maxon was appointed Aid in the Division of Plants; he subsequently
became its first Curator following Coville's death in 1937. Maxon was chiefly
responsible for building up the National Herbarium to its present position
among the herbaria of the world. Several other botanists were associated with
the Museum in its early years, notably Joseph H. Painter, a promising young
botanist appointed as Aid in 1904. .Painter drowned while swimming in the
Potomac River at Plummer's Island in 1908. Others, who subsequently made their
names elsewhere, were LeRoy Abrams (Assist-ant Curator, 1905-1906), E. O.
Wooton (Assistant Curator, 1910), and Homer D. House (Assistant Curator, 1905).
Also to be mentioned is the talented botanical artist F. A. Walpole who was
with the herbarium for a number of years and died in 1904; many of Walpole's
beautiful paintings and drawings are still maintained by the Museum. Associated
with the herbarium was the controversial figure of E. S. Steele, highly regarded
as the botanical editor of the Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium,
but debatable as an authority on the taxonomy of Rubus, Liatris, and other
"difficult" groups of plants.
the early part of the century two prominent taxonomists were associated with
the herbarium. The distinguished authority on North American plants, Edward
L. Greene, resigned his position as Professor of Botany at Catholic University
and became an Honorary Associate in Botany at the Smithsonian in 1904. At
this time he was working on his monumental "The Landmarks of Botanical History,"
the first volume of which was published by the Smithsonian Institution in
1909; since Greene's death in 1915 the manuscript of the second volume has
lain unpublished, but consideration is now being given to publishing it. Captain
John Donnell Smith was appointed an Honorary Associate in 1905, a position
that he retained until his death in 1928. He was an authority on the flora
of Central America and gave his extensive her-barium and library, which contained
a fine collection of books on classical botany, to the Institution during
of Botany, Washington State University
P. Banks, Cornell University
H. Boke, University of Oklahoma
S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
L. Stern. Smithsonian Institution
Steiner, University of Michigan
1966 Volume Twelve Number Two
of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
America, Inc., Dr. Harlan P. Banks, Department of Botany,
University, Ithaca, New York.
for libraries and persons not members of the Bo-
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $2.00 a
orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of
Inc." to the Treasurer.
submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow
style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
close cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture has continued from
the beginning. Several botanists did curatorial work on the collections, among
them Orator Fuller Cook (Honorary Assistant Curator of Cryptogamic Collections,
1898-1948), Walter T. Swingle (Honorary Custodian of Algae, 1898-1951), G.
T. Moore (Honorary Custodian of Lower Algae, 1902-1904), David G. Fairchild
(Honorary Custodian of Lower Fungi, 1898-1953), and Bernhard E. Fernow (Honorary
Custodian of the Section of Forestry, which • was subsequently transferred
from the Division of Plants). Many prominent botanists of Agriculture spent
most of their time in the herbarium, among them William Edwin Safford (specialist
on Annonaceae and on useful plants in general), Ivar Tidestrom (authority
on the flora of Utah and Nevada), Thomas Kearney (authority on the flora of
Arizona and on cotton and other economic plants), and Sydney F. Blake (the
world authority on the Compositae).
Carpenter Standley was appointed Assistant Curator in 1909 and remained in
Washington until 1928. Standley was the most prolific botanist ever associated
with the National Herbarium. He was also an energetic curator, and the growth
of the herbarium and development of early policies were largely influenced
by Standley and Maxon. At the time of Standley's departure to accept another
post in 1928 the herbarium numbered about 1,000,000 specimens. Several large
private herbaria had been received, notably those of John Donnell Smith, Charles
Mohr, Otto Buchtien, S. Venturi, and the Biltmore Herbarium. Sheers in these
herbaria were mostly identified by distinctive embossed stamps. Another notable
accession was the Willey Herbarium of lichens.
the retirement of Maxon in 1946, Ellsworth P. Killip was made Curator. Shortly
thereafter, on the recommendation of a committee of distinguished botanists,
the former Division of Plants of the Department of Biology in the Smithsonian's
Museum of Natural History became the Department of Botany with four divisions:
Phanerogams, Grasses, Ferns, and Cryptogams. The formerly independent Section
of Diatoms, established in 1912 with Albert Mann as Honorary Custodian, was
united with the Division of Cryptogams, bringing along with it Mann's magnificent
diatom collection. Following the retirement of Killip in 1950, Jason R. Swallen
was appointed Head Curator of the department.
attention had been paid to fungi in the early years, but in 1928 Curtis G.
