Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1999 v45 No 1 SpringActions


News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees


American Journal of Botany Online opened January 15, 1999. Visit the site at

to read the most recent issue as it hits the "newsstands." This site also has abstracts through 1997 and full issues beginning with September 1998. For more information, read about the new features of the electronic version at

1999 BSA Annual Meeting

The 1999 Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America will be held in conjunction with the XVI International Botanical Congress in St. Louis, Missouri from 1 to 7 August. Information about XVI IBC can be obtained at their website:

1999 Scientific Program:

The scientific program of the XVI IBC will consist of invited oral presentations and contributed poster presentations. Except for those who have been invited to give an oral presentation, the only format for a contributed scientific communication is a poster.

BSA Council Meeting and Business Meetings

The BSA Council Meeting will be held prior to the opening of XVI IBC on Sunday, 1 August. The BSA Business Meeting will be held on Tuesday morning, 3 August prior to the start of the general sessions. BSA Section business meetings should be scheduled so as not to conflict with IBC events and sessions.

BSA Social Events

The BSA will be sponsoring a social and reception at the Missouri Botanical Garden on Thursday evening 5 August. All members of the BSA as well as those of the Canadian Botanical Association (CBA/ABC) and the Sociedad Botanica de México are invited to participate.

BSA Section social events can be scheduled or associated with other functions, but social events must be coordinated with Wayne Elisens, BSA Program Director, and Peter Hoch, the XVI IBC Secretary General.

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Periodical postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519      email:

Call for Nominations: Darbaker Prize

The Darbaker Prize Committee (Botanical Society of America) is accepting nominations for this years recipient. The award recognizes meritorious work in the study of microscopic algae based on papers published by the nominee during the past two full calendar years (1997, 1998). The award is limited to North America and only papers published in English are considered. Nominations and supporting documentation may be sent to: Daniel E. Wujek, Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (e-mail:; phone 517-774-3626).

IBC XVI Registration Deadlines

The below registration fees and deadlines are reprinted from the International Botanical Congress website,

Congress Registration Fees:

Any person interested in plant biology is invited to attend the XVI IBC. Payment of the registration fee entitles the registrant to admittance to six full days of the Congress, including all scientific sessions, the all-Congress Opening Session and Reception, the Hospitality Coffee, the exhibit hall, and the Closing Session, with the exceptions noted in the fee schedule. All fees are listed in US $.

ClassificationBefore 31 Mar1 Apr - 31 May1 June - 14 July15 Jul - 1 Aug
Scientific/developed1 $300 $400 $450 $500
Scientific/developing1 $200 $250 $300 $300
Scientific/Student2 $100 $125 $150 $150
Companion3 $100 $100 $100 $100

One day registration, all classifications - $150.00 per day

1"Developed" includes USA, Canada, EEC and other Western European nations, Japan, Australia and New Zealand; "developing" includes other countries.

2Verification of student status (by professor or university administration) must be included with registration.

3Includes admittance to Opening Session/Reception, hospitality coffee, and exhibit hall, but does not include attendance at scientific sessions.

Editorial Committee for Volume 45
Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Department of Biology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Biology Department
University of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 68182
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521-0124

BSA List of Officers for 1998 - 1999

(* = Members of the Council) Revised 8/7/98

PRESIDENT*Carol C. Baskin (1998-1999)
School of Biological Sciences
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0225
(606) 257-8770 FAX (606) 257-1717

PRESIDENT-ELECT*Douglas E. Soltis (1998-1999)
Department of Botany
Washington State University
P.O. Box 644238
Pullman, WA 99164
(509) 335-5302 FAX (509) 335-3517

SECRETARY *Pamela Soltis (1997-2000)
Department of Botany
Washington State University
P.O. Box 644238
Pullman, WA 99164
(509) 335-3533 FAX (509) 335-3517

TREASURER*Edward L. Schneider (1998-2001)
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden
1212 Mission Canyon Rd
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
(805) 682-4726 X-123 FAX: (805) 563-0352

PROGRAM DIRECTOR*Wayne J. Elisens (1996-1999)
Department of Botany and Microbiology
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73091
(405) 325-5923 FAX (405) 325-7619

COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE*Scott Russell (1997-1999)
Department of Botany and Microbiology
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019-0245
(405) 325-6234 FAX (405) 325-7619

EDITOR, American Journal of Botany*Karl J. Niklas
214 Plant Science Bldg.
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-5908
(607) 255-8727 FAX (607) 255-5407

EDITOR, Plant Science Bulletin*W. Joseph Leverich (1998)
Department of Biology
St. Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63103-2010
(314) 977-3903 FAX (314) 977-3117

Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1293
(614) 292-3519 (Phone and FAX)

PAST-PRESIDENT, 1998*Nancy Dengler (1997-1998)
Department of Botany
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON Canada M5S 3B2
(416) 978-3536 FAX (416) 978-5878

PAST PRESIDENT, 1997Daniel J. Crawford
Department of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus, OH 43210-1293
(614) 292-2725 FAX (614) 292-6345

PAST PRESIDENT, 1996Barbara Schaal
Department of Biology
Box 1137
Washington University
St. Louis, MO 63130-4899
(314) 935-6822 FAX (314) 935-4432

BSA Sectional Officers for 1998 - 1999

(* = BSA Council Members) Revised 1/27/99
** indicates expired term.

Sections of the Botanical Society of America:

Bryological and Lichenological | Developmental and Structural | Ecology | Economic Botany | Genetics | Historical | Mycological | Paleobotany | Phycological | Physiological | Phytochemical | Pteridological | Teaching | Systematics | Tropical Biology | Midcontinent | Northeastern | Pacific | Southeastern


Chair (1998):**
* Paula DePriest
Department of Botany, NHB - 166
National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC 20560
(202) 357-2545, FAX (202) 786-2563


Chair (2001):
*Jean Gerrath
Department of Biology
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0421
Phone: (319) 273-7152
FAX: (319) 273-7125
Program Director (2000):
Elizabeth M. Harris
Botany Department
Eastern Illinois University
Charleston, IL 61920-3099
Phone: (217) 581-6608, FAX: (217) 581-7141
Treasurer (1999):
Cynthia Jones
Department of Ecol. and Evol. Biol.
University of Connecticut
Storr, CT 06269
(203) 486-4150, FAX (203) 486-6364


Chair (2001):
*Maxine A. Watson
Department of Biology
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405-6801
(812) 855-5591 FAX: (812) 855-6705
Vice-Chair (2001):
Elizabeth P. Lacey
Department of Biology
University of North Carolina
Greensboro, NC 27420
(336) 334-5391 X-53 FAX: 336/334-5839
Secretary (2001):
Massimo Pigliucci
Department of Botany
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-1100
(423) 974-6221 FAX: (423) 974-0978


Chair (1999):
David Lentz
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, NY 10458-5126
(314) 577-9503 FAX (314) 220-6504
Secretary-Treasurer (2000):
*Daniel K. Harder
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
(314) 577-5169, FAX (314) 577-5169


Chair (1999):
*Kenneth G. Wilson
Department of Botany
Miami University
Oxford, OH 45056
(513) 529-6601 FAX (513) 529-4243
Vice Chair (2000):
Jeri Higginbotham
Biology Department
Jacksonville State University
Jacksonville, AL 36265
(205) 782-5638
Secretary-Treasurer (1999):
Stephen J. Novak
Dept. of Biology
Boise State University
Boise, ID 83725
(208) 385-3548, FAX (208) 385-4267
Editor, Newsletter (1999):
Vance Baird
Horticultural Department
Plant and Animal Science Building
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0375
(803) 656-4953, FAX (803) 656-4960