Lloyd donated his extensive mycological collections. In order to make them
working mycologists, they were transferred to the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
and John A. Stevenson was appointed Honorary Curator. Later all the general
fungus collections of the Smithsonian were lent to Agri-culture to form the
National Fungus Collections,4 headed now by Chester R. Benjamin. The John
A. Stevenson Mycological Library, one of the most complete specialized collections
in the United States, is kept with the National Fungus Collections but is
owned by the Smithsonian Institution.
1960 the wood collections of the Division of Agriculture and Wood Products
of the Museum of History and Technology were transferred to the Department
of Botany. These collections formed the basis for a Division of Woods, the
name of which was changed to Division of Plant Anatomy in 1963. The division
maintains the Archie F. Wilson Memorial Collection of Woods and the Harley
H. Bartlett wood collections from Indonesia, the Philippines, Mexico, British
Honduras, and Guatemala.
1965 an active program of research in the algae was initiated, and to that
end the marine herbarium of the Beaudette Foundation was immediately secured.
William L. Stern is Chairman of the Department of Botany, which has grown
from a staff of five in 1946 to the present staff of 16 professional botanists.
There are also resident five appointed Research Associates who carry on their
botanical activities in quarters provided by the department. They are considered
part of the professional staff, although they are not paid by the Institution
nor do they have regular curatorial assignments. Several Honorary Curators,
connected with the National Fungus Collections, are responsible for maintaining
liaison between this organization and the Smithsonian Department of Botany
and for caring for the department's fungus holdings.
presently constituted, the Department of Botany is one of seven departments
which comprise the Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution.
Botany is divided into the five divisions mentioned above, four being set
up along taxonomic lines, and Plant Anatomy. Each division is headed by a
Curator-in-Charge and is staffed by Curators and Associate Curators. Herbarium-wide
services are provided through the office of the Custodian of the Herbarium,
a branch of the chairman's office. Besides engaging in his own chosen research
and publication, each member of the curatorial staff is expected to care for
a part of the collections, carry out public service, cooperate with the botanical
community, pursue a program of exploration for plants in the field, develop
a museum exhibits program, and serve on intramural committees and advisory
to latest figures plant specimens in the Department of Botany number well
over 3,000,000 divided among the divisions about as follows: Phanerogams,
2,000,000; Ferns, 240,000; Grasses, 400,000; Cryptogams, 500,000; and Plant
Anatomy, 45,000. The segregated Type Herbarium contains about 60,000 specimens:
42,000 phanerogams, 10,000 grasses, 3,500 ferns, and 4,500 cryp-
See Chester R. Benjamin. 1963. The National Fungus Collections. Plant Science
Bulletin 9: 1-6. togams. These collections are housed in well over 2,000 storage
its beginnings the U.S. Department of Agriculture has had a special interest
in grasses and other forage plants. Under the leadership of the eminent agrostologist
George Vasey, a large grass collection was assembled which was increased by
his successors Frederick Lamson-Scribner and Albert S. Hitchcock. In recognition
of the size and importance of the grass collections which ultimately came
to the Smithsonian, the Division of Plants formally set up a Section of Grasses
on October 10, 1912, with Professor Hitchcock as Custodian. After the death
of Hitchcock in 1935 Dr. Agnes Chase was appointed Honorary Custodian, a position
she held actively until very near her death in 1963. During the reorganization
of the Division of Plants in 1946 a separate Division of Grasses was established
with Jason R. Swallen as Curator. The grass collections are the finest in
the United States and rank with the best in the world. They are supplemented
by the Hitchcock-Chase Agrostological Library, a magnificent collection of
books and papers on grasses built up through the personal efforts and expenditures
of Albert S. Hitchcock and Agnes Chase through many years. This library is
maintained as a unit and has a small bequest for its support.
of the results of research undertaken in connection with the specimens in
the U.S. National Herbarium have been printed in the Contributions from the
U.S. National Herbarium, which were at first published by the Department of
Agriculture beginning on July 16, 1890. Agriculture continued to publish the
Contributions through the seventh volume, until July 1, 1902, when the U.S.