Chair (2001):
Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis
Department of History
4131 Turlington Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7320
(352) 392-0271 FAX 392-6927
Vice-Chair (2001)
Peter F. Stevens
Harvard University Herbaria
22 Divinity Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 495-2348 FAX 495-9484
Secretary-Treasurer (2001)
*Laurence J. Dorr
Department of Botany, MRC-166
National Museum of Natural History
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC 20560-0166
(202) 633-9106 or 357-2534 FAX 786-2563


Chair (2001):
*David S. Hibbett
Harvard University Herbarium
22 Divinity Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 496-3374 FAX (617) 495-9484
Secretary/Treasurer (1999):
J.S. Shipman
30-32 Elm St. #30-3
New Market, NH 03857
(617) 626-3814


Chair (1999):
Jeffrey M. Osborn
Division of Science
Truman State University
Kirksville, MO 63501
(660) 785-4017 FAX (660) 785-4045
Secretary-Treasurer (2001):
*Steven R. Manchester
Florida Museum of Natural History
Department of Natural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-2035
Tele: (352) 392-6564 Fax: (352) 846-0287
Editor, Bibliography of American Paleobotany (2001):
Patrick S. Herendeen
Department of Biological Sciences
George Washington University
Lisner Hall 340
2023 G Street NW
Washington, DC 20052
(202) 994-5828 FAX (202) 994-6100


Chair (2001):
*Louise A. Lewis
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
University of Conneticut
75 North Eagleville Road, U-43
Storrs, CT 06269-3042
(860) 486-6723 FAX (860) 486-6364
Secretary (1999):
Jeffrey R. Johansen
Department of Biology
John Carroll University
University Heights, OH 44118
(216) 397-1886 FAX none
E-Mail: none


Chair (2001):
*Peter F. Straub
Natural Science and Mathematics Division
Richard Stockton College
Pomona, N.J. 08240
(609) 652-4556 FAX (609) 748-5515


Chair (1998):**
*James W. Wallace
Department of Biology
Western Carolina University
Cullowhee, NC 38723
(704) 227-7244 FAX (704) 227-7647
Secretary and Program Organizer (1998):**
Emanuel Johnson
Building 001, Room 308 BARC-W
10300 Baltimore Ave.
Beltsville, MD 20705-2350
(301) 504-5323 FAX (301) 504-6491
Treasurer-Editor (1997):
W. Dennis Clark
Department of Botany
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287
(602) 965-4482 FAX (602) 965-6899


Chair (1999):
W. Carl Taylor
Milwaukee Public Museum
800 West Wells Street
Milwaukee, WI 53233
(414) 278-2760 FAX 223-1396
Secretary-Treasurer (2001):
*Thomas A. Ranker
Department of EPO Biology
Campus Box 334
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309
(303) 492-5074 FAX: (303) 492-8699


Chair (2001):
*J. Mark Porter
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
1500 North College Avenue
Claremont, CA 91711
(909) 625-8767 ext. 229 FAX (909) 626-7670
Secretary-Treasurer (1999):
Sterling C. Keeley
Department of Botany
University of Hawaii
3190 Maile Way
Honolulu, HI 96822
(808) 956-8043 FAX (808) 956-8369


Chair (1999):
*Rob J. Reinsvold
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Northern Colorado
Greeley, CO 80639
(970) 351-2716 FAX (970) 351-1269
Secretary/Treasurer (1999):
*Donald S. Galitz
Department of Botany/Biology
Stevens Hall, P.O. Box 5517
North Dakota State University
Fargo, ND 58103
(701) 237-7226 FAX (701) 237-7149
Program Coordinator (1999)
J.S. Shipman
30-32 Elm St. #30-3
New Market, NH 03857
(603) 659-7370


Chair (2001):
Susanne Renner
Department of Biology
8001 Natural Bridge Rd.
University of Missouri-St. Louis
St. Louis, MO 63121-4499
FAX: (314) 516-6233
Program Chair and Secretary-Treasurer (2001):
*Andrew Douglas
Field Museum of Natural History
Roosevelt Rd at Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, IL 60605
(312) 922-9410 EXT-730 FAX: (312) 427-2530


Chair (1999):
* Wayne J. Elisens
Department of Botany and Microbiology
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019
(405) 325-5923 FAX (405) 325-7619
Vice Chair (1999):
Randy Allen
Department of Biological Sciences
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409
(806) 742-2711 FAX (806) 742-2963
Secretary/Treasurer (2001):
Kenneth J. Freiley
Biology Department
University of Central Arkansas
Conway, AR 72035
(501) 450-5926 FAX (501) 450-5914
Vice Secretary/Treasurer (2001):
Allan D. Nelson
Department of Biology
Science Building, Rm 226
Box T-0100
Tarleton State University
Stephenville, TX 76402
(254) 968-9159 FAX (254) 968-9157 E-Mail:


Chair (1996):
*Karl Anderson
Rancocas Nature Center
794 Rancocas Road
Mount Holly, NJ 08060
(609) 261-2495


Chair (1999):
Fred Rickson
Department of Botany
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331-2902
(503) 737-5272 FAX (503) 737-3573
Secretary-Treasurer (1999):
*David E. Bilderback
College of Arts and Sciences LA101
University of Montana
Missoula, MT 59812-1214
(406) 243-2632 FAX (406) 243-4076


Chair (2000):
*Kathleen L. Hornberger
Department of Biology
Science Division
Widner University
Chester, PA 19013
Activities Committee Chair (1999):
Mary A. McKenna
Biology Department, Rm 214
Howard University
415 College St., NW
Washington, DC 20059
(202) 806-6103 FAX (202) 806-4564

*BSA Council Members


Reprinted from PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN, volume 1, number 1, January, 1955.

The Challenge to Botanists

Sydney S. Greenfield
Chairman, Committee on Education
The Botanical Society of America

American education is continually beset with problems resulting from its transitional nature, and from conflict in the aims and methods adopted to meet contemporary needs. The extensive and accelerated changes of the past several decades have raised many critical problems that are now subject to widespread public and professional discussion. Although we are vitally concerned with the overall problems, the development of botanical science in the service of American education is of particular concern to us, and is urgently in need of our attention. In a considerable number of institutions, botany has grown with the expansion of the science, and of education, and is now vigorously and extensively serving the needs of undergraduate and graduate instruction, but this development has not been general. On the whole, botany has not kept pace with the expansion of the other sciences, and in some cases there has been a decline if not an elimination of botany from the curriculum. A summary of certain critical aspects of this situation was presented in the "Report of The Committee To Study the Role of Botany in American Colleges and Universities" at the meetings of the Botanical Society of America at Ithaca in 1952. A limited number of copies of this report is still available for distribution to members.

The Committee on Education of The Botanical Society of America has been studying means whereby it might effectively promote greater appreciation and proper development of plant science in the colleges, as well as the education of the general public as to the importance of plants and their study to man. This will require nationwide discussion among botanists of educational and other problems, with a view towards development and formulation of professional policies, and plans for coordinated constructive action.

Until now, a major obstacle to cooperative analysis and attempts to solve our common problems has been the lack of an appropriate medium for intra-professional discussions, and in this regard, the establishment of Plant Science Bulletin may well presage a new era for professional botany in this country. As scientists we are coordinated by the A. A. A. S., and as biologists by the A. 1. B. S., but on the next level there is urgent need for communication among plant scientists. Under the sponsorship of The Botanical Society of America, and with proper support and utilization, this new publication might develop into an effective coordinating medium for all the plant sciences.

As part of the many potential uses of this bulletin, we plan to discuss various aspects of the educational problems facing us, and at present we would like to review the overall situation as it appears to the Committee on Education. The problems with which we are confronted seem to fall into three general areas, namely, education of the general public, education of the botanical profession, and education of college and university administrators and faculties in general.

With regard to the general public, we need to stimulate and conduct presentations of interesting news items and stories that will lead to widespread understanding of the significance of plants and plant studies. This work should be carried on by individuals, committees, universities, and other agencies, and should make use of the popular press, films, radio and television. Some universities and botanical gardens are already engaged in this, and their work should be reported and discussed in this bulletin in order to stimulate greatly expanded activity in this field.

Within the botanical profession we need to have widespread discussion of objectives and of improving methods in botany and biology teaching, and in this Plant Science Bulletin will be very valuable. Conferences and symposia on biology teaching should be held in the Teaching Section, and at various local meetings. We need to exchange information on what we are doing in the various colleges, and together formulate standards and goals for plant science in various curricula. Certain universities could act as centers for work with colleges, teachers colleges, and high schools in their respective localities. Botanists should be stimulated to study aims, objectives, and methods, and to contribute articles to various educational journals to improve and expand the services of plant science in biology and general education programs.

Much work needs to be done with regard to educational administrators and college faculties. After thoroughly discussing the problems among ourselves, we need to evolve and publish criteria for evaluating biological and botanical programs with regard to content, method, and professional preparation of personnel. Fundamentally, we need to work out standards and goals to provide information that will be useful to the regional accrediting associations in evaluating colleges of various kinds, and in encouraging them to improve. We might also set forth conditions which we regard as unsatisfactory to aid them in looking for faults in need of correction. However, our standards should not be in terms of minimum conditions required for accreditation, but rather in terms of ideal goals towards which colleges should be encouraged to develop. The emphasis in the accrediting agencies is definitely on gradual, encouraging, positive and constructive action, rather than merely on police action. We need to work out standards for botany as a plant science group, but in regard to general biology we shall need to work cooperatively with the zoologists.

Many of the problems we face reflect in part the urgent need to improve American education in general, but the situation with regard to botany is somewhat worse than that which obtains in comparable subjects. There are several factors that contribute to this special retardation, among which are:

  1. The manner in which general biology has developed. The development of general biology as plant and animal science, cooperatively planned and taught by botanists and zoologists is proper and fitting in view of the composite nature of the course, and it has resulted in a number of excellent situations, but unfortunately this has not occurred in the majority of institutions. In many places, general biology is mostly zoology, taught mainly by zoologists. This has had widespread repercussions in the failure to hire botanists where needed, and in the neglect of plants in biology courses, with a consequent decline in the election of botany courses by those who might have majored in the field as well as by prospective teachers. Thus the detrimental effects of the neglect of plant science in biology courses and programs are multiplied and extended to graduate schools, to other colleges and junior colleges, to the teachers colleges, and thereby to the lower schools. This would seem to be our basic problem in the colleges. An administrator who does not know the different kinds of biologists or why both botanists and zoologists need to be equally involved in biology courses will think nothing wrong of hiring "biologists" to teach "biology" even though these are all zoologists. It is our responsibility to clarify the issues here and to define biology, especially for those who think it is a synonym for zoology.

    Where a biology department exists instead of separate botany and zoology departments, there may be some decline in enrollment and therefore a smaller staff. That in some cases the decrease should be entirely at the expense of botany with the practical result of having only a zoology department under the misleading title of biology is a development we cannot afford to ignore. We need to see to it that we have adequate botanical representation in all "biological" organizations. In the colleges, we must insist on equal partnership between botanists and zoologists in the planning and teaching of general biology courses. This does not mean that a college must have equal numbers of plant and animal scientists, for the requirements of the elective courses will vary. With regard to the botany electives, their number and the institutional support they receive will depend on local factors as well as on the quality of the teaching and the nature of the botany courses. The responsibility for improving the courses and the teaching rests with us.

  2. Apathy or even antagonism on the part of some botanists to enter into general biology or general education programs has resulted in inadequate treatment of plant science in these courses. We must aim to see that plant science plays its proper role in all pertinent curricula and that we do our share of the planning, teaching, and textbook writing.

  3. The acceptance of mediocre students by some graduate schools and our neglect in encouraging enough dynamic and energetic young men to enter the profession has resulted in some shortage of teachers who are able to maintain and advance plant science education. This is probably true in other fields as well, but a number of botanists have expressed a desire for widespread study of this problem with a view towards improving standards and encouraging more able young people to become botany teachers.

  4. Until recently, there has been a serious lack of sharing knowledge of how to cope with changing conditions and educational problems. Plant Science Bulletin should be very valuable in providing the means for a nationwide exchange of such information.

The progress of botany and botanists in every biology and botany department would seem to be of interest to all of us, and it is clearly our professional responsibility to try to improve conditions wherever we can. In a number of cases, botanists as individuals or in groups have helped botany departments or individuals in difficult situations. Probably most of such work should be done this way, without publicity, but it will require a wider understanding among botanists as to their responsibilities and the proper procedures.

If botany declines because of poor teaching, we need to improve the teaching. If good teachers have difficulties, we need to help them with information, guidance, or even visitation where desirable. If a botany department deteriorates, we should try to help it recover. If botanists are not employed in fair representation in general biology, we need to see that those responsible understand the composite nature of the field of biology, and what is sound academic procedure, but we will also have to be able to recommend good teachers for jobs. If poor or unsatisfactory conditions exist due to a lack of understanding of proper procedures, then by considered and tactful educational campaigns we should be able to stimulate improvement in many places.

The problems with which we are confronted in plant science education are exceedingly complex and difficult. It is easy to rebel against difficult situations and to act in anger, but this helps very little, and may cause harm. It is also easy to submit to difficult predicaments, but this inevitably leads to despair and worsening conditions. Faced with the seemingly impossible, some botanists have been outspoken for each of these approaches, with some confused rationalization by both the belligerent and the "ostrich-minded." The wisdom of experience dictates neither the anger of rebellion nor the despair of submission, but rather a calm and realistic acceptance of any situation, however bad, with dedicated resolution to work towards solving the problems and improving conditions.

We are faced with tremendous problems in improving plant science education and American education in general, and whether as botanists or university professors we can meet the challenge is questionable. But as we realize how vital the improvement of education is to our civilization, let us resolve that botanists shall take a leading part in this work.

Note: Dr. Greenfield was instrumental in establishing PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN 45 years ago. Today he is Professor Emeritus at Rutgers-Newark; his mailing address is 10 Huron Ave., Apt 11A, Jersey City NJ 07306-3673. - Ed.


In Memoriam

Harlan P. Banks, 1913 - 1998

Harlan Parker Banks, Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor Emeritus in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, died on Sunday, November 22, 1998, at his retirement home in New Hampshire after a short illness.

Professor Banks was born on September 1, 1913, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and graduated in 1930 from Classical High School in nearby Lynn. He received his B.S. in 1934 from Dartmouth College where he spent three further years as Instructor in Botany and held a Cramer Fellowship for Graduate Study. A Cornellian there, Professor Carl L. Wilson, interested him in plant anatomy and morphology and this expanded into the study of fossil plants. Most of his subsequent research was done in paleobotany, commencing with a doctoral dissertation at Cornell under the tutelage of the late Professor Loren C. Petry.

From 1940 he taught at Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, where he became Associate Professor of Botany before leaving in 1947 for a similar position at the University of Minnesota. Upon retirement of the late Arthur J. Eames in 1949,Banks returned to Cornell as Associate Professor of Botany, Professor (1950-1977), and as Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor (1977), retiring in 1978. During this period he also served as head of the Department of Botany, 1950-1961, and upon formation of the Division of Biological Sciences, was associated with the Section of Genetics, Development, and Physiology.