National Museum assumed the responsibility for publication pursuant to an
act of Congress. Throughout the years many important papers have been published
in the Contributions, among them the "Botany of Western Texas," by John M.
Coulter; "Plant Life of Alabama," by Charles Mohr; "Flora of Washington,"
by C. V. Piper; "Flora of New Mexico," by E. O. Wooten and P. C. Stand-ley;
"Trees and Shrubs of Mexico," by P. C. Standley (recently reprinted); "Flora
of the District of Columbia and Vicinity," by A. S. Hitchcock and P. C. Standley;
"Flora of Utah and Nevada," by I. Tidestrom; and "Flora of the Panama Canal
Zone," by P. C. Standley. In addition to these floristic treatments, the Contributions
have included monographs in all major plant groups and papers on subjects
other than traditional taxonomy, as for in-stance, ethnobotany, genetics,
ecology, plant anatomy, linguistics, plant geography, and bibliography. Among
the notable contributors, in addition to those already mentioned, are George
Vasey, Alexander W. Evans, Edwin B. Bartram, Joseph N. Rose, Per A. Rydberg,
Albert S. Hitchcock, Frederick V. Coville, Orator F. Cook, William R. Maxon,
Edward L. Greene, Henri Pittier, Nathaniel L. Britton, Frederick Lamson-Scribner,
Elmer D. Merrill, Agnes Chase, William E. Safford, John Donnell Smith, Sydney
F. Blake, Wilson Popenoe, William Trelease, Albert C. Smith, and William R.
Taylor. The Contributions have 32 completed volumes and six additional under
is regularly provided in the U.S. National Her-
for six to eight investigators attached to the New Crops Research Branch,
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Facilities
are also made available, on a more or less regular basis, for botanists from
the Forest Service, the National Arboretum, and the National Park Service
who come to consult our specimens, use our library, and confer with our staff.
Throughout the existence of the U.S. National Herbarium facilities have been
afforded in Washington to visiting botanists for purposes of study and comparison.
The guest register indicates that over 4,000 visits were made to the U.S.
National Herbarium by botanists since 1930. Of these, almost 800 were from
foreign nations, some botanists coming to the United States for the express
purpose of studying our collections. Specimens are also made avail-able to
the botanical community on loan, and since 1949 over 350,000 specimens have
been so treated. Well over a quarter-million herbarium specimens have been
sent from the U.S. National Herbarium on exchange to institutions throughout
the world since 1949.
many years the department has supported activities leading to the preparation
of an index to the species of grasses. George Vasey began this compilation
some-time prior to 1900, and it has been continued over the years by Frederick
Lamson-Scribner, Elmer D. Merrill, F. T. Hubbard, Cornelia D. Niles, and finally
by Agnes Chase. Through the diligent work of Mrs. Chase, the compiled "Index
to Grass Species" in three volumes was published by the G. K. Hall Company
in 1962, one year before Mrs. Chase died.
production of the Index Nominum Genericorum, a project of the International
Association for Plant Taxonomy, has recently been transferred from Utrecht,
Netherlands, to the United States. Financed by a grant from the National Science
Foundation, the continuing project is housed in the Department of Botany of
the Smithsonian Institution where facilities have been made available for
a staff of botanical bibliographers headed by Ida K. Lang-man.