Professor Banks and most of his 34 graduate students literally and figuratively quarried the rich Devonian fossil deposits of early land plants in New York for notable contributions to our understanding of the origin, structure, and evolution of these plants. Authorship or joint authorship of over 150 scientific papers, reviews, films, and one book on paleobotany Evolution and Plants of the Past led to his international recognition as a major authority on the earliest land plants. A effervescent lecturer, he was invited to lecture at some 70 universities and colleges in the continental United States and Puerto Rico, at 20 Universities or scholarly societies in Europe, Asia, and Australia, as well as to numerous science clubs, museums, research institutions, and other departments within Cornell. He also was the paleobotany Lecturer at the Centennial Celebration of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University in1966, held The David French Lectureship, Pomona College in 1971, was guest lecturer at the Third International Gondwana Conference, Canberra, Australia, 1973, and the W.W. Rubey Lecturer at U.C.L.A., 1976. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Dartmouth College in 1984, and in 1987 he was elected as one of 50 foreign members of the Linnean Society of London and received the Paleontological Society's U.S. gold medal, awarded to a paleobotanist for the first time since 1970.

Despite many obligations, and always with good humor, he served as minor advisor to over 25 graduate students a year. In addition to his major graduate students, he averaged a dozen undergraduate advisees a year, and he kept an open door to countless other students and colleagues who sought his advice.

In the tradition of distinguished teaching in botany at Cornell, Harlan Banks was recognized within and without the university as not only an exceedingly popular but also as a truly great teacher in his generation. This was particularly so in the introductory courses at Cornell, although he also taught upper-level courses and was associated with various short courses in summer institutions or commissions on education sponsored by the Botanical Society of America, the National Science Foundation, and American Institute of Biological Sciences. In 1961, he received the Certificate of Merit from Seniors in the College of Agriculture, and in 1975 the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching. Further honors for teaching and research came the form of selection by the Faculty of the University of Liege to be a Fulbright Research Scholar in Belgium in 1957-1958, election as Corresponding Member, Société Géologique de Belgique in 1959, as John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow with tenure at the University of Liege and at Cambridge University in 1963-1964, as Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge University in 1968, and as Honorary Vice President, XII International Botanical Congress, Leningrad, in 1975.

In the same year he was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the Botanical Society of America, which he had served as member of the Editorial Board, Secretary Pro-tem (1952-1953), Treasurer (1964-1967), Vice President (1968), and President (1969). He was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and he also served in various capacities with the International Organization of Paleobotany (Vice President, 1964-1969; President 1969-1975), Paleontological Society (Councilor-at-Large, 1974) and was a member of the Paleontological Association, International Society of Plant Morphologists, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Torrey Botanical Club, Paleontological Research Institution, Commission Internationale Microflore Paleozoique, Associacion Latinamericana de Paleobotanica y Palinologia, Sigma Xi (President, Cornell Chapter 1954-1956), Beta Beta Beta, Gamma Alpha, and Ho-Nun-De-Kah (Honorary Member 1959). He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1980, and, from 1977-1983, he served on the United States National Committee for the International Union of Biological Sciences sponsored by the National Academy of Science. Continuing his activities after he retired, he published 11 papers during the 1990s, and in December, 1997, he delivered the monthly lecture at the New England Botanical Club in Cambridge.

He is survived by his wife, Rosamund L. (Kit) Shurtleff Banks, and a daughter, Jane Angstrom. Funeral arrangements will be private. Donations in Professor Bank's memory may be made to Cornell Plantations.

- Natalie Uhl, John Kingsbury, and Karl J. Niklas

Tamiji Inoue, 1947-1997

Professor Tamiji Inoue was born on the island of Awajishima in Japan's inland sea and grew up in Japan's post Second World War rebuilding phase. For his undergraduate studies he took Entomology at Kyoto University's Faculty of Agriculture and having graduated he spent six months on an expedition to Chile and Patagonia, following Darwin's footsteps. His doctorate research, again at Kyoto University, was on Mantis behavior. It was during his post doctoral work that he switched to studying pollination biology through work that originally began as behavioral studies of stingless bees in Indonesia. In 1991 he was appointed a Chair at the recently opened Center for Ecological Research at Kyoto University. Almost immediately he launched the Canopy Biology Program in Lambir Hills National Park which involved the building of two towers and 300 m of canopy walkway. More recently he began working on a second project at Kuba National Park near Kuching with the intention of building a canopy crane. In parallel with his research work he was very active in promoting cooperative studies and was largely responsible for establishing the Diversitas in Western Pacific and Asia (DIWPA) initiative. He was also a great populariser of science, which he often combined this with his passion for photography, and contributed many articles, books and school texts on ecology and environmental topics. It was his photograph of beetles pollinating an aroid that was show on the cover of the October issue. In 1997 Tamiji Inoue was killed in a plane crash in Lambir Hills National Park.

- Rhett D. Harrison

Loo Shih wei, 1907-1998

With plant tissue culture playing a major role in bioengineering and micropropagation being an important industry, it is hard for many (especially younger) plant scientists to imagine a time when popping an explant into a test tube and making it grow was not routine. A number of investigators contributed to the development of plant tissue culture techniques. Most are well known in the US and the West. Unfortunately one of the most important pioneers in the field, Professor Loo Shih wei (western style, Shih wei Loo; for photographs and sample signature see Arditti, 1992; Arditti and Krikorian, 1996) did not receive the international recognition he so richly deserved due to political whirlwinds which engulfed him for a time. I, as his friend, decided to write this obituary in the hope of calling attention to Prof. Loo pioneering work even if posthumously.

Shih wei was born on 13 November 1907 in Xiangtan county, Hunan province. He graduated from the biology department of Zhong Shan University in Guangzou in 1931. From 1932 until 1943 he worked at Zhang Shan (Guangzhou), Ji Nan (Shanghai), Central (Nanjing), Tsinghua (Kunming) and Peking universities, the Xi Kang Scientific Investigations Group, and the Guandong Arts and Science College.

In 1943, Loo came to the US to become a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena. He earned his Ph.D. in two years and in 1945 became a research associate at the Botany Department of Columbia University in New York. After one year there, Loo moved to the Chemistry Department of the University, where he stayed until 1947. At that point Loo could have probably remained in the US Had he done that, Loo would have become a major and well known figure in American and international plant science. However, he did not stay. The motherland called and Loo's love for his country made him return to China in 1947.

His first position in China was as Professor at Peking University. He stayed there until 1953 and moved to the famed Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology (ISP) where he remained until the end of his life. He suffered a lot during the tumult of the cultural revolution and was prevented from working for some years. When it was all over, Loo returned to the laboratory and continued his research as if nothing happened. He also visited his old haunts in California (where he and I met in 1986 and remained friends in person during my visit to China in 1987 and through correspondence until his death) and other parts of the US. It was clear that the hardships of the cultural revolution took a physical toll of the man, but his mind, spirit, scientific acumen, and great charisma were unaffected and undiminished. He initiated new research programs and trained many graduate students.

During the 1930's, Prof. Loo worked on root culture in vitro. At Caltech he cultured explants of Asparagus officinalis and Cuscuta campensis. While doing so, he discovered that a solution solidified with agar was better as a culture medium than a liquid. He also noted that excised stem tips had unlimited growth potential (both findings were seminal and published in 1945; for a review see Arditti and Krikorian, 1996).The latter foreshadowed micropropagation, but unfortunately Prof. Loo is seldom given credit in the West for his suggestions. His dodder cultures produced flowers in vitro. This may well be the first report ever of flowering in vitro by an explant-derived plantlet.

In China, Prof. Loo traveled to where there was a need to train local people in tissue culture methods. One of his great successes was in Guangxi, South China where one micropropagation facility produces up to one million sugar cane plantlets a year. Other facilities he guided propagate forest trees, rare species and crop plant and conserve endangered species.

Prof. Loo has been described as one of the founders of Chinese plant tissue culture. That he may be, but even more importantly, Prof. Loo is one of the most notable founders of the entire science and practice of plant tissue and micropropagation.

Loo Shih wei lived past the age of 90 (on 24 September 1998). He contributed to his chosen field until the very end. His passing removed a major scientific figure in the plant science from the scene and a remarkable human being from the world. I know him personally and mourn his passing. Plant tissue culture workers and micropropagation practitioners who did not know him may wish to reflect about this remarkable scientist and human being while preparing the next batch of agar-solidified medium.

- Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA, US

Call for Applications, Educational Opportunities, Positions Available

Special Announcement

1999 Joint Field Meeting in Northern Indiana, Botanical Society of America, Northeastern Section, and Torrey Botanical Society

The 1999 joint field meeting of the Northeastern Section of the Botanical Society of America and the Torrey Botanical Society will be held in northern Indiana from June 20th to 24th. This area has an interesting mix of vegetation and flora, combining species typical of the prairie border and boreal regions with the deciduous forests of the Midwest. The meeting will include three days of field trips to savanna and prairie sites in northwestern Indiana, and to fens and mature forests in the northeastern part of the state. Sites to be visited will include the Jasper-Pulaski and Pigeon River areas, and the field trip leaders will include some well-known Indiana botanists. Evening programs will introduce regional plant ecology and floristics. The estimated meeting price of $225 will include air-conditioned housing (Sunday through Wednesday nights) and meals (Sunday evening through Thursday breakfast) on the campus of Manchester College, and transportation to field sites. For more information contact: Dr. David J. Hicks Biology Department, (219) 982-5309 604 College Avenue, Manchester College, North Manchester, IN 46962

Calls for Applications

The Rupert Barneby Award

The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Pable Lozano, currently studying at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, is the recipient of the 1998 Rupert Barneby Award. Mr. Lozano comes from Loja, Ecuador, with a degree from the School of Forestry there. He will be studying the woody genus Machaerium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae) in Ecuador, as well as other legume genera of tropical ecosystems.

The New York Botanical Garden also invites applications for the1999 Rupert Barneby Award. The award of $1,000.00 is to assist researchers to visit the New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit their curriculum vitae and a detailed letter describing the project for which the award is sought. Travel to NYBG should be planned for sometime in 2000. The letter should be addressed to Dr. James L. Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126 USA, and received no later than December 1, 1999. Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th. Anyone interested in making a contribution to The Rupert Barneby Fund in Legume Systematics, which supports this award, may send their check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Luteyn.

The Furniss Foundation/ American Orchid Society Graduate Fellowship

The American Orchid Society solicits applications from graduate students working towards their Ph.D. degree on orchid related dissertations for The Furniss Foundation/ American Orchid Society Fellowship ($9,000 per annum for up to three years). Interested candidates should submit an outline of their project, college transcript, a letter of recommendation from their chairperson and a brief one page statement of the value of their project and its impact on the future of orchidology. The deadline for submission is April 1, 1999. The successful candidate will be notified by June 15, 1999. Send applications to American Orchid Society, attention Ms. Pam Guest, 6000 South Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, FL 33405-4199.

Calls for Papers

Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences is a Quarterly publication, Published by the Capricorn Publications. This is the First Asian Scientific Journal which is also available on Internet ( It consists of Regional Editors from developed countries and a group of Technical Editors that are competent research scientists in their respective fields. This is the most regular journal published in Pakistan. More than three thousand visitors visit the journal's web site per month from all over the world. It shows the acceptability and recognition from the International viewer.

Materials published in this journal suppose to be circulated in20 million scientists in the world. I would like to request you to please send your valuable research findings for publication in the forth coming issue on the following address: Publication Manager Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences G.P.O. Box 8, 433-Sarfraz Colony, Fowara Chowk, Faisalabad-38090, Pakistan. PJBS cordially invites to visit journals" website (

Educational Opportunities

Biodiversity of Tropical Plants at Fairchild Tropical Garden June 14 - July 9, 1999

(4 units) Limited enrollment.

Instructor: Professor P. Barry Tomlinson, E. C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology, Harvard University.

Instruction is carried out within the educational facilities of Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida, whose living collections, the largest collection of tropical plants in the continental United States, provide the main focus of teaching activity. Field instruction will further involve the diversity of natural ecosystems in South Florida. Emphasis will be on reproductive biology, morphology, and anatomy within a strong systematic framework. Groups (both systematic and biological) of special interest include cycads, palms, tropical monocotyledons, epiphytes, lianas, mangroves, and sea grasses, as well as breeding mechanisms and architecture of tropical trees. The objective of the course is to provide advanced students of botany with a guided introduction to the diversity of plant form and function in the lowland tropics.

Prerequisites: reasonably extensive training in the botanical sciences and familiarity with the major plant groups. The course is taught at an advanced level and is most suited to students enrolled or about to be enrolled in a graduate program.

Admission is based on the Summer School application and a supplementary statement that includes the following information: course work in biology and related fields, relevant experience, travel experience in the tropics, and reasons for wanting to take the course. All application materials must be received at the Harvard Summer School by March 31, 1999. Preference will be given to graduate students.

Partial tuition and partial travel support are available for qualified students. Students will be housed collectively in comfortable and reasonably inexpensive accommodations close to Fairchild Tropical Garden.

Estimated expenses: Tuition: $1,650; Application fee: $50.00; Food and Accommodation: $35 per day.

For further information and supplementary application forms: Professor P. B. Tomlinson, Harvard Forest, Harvard University, P.O. Box 68, Petersham, MA 01 366 or Christine Santos, Division of Continuing Education, Harvard University 51 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.

Positions Available

Katherine Esau Chair
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology
University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California at Santa Barbara invites nominations and applications for the Katherine Esau Chair in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology.

We seek to hire a senior scientist with a distinguished research and teaching career in STRUCTURAL BOTANY doing research on vascular plants with primary emphasis on evolutionary and/or ecological processes and functions. We are particularly interested in a scientist whose primary research and teaching interests derive from a whole-plant perspective, and will contribute to and benefit from the strong ecological and evolutionary emphases of our department. Examples of interests that would complement emphases in our department include, but are not limited to: evolutionary aspects of plant morphology and anatomy ecological functional morphology functional plant architecture/biomechanics ecological anatomical structure and function evolutionary basis of morphogenesis evolutionary developmental morphology structural diversity and adaptation.

It is expected that the occupant of the Chair, in addition to conducting exemplary research and continuing a history of successful graduate student/post-doctoral training, will teach both undergraduate and graduate courses.

The Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology consists of 29 faculty members, approximately 1200 undergraduate student majors and 100 graduate students. In addition, DEEMB has strong ties with the UCSB Marine Science Institute, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, the UCSB Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, and the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden.

Nominations and applications should be sent to the Esau Endowed Chair Recruiting Committee, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Applicants should send a letter of interest, a recent curriculum vitae and the names and addresses of five references. This position is open until filled; however, for full consideration applications should be received no later that 31 March, 1999. The University of California is an AA/EO Employer.

Conservation Botanist
Chicago Botanic Garden

The Chicago Botanic Garden, located north of Chicago in Glencoe, seeks a Conservation Botanist for its Endangered Plant Research program. Duties include conducting an applied, conservation-oriented research program focusing on the rare flora of the upper Midwest, collaborating with a wide range of academic and stewardship organizations, and disseminating research results through publications and presentations. The conservation Botanist also teaches one 6-week course every other year for the School of the Botanic Garden on general botany, field ecology, or plant identification. Requirements include a Ph.D. in botany, biology or a related field. Expertise in endangered plant management/research, conservation genetics, plant reproductive biology and/or plant demography strongly desired. Familiarity with the flora of the upper Midwest preferred. For further information about the position contact Kayri Havens, tel. (847) 835-8378, email To apply, send cover letter with statement of research interests, curriculum vitae, and contact information for three references to: Carol Chaney, Director of Human Resources, Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL 60022. Review of applications with begin March 15, 1999 and continue until a suitable candidate is found. EOE.

Updated Positions Available:
Listings At BSA Website

Current position announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society's website Announcement page at URL Please check that location for announcement which have appeared since this issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement, contact the webmaster: <>.

Symposia, Conferences and Meetings

Ecology and the Chicago Region: from Cowles to Chicago Wilderness -
A Celebratory Symposium
9-10 April 1999

Henry Chandler Cowles -- a remarkable intellect and inspiring scholar -- revolutionized our understanding of ecology and of ecological succession. Through his studies of plant communities in the Indiana Dunes (first as a graduate student, then as a professor at The University of Chicago), Cowles introduced the concept of the landscape as a dynamic, ever-changing panorama. And he established ecology as the study of processes.

The tradition of the Chicago region as a center for the ecological movement continues today through Chicago Wilderness. Thousands of volunteers are restoring acres of land to stable ecological health. Chicago Wilderness is a coalition of 76organizations and agencies in the Chicago region, including Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, committed to protecting and restoring local landscapes and biodiversity.

To commemorate the 100-year anniversary of Cowles' classic doctoral dissertation and its continued relevance to Chicago Wilderness conservation efforts - The Field Museum, the Indiana Dunes Environmental Learning Center, and Chicago Wilderness invite you to a Celebratory Symposium on April 9 and 10, 1999.

Ecology and the Chicago Region: from Cowles to Chicago Wilderness will take us on a journey that explores the impact of Cowles' studies on the understanding of ecology, and on the practical and theoretical applications of ecological restoration and conservation management strategies. Join us for a reception at The Field Museum on Friday evening (9 April), followed by a keynote address by Peter Vitousek, a renowned scholar of biosphere dynamics and soil development. On Saturday morning, listen to presentations by and engage in discussions with international and regional ecologists and conservationists on the impact and ramifications of Cowles" work for us today. Then in the afternoon, participate in one of seven exceptional field trips led by local experts involving topics such as succession, restoration, education, and the partnerships between natural areas and industry. Or examine management techniques at work during open houses featured at regional restoration sites.

After traversing your choice of dunes, prairies, marshes, wetlands, or savannas, settle down to a campfire, dinner and entertainment at the Indiana Dunes Environmental Learning Center.

Reserve your spot today! E-mail Tina Bentz at or call us at 312-922-9410 ext. 550 for a full brochure and information about registration. Special discounted fees are available for Chicago Wilderness volunteers and staff, Volunteer Stewardship Network and students.

16th World Orchid Conference
28 April - 2 May 1999

The Vancouver Orchid Society is pleased to invite the botanical world to the 16th World Orchid Conference, taking place in Vancouver, Canada from April 28th to May 2nd, 1999, under the sails at the Vancouver Trade and Convention Centre. Anyone is welcome to come to this spectacular event, either as a registered delegate, an exhibitor, or as one of the anticipated 20 to 30,000 people coming to tour the show.

These triennial conferences attract the world's leading scientists and growers where they share their knowledge with the delegates and visitors. The16th World Orchid Conference is the largest Conference dedicated to the science and hobby of orchid culture. The Conference is accompanied by one of the world's largest Orchid Shows, spotlighting the achievements of hobbyists and commercial orchid growers as well as artists. Exhibitors from around the world will be on hand to offer plants for sale, as well as sound advice on how easy and rewarding this hobby can be. Orchid related artwork, live floral arrangements of orchids and posters depicting issues and projects of Orchid Conservation will also be featured in judged competition.

You can check our website for more detailed information about attending or exhibiting at the 16th World Orchid Conference: [] E-mail inquiries should be directed to

Siskiyou Field Institute
12-25 June 1999

The Siskiyou Field Institute will be offering over 20 multi-day courses and one-day workshops during 12-25 June, 1999, in the heart of the botanically diverse Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon. Courses cover a wide range topics, such as Bryophytes, Geobotany, Ethnobotany, and Fungi, and are taught by instructors from various west coast academic institutions. Many courses are available for college credit through Southern Oregon University. For a full brochure contact Jennifer Beigel, Erik Jules, or Jake McBride at541-592-4459; P.O. Box 220, Cave Junction, Oregon 97523; or

The Percival Symposium:
12-13 July 1999

John Percival (1863-1949) was a driving force behind the creation of agricultural botany as a scientific discipline and Professor of Agricultural Botany at the University of Reading from 1907 to 1932. His monumental treatment of wheat "The Wheat Plant: a Monograph" (1921) still serves as a standard reference, having been reprinted as recently as 1974. Percival was the consummate agricultural scientist - botanist, taxonomist, geneticist, germplasm collector, curator, breeder, agronomist, historian and teacher.

On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Percival's death, the University's School of Plant Sciences is hosting a meeting to celebrate his life and work. Reflecting the scope of Percival's scientific view, invited speakers will survey research progress during the last half-century in the archaeobotany, systematics, genetics and breeding of the wheat plant. The two-day event offers a unique opportunity for a multi-disciplinary gathering of experts who share a common interest in wheat studies.

Participants are invited to offer poster presentations on relevant aspects of wheat research. The symposium will feature displays of Percival's work and his wheat collection. There will also be a tour of the University's Rural History Centre, and an exhibition of current work at the School of Plant Sciences. A Proceedings volume of invited speaker papers will also include Percival's unpublished treatment of the genus Aegilops.

Since John Percival's time, activity in agricultural botany has flourished at Reading. The Department's tradition of research at both a fundamental and applied level over a wide range of aspects of crop plants continues, with Professor Peter Caligari being the current Professor of Agricultural Botany. The Department is now one of the three constituent members of The University of Reading's School of Plant Sciences B ranked as one of the UK's major centres of plant science, and the only one given the highest possible rating (5*) in the latest Research Assessment Exercise.

Participants will be lodged on the campus of The University of Reading. Located in the Thames Valley, west of London, Reading has excellent rail (25 minutes) and bus (1 hour) links with London. There are also direct bus and rail links to the major international airports of Heathrow and Gatwick.

Contact Address: Dr Geoff Hewitt, School of Plant Sciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 221, Reading RG6 6AS, UK, Tel:+44 (0) 118 931 8294, Fax: +44 (0) 118 975 0630, e-mail:<>

XVI International Botanical Congress
1-7 August 1999

XVI International Botanical Congress will meet 1-7 August 1999 at America's Center in St. Louis, Missouri. A nomenclature meeting will be held the week before, 26-30 July 1999, at the Missouri Botanical Garden. The International Botanical Congress (IBC) is a convention of scientists from around the world which meets once every six years to discuss new research in all the plant sciences. The early registration fee, not including hotel, will be $300 ($200 for registrants from developing countries) and students pay a reduced fee of $ 100. There are some fellowships for travel to IBC available, with applications particularly encouraged from registrants from developing countries and from graduate students and recent graduates. The conference will also have space for commercial and scientific exhibits. For more information or a registration form, please consult the website at: or contact: Secretary General, XVI IBC c/o Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 Tel: 314/577-5175, fax: 314/577-9589, e-mail: Receptions, field trips, excursions, and other social events are planned prior to, during, and after IBC.