U.S. National Herbarium was located on the third floor and in the towers of
the original Smithsonian building until recently. The Division of Plant Anatomy
had occupied quarters in the adjacent Arts and Industries building, the old
National Museum building. In the spring of 1965, the Department of Botany
and the assembled collections were moved to the new west wing of the Museum
of Natural History. The fourth and fifth floors of this wing now occupied
by the department comprise 50,000 square feet of air-conditioned specimen
storage space surrounded by 60 rooms used for offices, laboratories, and libraries.
The department maintains a well-equipped microrechnical laboratory and laboratory
for the study of grass anatomy, as well as a photographic darkroom and department
conference and seminar room. Paleobotanical laboratories and equipment are
obtainable for use on an adjacent floor of the same wing through arrangements
in effect with the Division of Paleobotany, a unit of the Department of Paleobiology.
Study areas are available for visiting scientists and graduate students and
botanists are encouraged to make use of the herbarium and library.
on the Botanical
of Botany, Duke University, Durham, N. C. 27706
having several of my colleagues remark on the recent increase in volume in
the botanical literature, I decided to make the small study which I report
here. My objective was to determine whether or not there have been changes,
other than the mere number of papers produced, over the past quarter of a
century. I chose the year 1939 from the "good old days"—after the worst
of the depression had passed and before the effects of World War II had made
themselves evident—and compared it to 1963 or 1964 (depending on what
volumes were in the library). Thus the two dates were about 25 years apart.
The American Journal of Botany, which I assumed to reflect trends in botanical
research in this country, was compared to its counterparts in Germany (Berichte
der Deutsche Botanische Gesellscha f t) and in France (Bulletin de la Societe
Botanique de France) to determine whether trends were generalized or peculiarly
complaint commonly registered is that there are too many papers by Smith et
al. where "al." is a string of from three to six names or, as one man put
it, "Al. is the fellow that did the work." Table 1 shows that there has indeed
been an increase in the number of authors per paper and that this increase
has been greater in the American journal than in those from Europe. Perhaps
this increase results from the fact that there is more inter-disciplinary
work now than there was a quarter of a century ago or perhaps the granting
system has encouraged the co-publication of theses and dissertations since
the major professor's name generally appears on work supported by his grant.
the accumulation of more literature to cite, I expected to find and did find
an increase in the number of articles cited per paper (see Table 2). French
authors did not quote very much literature on either date. The
proportion of floristic studies in the French journal may help to explain
this remarkably low number of cited articles.
colleagues have suggested that, while German is still the mose useful language
for botanists to know, it would be practical to learn some other language
in the place of French. I surveyed the articles cited in the three journals
for both dates to see which languages were actually quoted or referred to
most often. In the three journals there were 2378 articles in English, 1094
in German, 429 in French, and only 24 in Italian, which was the language used
most next to French. The other languages quoted or referred to were Spanish
(with 19), Latin (7), various Scandinavian languages (6), Russian (5), Dutch
(5) , Polish (2), and Slavic (2). Thus French has surely been until now by
far the most used, and presumably also the most useful, language next to English
and German. The suggestion that students in graduate school be allowed to
substitute in. the modern language requirements for the doctorate a thorough
knowledge of Latin has some merit in view of the fact that Romance languages
rate high in general usefulness and most Romance languages can be read, or
at least deciphered, by a student of Latin.
1 shows for the three journals what percentage of the total articles cited
was in a given language. The most readily apparent fact is that people tend
to use their native language whether they be "provincial" Americans or so-called
sophisticated Europeans. The percentages for the 1960's show that English
is used in the American Journal of Botany about the same percentage (70%
) of the time as the native European languages are used in their journals.
Thus, while the data for 1939 show a comparatively high rate of usage of English
in the American journal, the data for the 1960's show that the percentage
is about normal. For all three journals there is a decrease in the percentage
use of English and an in-crease in the use of both German and French in the
past quarter of a century. The reason for this change is obscure.
number of articles abstracted by Biological Abstracts in 1939 was 18,108 while
in 1964 it was over 100,000. Thus there has been more than a five-fold in-crease
in the annual production of biological writing in the past 25 years, and this
sudden growth is certainly the most striking change of all.