INQUA XV International Congress
3-11 August 1999

We intend to organize a Workshop for the International Union for Quaternary Research during the INQUA XV International Congress in Durban (3-11 August, 1999) with the following topic: "Migration of Asiatic (Turanian) and ecosystems to East and South Africa during the Miocene-Pliocene and the environmental conditions contributing to evolution of Hominidae (Kovalev's hypothesis)". This problem might include the following issues. 1. The Messinian climatic crisis (6.7-5.3 Myr) and the formation of ecosystems involving C4 plants of the aspartate type in Southern Turan. Migration of riparian ecosystems (with Tamarix, Phragmites, Caroxylon and Populus as dominant elements) from Southern Turan to East and South Africa, where they replaced the climate-affected tropical rain forest. Comparison of such communities with their modem analogs (the South African relic communities and the North American saltcedars of the Asiatic origin). 2. Traces of the faunal migration accompanying the spreading of the Turanian plant assemblages and the possible Asiatic origin of the early hominoids (e.g., migration of Sivapithecus). 3. Developing of such communities in Africa during the Pliocene. The influence of these exotic (adventive) plant assemblages upon the African mammalian fauna, causing its essential pauperization and providing relatively safe conditions for the early hominid inhabiting (in contrast with the intensive predators' pressure in the savannahs). Contacts: Dr. Oleg V.Kovalev, Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia; e-mail:, and Dr. Sergey G.Zhilin, Dept. of Palaeobotany, Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia; e-mail:; fax: (812)234-4512

VIII International Aroid Conference
9-11 August 1999

The VIII International Aroid Conference, sponsored by the Missouri Botanical Garden and the International Aroid Society, will meet 9-11 August 1999 at Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, Missouri. This is a three-day conference directly following the XVI International Botanical Congress and will provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of all aspects of aroid biology, ecology, taxonomy and horticulture. Over 50 presentations are scheduled and will include discussions of Araceae in large and small floristic regions, revisionary works of a variety of genera, glimpses of the best public and private Araceae collections, and descriptions of successful horticultural and breeding techniques currently in use. An unlimited number of poster sessions will also be made available to those who prefer to have their presentations on display for the duration of the conference.

Congress highlights include a barbecue at Tom Croat's house, a banquet held at the gardens, evening lectures and a welcoming address given by Peter Raven, Director of Missouri Botanical Garden. We would also like to organize an aroid seed and seedling swap to make a variety of aroids available for all attendees.

For more information please consult the web page at: or contact: Secretary General, VIII International Aroid Conference, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 631660299 USA, e-mail: <> or <>.

Cycad 99
7-10 August 1999

An international conference of cycad enthusiasts, growers and scientists will convene at Fairchild Tropical Garden in Miami, Florida, USA, August 7-10, 1999. Sponsors: Fairchild Tropical Garden, Palm Beach Palm and Cycad Society, and the Montgomery Botanical Center. Participants: all persons interested in the horticulture, conservation and science of cycads, which are a group of beautiful, rare and endangered plants that have existed since the age of dinosaurs.

Cycad 99 will have submitted talks and posters on scientific topics, invited presentations on horticultural topics, tours of the extensive collections at Fairchild Tropical Garden and Montgomery Botanical Center, and ample opportunity to meet and socialize with cycad enthusiasts from around the world. Florida is the home of the coontie (Zamia pumila = Z floridana = etc., etc.), the only native cycad in the USA. However, almost all of the world's cycads are cultivated in Miami's subtropical climate. Everglades National Park, Miami Beach (South Beach), the Florida Keys, and nearby Dadeland Shopping Mall, are some local visitor attractions.

Call for Papers: Details on submitting a contributed abstract for a paper or poster will be given in the second circular, therefore send information requested below. Submitted abstracts will be reviewed and selected for either an oral paper or poster presentation by the Research Committee (Drs. Fisher, Stevenson & Walters). Full presentations of talks and posters will be processed after the meeting as manuscripts for peer review and publication by the New York Botanical Garden Press, most likely as a volume of Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard.

Meeting Activities: The tentative schedule for this four-day conference includes: Days 1 & 2 - horticultural topics; Days 2-4 - scientific topics; Days 1 & 4 formal tours of the collections; Day 3 - business meetings of the Cycad Society and IUCN cycad specialist group; also receptions and a banquet.

Housing: A block of rooms will be reserved at a nearby hotel and bus service provided between this hotel and the meeting site. Detailed information will be provided in the registration packet.

Registration Fee: The registration fee is not determined at this time.

Information: For the latest conference information see: To receive registration forms and abstract submission forms, please send: Name(please print); Mailing address; Phone; FAX; E-mail. By one of the following methods: a) Electronic-mail:; b) by FAX (1-305-661-8953) addressed to: "Attention: Cycad 99"; c) or by post: Cycad 99, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 10901 Old Cutler Rd., Miami, FL 33156, USA.

International Conifer Conference 1999
22-25 August 1999

The 4th International conference follows the tradition of the Royal Horticultural Society in organizing conferences addressing the major developments in conifers. The conference will be held 22-25 August 1999, Wye College, Kent, England. This conference is designed to promote maximum interchange of information between all users of conifers. Keynote sessions will address major subject areas of current interest. The conference will have a worldwide geographical coverage from the arctic to the tropics.

Main scientific sponsors: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, The Royal Horticultural Society, Forestry Commissions and The International Dendrology Society. For more information contact: Miss Lisa von Schlippe, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE. Tel.: 0181 332 5198, Fax.: 0181 332 5197, E-mail:

International Ethnobotany Symposium
14 - 18 September 1999
San Jose, Costa Rica

From 14 to 18 September 1999, the 1st International Symposium on the History and Folk tradition of Medicinal Plants will be organised in Costa Rica, the largest biodiversity center of the World. The main topics will be the history of medicinal plants from antiquity to present times, folk traditions (past and present), scientific knowledge, integration of folk tradition into medicine, ethnobotany and pharmacology, with a special emphasis in temperate and neo-tropical floras. Comparative, transperiod and interdisciplinary studies are welcome, as well as works and projects dealing with the use of multimedia means in the field.

The scientific programme of the unique event of this kind, which will include plenary lectures, papers, posters, round tables and free discussions, aims to encourage the study of a patrimony of Humanity exposed to disappearance, and to contribute to the preservation of flora worldwide, among others by the recuperation of historical tradition and plant lore. Its proceedings are expected to constitute and indispensable tool and a work of reference on this subject.

The Symposium is a non profit event devoted to promote study, scientific research and divulgation in the field. Held in the heart of the Tropical Forest, it is designed to be an international forum open to physicians, pharmacists, chemists, botanists, historians, philologists, ethnolinguists, ethnobotanists, anthropologists and everybody wishing to hear communications of major world specialists in the field, to contribute personally with the presentation of original works, and to participate in focused discussions on the current state of research in medicinal plants, their meaning for man, culture and science through World«s History.

For participation and further information please contact the organisers: Simposio, P.O. Box 6131, 1000 San Jose, Costa Rica. Prof. Ronald Chaves, Fax : + (506) 283 02 63, Costa Rica, Prof. Alain Touwaide, Fax : + (506) 283 02 63 Spain, e-mail <> Visit us at:

5th International Conference on the Ecology of Invasive Alien Plants
13-16 October 1999
La Maddalena, Sardinia - Italy

Invasions of plant species have for a long time drawn the attention of botanists, agronomist and ecologists. Although this resulted in an ever-increasing body of scientific literature on "invasion biology" we still do not completely understand all aspects of this process and its impact on ecosystems. This Conference will be the continuation of a series of meetings that started in 1992 in Loughborough, GB, and was continued in Kostelec, Czech Republic, in 1993, in Tempe, AZ, USA in 1995 and in Berlin, Germany, in October 1997. It will offer the chance to continue discussions of its predecessors and concentrate on issues identified as important during preceding meetings.

Address for Registration and Information: Dr. Giuseppe Brundu c/o Dipartimento di Botanica ed Ecologia Vegetale Universita di Sassari Via F. Muroni, 2507100 Sassari - Italy e-mail: ph. + 39 0335 237315 fax +39 079 233600

Book Reviews

In this Issue:

Book Reviews: Ecological

Grassland Dynamics: Long-term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Knapp, A.K., J. M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett and S. L. Collins; eds. 1998. ISBN 0-19-511486-8 (cloth US$65.00) 364 pp, 2 plates. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York, New York 10016.