FROM THE EDITOR
Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States
American Council of Education called our attention to the need for a detailed
guide to graduate study in botany, especially for prospective students from
foreign countries. The Council's overall guide to graduate study names the
universities offering the doctorate in the various disciplines, but necessarily
provides no details concerning the faculties and programs of the departments
in each of these fields. Our guide, which we anticipate will be ready later
this year, is a first attempt to fill this gap for botany. Despite its shortcomings
we feel that it should prove valuable not only to prospective foreign students,
but equally to students from this country wishing to identify departments
in which work close to their interests is being pursued. Until now they have
had to rely largely upon their major professor's familiarity with work of
his col-leagues at other schools, a source of knowledge that has increasingly
become less reliable as more and more botany and biology departments have
begun to offer the PhD.
had been our plan to gather the information used in this guide upon a "do-it-yourself"
basis, each department providing a parallel listing of data concerning its
faculty, programs, and recent Ph.D. theses. Most department chairmen have
cooperated very willingly, if some-times tardily, to provide the data about
their departments. A few have thought that we ought to look up this information
for them in the American Men of Science or similar biographical volumes, not
realizing that these sources provide only a fraction of the data we asked
for, and often fail to include information about newer faculty members. We
have had to check these references for some facts that had been omitted by
our correspondents, but unfortunately have had neither the time nor the financial
backing to seek out any large measure of data not provided by the contributing
well aware of the many harassments facing busy departmental chairmen it is
understandable why many have turned in routine lists prepared originally for
some other purpose rather than providing the special information that was
requested by the questionnaires. To some extent we have written follow-up
letters in an attempt to resolve the many doubts we came to have concerning
some of the data originally submitted to us. In many cases, unfortunately,
time has not permitted us the luxury of trying to correct all of these submissions.
Where it has been obvious that titles submitted were of papers by the faculty
rather than the titles of student theses, we have had to delete this section
of the department's listing. When a second edition of this guide is prepared
it can be hoped that more nearly parallel citations may be obtained.
source of confusion arose from the listing of departments of biology rather
than those of botany or plant pathology. It was difficult in some instances
to decide precisely which members were botanists. Where department chairmen
failed to make these decisions for us, we exercised our own judgment and deleted
persons whose primary interests were in fields other than botany. Departments
of plant pathology will be listed following the listings for the botany department
at the same institution. Names of non-resident research (or ex-tension) faculty
have been deleted from the listings for these departments, since in most cases
these people are not involved in resident graduate instruction.
the editor has had to make any decisions concerning what to leave in, what
to delete, and what to revise. He hopes that his correct decisions were as
numerous as his errors, but welcomes any criticisms that may serve to improve
a possible revised edition.
plan to have the preliminary edition ready by the end of the summer. It will
carry listings of approximately 62 botany departments, 13 plant pathology
and miscellaneous plant science departments, and the botanical sections of
32 biology departments. Copies will be offered at S3.00 each, postpaid.
direct your orders to the Secretary of the Botanical Society of America, Department
of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. Remittances should
be made payable to the Botanical Society of America.
in the Saturday Review
potential role of botanists in cancer research is much greater than their
current participation would suggest," writes Solomon Garb, M.D., in his article,
Plant Growth as a Cancer Clue, in Saturday Review for May 7, 1966. Dr. Garb
reviews many instances in which plants prevent the growth of competing plants
by secreting chemical growth inhibitors. Interesting facts about these substances
from Juglans nigra, Encelia farinosa, Bergenia crassi f olia, and Artemisia
absinthium are presented. Few of these inhibitors have been tested on animal
cells, but among those that have been investigated is protoanemonin from Anemone
pulsatilla, which has been shown to inhibit actively dividing cells of many
plants and animals, yet does not affect non-dividing cells. Parasorbic acid
from mountain ash fruits is another substance cited by Dr. Garb that shows
promise as an inhibitor of animal cells, and is more effective in lower concentrations
on cells of fibroblastic origin than on epithelial cells. Because of these
and several other examples he presents showing considerable promise of anticancer
activity in substances of botanical origin, Dr. Garb questions the relative
lack of support by government agencies for work along these directions.
botanists will do well to assign Dr. Garb's article to their students. This
and some of the other articles in this same issue of Saturday Review should
prove excellent supplementary reading for introductory botany and biology
courses. John Lear, Science Editor of Saturday Review, is to be congratulated
for assembling this excellent Tenth Anniversary Science and Humanity Supplement,
which he has called, "The Fragile Breath of Life."
the past two years the Pacific Science Center Foundation of Seattle, Washington,
with the support of the National Science Foundation, has sponsored visits
scientists to the secondary schools throughout the State of Washington. The
schools are asked to choose scientists residing within 100 miles of their
location. The Pacific Science Center's 1964-65 brochure lists 51 scientists
who have agreed to participate in the program. Twenty of these are biologists,
2 atmospheric scientists, 1 astronomer, 9 chemists, 8 mathematicians, 2 engineers,
1 geologist, 3 psychologists and 5 physicists. The biologists include seven
botanists, and these with their topics are listed below:
L. Cohen, Washington State University, The Electron Microscope—Its History
and Use; The Cell beyond the Microscope; The Slime Molds—plant or animal?
A. Cridland, Washington State University, How We Study Fossil Plants.
Hecht, Washington State University, Manipulating Heredity through the Chromosomes.
R. Kruckeberg, University of Washington, The Evidence for Darwinian Natural
Selection; The Origin of Species—20th Century Version; Plants, Chromosomes,
and People; Responses of Vegetation to Unusual Solid Types; Field Trips in
the Vicinity of the School Visited, Especially in Areas Where Local Flora
Is Readily Available, or Parks and Other Sources of Ornamental Plants.
D. Meeuse, University of Washington, The Pollination of Flowers; Respiratory
Metabolism in Plants; Euglenids; Straddling Two Worlds—Rumphius,
C. Phillips, Seattle Pacific College, The Role of Eelgrass, Zostera marina
L. in the Marine Environment; The Implications of a Widespread Catastrophe
in the Marine Environment.
Shaw, Washington State University, Plant Disease and Human Welfare; How
the Plant Doctor Protects Our Crops; Mushroom or Toadstool? Folklore and
Biology of Mistletoes.
colleagues and I have found that our visits have provided us with a much better
understanding of the high schools, their strengths and their problems. In
turn we have tried to support the high school teachers, both by (hopefully)
inspiring their better students and by directing the teachers to recent developments
and sources of materials adaptable to their classes. Recently, for example,
I was able to provide a start of Tradescantia paludosa for a teacher who had
searched in vain for this plant at the local nurseries in Spokane.
information about this program may be obtained by writing to the Program Director,
Ronald L. Smallman, Pacific Science Center Foundation, 200 Second Avenue North,
on Book Reviews
December, 1963, Dr. Constantine J. Alexopoulos, then President of the Botanical
Society, appointed Dr. Lawrence Crockett, Dr. Sydney Greenfield, Dr. Charles
Heimsch, Dr. Richard Klein, and Dr. William C. Steere (chairman) as an ad
hoc committee to review all policies concerned with the Plant Science Bulletin.
Included in the commit-tee's report to the Council of the Botanical Society
meeting in 1964 was the following recommendation:
Committee believes that the Bulletin is not the place for long book reviews,
especially of text-books. Perhaps the space could be more constructively utilized
by the publication of comprehensive lists of current botanical books, with
or without brief notes or reviews. For example, botanists need an up-to-date
source of in-formation concerning new paper-back books on the plant sciences.
this last suggestion in mind I have assembled a listing of strictly botanical
paperbacks published within the last five years. Regional manuals and non-college
level publications have not been included, but might be considered later for
separate listings. It is likely that I have missed some important titles,
but will be happy to add these in later issues when they are brought to my
attention. Paperbacks on biological topics including significant botanical
involvement might be considered for still another listing.
H. G. Plants and Civilization. Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1965. 183 pp.
H. Respiratory Metabolism in Plants. Row-Peterson, 1961. 232 pp.
W. D. Plants and the Ecosystem. Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1964. 154 pp.
H. C. The Plant Kingdom. Prentice-Hall, 2nd Ed., 1964. 118 pp.
S. A. Reproduction, Heredity and Sexuality. Wads-worth Publishing Co., 1964.
T. Plant Diversification. Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1966. 145 pp.
W. T. Nonvascular Plants: Form and Function. Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1964.
K. and J. R. Raper, Editors. Incompatibility in Fungi. Springer-Verlag, 1965. .124
A. W. The Life of the Green Plant. Prentice-Hall, 2nd Ed. 1964. 118 pp.
W. A, The Plant Cell. Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1964. 136 pp.
W. A. and L. G. Kavaljian, Editors. Plant Biology
Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1963. 114 pp. Knobloch, I. W., Editor. Selected
Botanical Papers. Prentice-Hall,
1963. 311 pp.
P. M. The Living Plant. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963. 127 pp.
Salisbury, F. B. and R. V. Parke. Vascular Plants: Form and Function.
Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1964. 136 pp.
F. C. Plants at Work. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1964. 184 pp.
F. C. About Plants: Topics in Plant Biology. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.,
1966. 184 pp. Corrigendum
the last issue the address of Joseph Ewan, Vice-Chairman of the Historical
Section, was listed incorrectly. He should have been listed as follows: Prof.
of Biology, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, La. 70118.
Department of Botany at Arizona State University, Tempe, announces the following
two appointments effective during the academic year 1966-67:
Jean M. Schmidt, a 1964 graduate of the University of California at Berkeley,
and currently a U.S. Public Health Service Postdoctoral Fellow at the University
of Edinburgh, as Assistant Professor of Virology.
Jerome N. Aronson, currently a lecturer in Botany at the University of California
at Berkeley, as Associate Professor of Botany.
Denny Rodgers III of Columbus, Ohio, received an honorary degree, Doctor of
Letters, from The Ohio State University at its June 1966 commencement. Mr.
Rodgers is the author of seven scholarly works concerned with the lives of
American botanists and the history of the development of botany in the United
States. In the course of his researches, he discovered and helped to pre-serve
important collections of manuscript source materials which might otherwise
have been lost. In recognition of his accomplishments, the Botanical Society
of America awarded him one of its 50 certificates of merit at its golden jubilee
celebration in 1956.
Basic Concepts, Initial College Course
Teaching Section of the Botanical Society will sponsor a symposium at the
forthcoming A.I.B.S. meetings to consider the future of botany consistent
with the increased national interest in improving both the educational opportunities
and the quality of education in America. Four eminent botanists, each of whom
has distinguished himself as a scholar, a researcher, and a teacher, have
agreed to contribute the benefits of their experience by reflecting on what
accumulation of knowledge, skills, and experience they consider is necessary
for students to have for advancing the frontiers of botany. They will then
present concrete suggestions as to the concepts they think should be taught
in the first college botany course.
the four speakers have made their contributions, the audience will be invited
to offer succinct additions to the subject. The symposium has been scheduled
as follows: Teaching Section, Wednesday afternoon, August 17, 1966 Helena
A. Miller, Presiding
Professor James Bonner, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
Professor G. Ledyard Stebbins, University of California, Davis
Professor Frederick C. Steward, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Professor Kenneth V. Thimann, University of California, Santa Cruz
Audience participation (limitation of 90 seconds per speaker)
corresponding members, Professors Arne Miintzing and Cecil Terence Ingold,
were elected in 1965. The By-Laws reads as follows with respect to this category
of membership: "Corresponding members shall be chosen from authors of important
contributions to the science of botany. The number of such members shall be
limited to forty. Corresponding members will be nominated by the Council,
which will receive recommendations and credentials submitted by members. Corresponding
members will be elected only by The Society in open meeting. They shall receive
the publications of The Society and have all other privileges of active membership."
following statements, prepared at the time of the nomination of the corresponding
members elected in 1965, summarize their contributions to their fields:
Arne Miintzing, Director of the Institute of Genetics, University of Lund,
Sweden, is one of the world's leading plant geneticists. His research career
of 35 years has been marked by outstanding contributions to the field of genetics
itself, and to the application of genetic principles to problems of evolution
and plant breeding. His initial scientific contribution was the first demonstration
that a Linnean species, Galeopsis tetr-ahit. could be synthesized artificially
by hybridization and chromosome doubling from two other distinct species.
Since this classic paper, published in 1930, he has done extensive research
on polyploidy, apomixis, various chromosomal differences between species,
and on the nature of the extra or "B" chromosomes which are found in many
plant species. In the field of plant breeding, he has developed polyploids
of rye and of the wheat-rye hybrid as new types of cereal grains. He is the
author of an outstanding textbook, "Genetic Research."
the directorship of Professor Miintzing, the Institute of Genetics at Lund
has been preeminent in the field of plant genetics. It has attracted students
and scientific workers from over the world and has served as the training
ground for a large number of distinguished geneticists.
Miintzing has frequently visited the United States and is well known to American
plant geneticists. In addition, a number of American botanists have been guests
in his Institute and have profited from the stimulating atmosphere which prevails
there. To plant cytologists and geneticists in the Botanical Society, Professor
Miintzing would be a highly worthy and welcome addition to our roster of foreign
Cecil Terence Ingold, Professor of Botany of Birkbeck College of the University
of London, is a distinguished mycologist who has made outstanding contributions
to our knowledge of fungi, particularly in elucidating methods of spore dispersal
in the Ascomycetes and in the aquatic Deuteromycetes. He has held various
academic positions ranging from Lecturer in Botany at the University of Reading
to Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of London and has. been
repeatedly honored by his colleagues with offices in various societies, having
served as President of the British Mycological
and is serving currently as Vice President of the Linnean Society.
contributions include numerous papers on aquatic fungi and spore dispersal
mechanisms as well as three books on these subjects and a textbook on the
biology of fungi.
Ingold is well known and highly esteemed by American mycologists. He is currently
Visiting Professor at Michigan State University and was invited by the Mycological
Society of America to give the Annual Lecture for 1965. A number of American
mycologists have served as postdoctoral fellows in Professor Ingold's laboratory,
which has achieved worldwide fame for its research pro-grams on aquatic fungi
and spore discharge mechanisms.
Committee on Corresponding Members for 1966 includes Aaron J. Sharp, chairman,
Paul J. Kramer, and C. J. Alexopoulos.
request that the Botanical Society of America Archives be deposited in the
History of Science Collection at The University of Texas was presented at
the Council Meeting on August 23, 1964. This request received the approval
of the Council. Since receiving these Archives, our staff has microfilmed
the Society records through 1949. Recently Dr. Richard C. Starr, Secretary,
Botanical Society of America, has deposited in the Archives the Society's
Minutes for 1950 through 1954.
addition to these official records, the Collection has been receiving manuscripts,
photographs, and publications related to the Botanical Society of America
and also to outstanding U.S. botanists.
of our current research projects is a study of the history of biology in the
United States. We would like to encourage the readers of the Plant Science
Bulletin to make available to us materials related to the development of botanical
clubs and societies, group and individual photographs, publications and manuscripts
related to our societies, and the travel journals and letters of outstanding
botanists. James H. Leech, History of Science Collection. The University of
Texas, 2206 Main Building, Austin, Texas 78712.
Nutrition Research Institute, Oregon State University is sponsoring an International
Symposium on Selenium in Biomedicine, September 6-8, 1966.
particulars write: O. H. Muth, D.V.M., Symposium Chairman, Dryden Hall, Oregon
State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331.
have been received of the recent deaths of three internationally known botanists,
Bohumil Ncmec of Charles University in Prague, Panchanan Maheshwari of the
University of Delhi, and John E. Weaver of the University of Nebraska. Detailed
accounts of the lives of these men will be published in forthcoming issues
of the Bulletin.