"Grassland Dynamics", is the first book in the Long-Term Ecological Network Series from Oxford University Press to focus on long term ecological research sites (LTER). This book showcases the ecological discoveries made at Konza Prairie Natural Research Area in Kansas since the institution of LTER site there in 1980: Konza is one of the original six sites. The book is appropriately dedicated to the memory of Dr. Lloyd C. Hulbert who conceived of the landscape scale experimental design at Konza long before the IBP and LTER programs. It is organized into an introduction and five sections that describe the physical environment, terrestrial populations and communities, hydrology and aquatic ecology, ecosystem and landscape analysis, and lastly a look toward the future. All chapters end in a summary. The scope and message is broader than that of the1990 book, "Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies", by Scott Collins and Linda L. Wallace.

The central theme is that prairie is primarily a non-equilibrium system where changes in fire, grazing and climate over the years bring about a switching among limiting factors that alter the diversity, composition and production of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This theme represents a developing paradigm shift in ecology. The second theme is the complexity of ecological interactions: "that indirect effects are pervasive and important". The editors and authors make a convincing case for these themes throughout the book and in the final chapter. Surprising non-equilibrium dynamics are illustrated by the fact that aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) is not positively correlated with nitrogen availability. Instead, it is controlled by switching among alternative limiting factors: light limits production in the absence of fire irrespective of nitrogen levels and nitrogen and water are more important in frequently burned prairie. In addition, Gray et al. (Chapters 10 and 11) show that the dynamics in the prairie reaches and gallery forests of the stream drainage system are driven by extreme events (drought or floods) and that these systems a largely oligotrophic because of the tight retention of nutrients by the prairies.

Although all chapters are well written and engaging, several stood out as my favorites. Hayden (Chapter 2) summarizes the literature concerning the climatic controls on the distribution of prairies in North America. In a fascinating analysis of a regional flora and fauna assemblage matrices across the central U.S., he shows that species assemblages correspond well with regions defined by major climatic frontal boundaries. Kaufman et al. (Chapter 8) summarizes the research on mammals, birds, and grasshoppers, show the individuality of species response to fire, structure, grazing, season and climate. He then relates the results to prairie management. Collins and Steinauer (Chapter 9) relate how fire and herbivory by bison, as disturbances, influence community diversity and species interactions. I was disappointed not to see here and in other chapters a discussion of how species interactions and nutrient dynamics might differ between Konza and prairies that are more alpha diversity rich. Briggs et al.(Chapter 15) use GIS applications to examine historic changes in the landscape, model spatial components of temporal change in ANPP and discuss the pitfalls of scaling up from point data in landscape analysis.

The cover has a stunning color photo of Konza Prairie. I found few errors in the book. The figures are clear and well described. Most authors relate their results to broader research in their field. There is great material here which will lead the student and researcher into the extensive prairie literature (777 references are cited) and details about research methods. The story is not over though, and we can only wait for the results of new experiments to investigate fire seasonality, precipitation variability, resource heterogeneity, and grazing stocking rates on the tallgrass prairie system. This book is a successful synthesis of the research at Konza, linking population, community and ecosystem levels and showing the complexity of ecosystem dynamics. It is a fitting tribute to the great insight and accomplishments of long-term and integrated ecological research. Although the picture that emerges is complex, it is also predictable, which gives hope for understanding, preserving and restoring prairies. I highly recommend "Grassland Dynamics" because of its breadth and attention to ecological theory in a management context. I look forward to the other books in this series, if they are as well written.

- Noel B. Pavlovic, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station, Porter, Indiana.

British Plant Communities. J.S. Rodwell (ed.). 1991-99.Volume 1. Woodlands and scrub (ISBN 0-521-23558-8 cloth [1991] US $160.00; ISBN 0-521-62721-4 paper [1998] US $54.95), 395 pp. Volume 2. Mires and heaths(ISBN 0-521-39165-2 cloth [1992] US $195.00; ISBN0-521-62720-6 paper [1998] US $54.95), 628 pp. Volume 3.Grasslands and montane communities (ISBN 0-521-39166-0 cloth[1992] US $195.00; ISBN 0-521-62719-2 paper [1998] US $54.95), 540 pp. Volume 4. Aquatic communities, swamps and tall-herb fens (ISBN 0-521-39168-7 cloth [1995] US $105.00; ISBN0-521-62718-4 paper [1998] US $54.95), 283 pp. Volume 5.Maritime communities and vegetation of open habitats(0-521-39167-9 cloth [1999] US ca. $160.00; ISBN 0-521-64476-3 paper [1999] US ca. $54.95),608 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

The British have a long history of vegetation and plant community analysis that includes such influential works as those by A. G. Tansley. As a burgeoning European phytosociological movement inspired the development of systematic community classifications, a need to integrate descriptive analyses with a "rigorous taxonomy of vegetation types" became apparent. This series is the outcome of intensive floristic survey work began in 1975 when the British Nature Conservancy Council first contracted the project to assist with selection of habitats for conservation. The effort to provide "standardised descriptions of named and systematically arranged vegetation types" resulted in this monumental assemblage of five volumes dedicated to the characterization, classification and associations of more than 250 plant communities depicting woodland and scrub (25 types); mire and heath (60 types); grassland and montane (48 types); aquatic, swamp and tall herb fen (52 types) communities. The remaining maritime and open community types will be treated in the forthcoming fifth volume, which was yet unavailable for review but is scheduled to appear in July,1999.

The comprehensive coverage includes all of Great Britain except for Northern Ireland. The scope of the project does not simply focus on rare pristine communities, but strives to provide detailed accounts of all major communities ranging from sites with "long established vegetation" to "industrial and urban wasteland". Data for all communities are based on quadrat surveys and include abundance values derived from the Domin scale. Site localities were recorded on 1:50,000 series maps and much additional data (altitude, soil pH, water depths, bedrock, etc.) were compiled during the field surveys. Approximately 35,000 surveys were assembled from over 80% of the 100-km2 grids that cover the British mainland and major islands.

It is difficult to adequately convey the wealth of ecological information contained in these volumes. The results are presented in a format that prioritizes the definition of vegetation types that are arranged in categories of "communities", "sub-communities" and "variants". The use of code letters and numbers helps to identify each particular vegetation type. The codes are gratifyingly simple and easy to remember, e.g. "W" for woodland/scrub, "M" for mires, "H" for heath, etc. For each community, floristic tables (with frequency and abundance values) are used to summarize information collected during surveys. Accompanying text further describes the vegetational features with information on general physiognomy, habitat, constant and rare species, floristic and structural variation, interactions of climate and geology, and factors that influence community development and stability. To provide such detailed information for a single community would be no small task, but to assemble this compilation for several hundred communities across such as large region is truly a remarkable feat and represents an extraordinary accomplishment.

Volumes begin each section with an introduction that details the methods of sampling and helpful figures that summarize important features such as community relations to soils and climate. In volume 1, various figures illustrate diverse features such as phytosociological affinities of dry woodlands, the influence of major trees and shrub dominance to the community, and canopy and understory variation. Volume 2 includes figures describing fen, meadow, mire and heath zonation along with their variations. In volume 3 are illustrations describing convergence and loss of diversity in grasslands, the phytogeography of calciolus grasslands, vegetation sequences relating to soil variation, sequences of heaths with increasing snow-lie, and a late snow-bed vegetation complex. Included in volume 4 are diagrams of brackish ditch and upland lake zonation, vegetation patterns in abandoned canals, correlation of dominant and understory assemblages, an aquatic community mosaic, and a cross section of a fen and woodland community. These useful figures are not only informative, but help to break up the monotony of the serial community descriptions.

Keys to communities precede their individual descriptions. Realistically, they are provided as a "crude guide" but not as an "infallible short cut" to diagnosis. Keys (which emphasize frequency and abundance data) are primarily dichotomous and are designed to work best when used with constancy tables constructed from representative vegetation samples. Recommended quadrat sizes for different community samples are provided. No key is provided to aquatic communities (volume 4) which are characterized as species poor and are defined mainly by dominance of a few taxa. Instead, a "synoptic table" is incorporated to identify the aquatic communities using relative frequency data.

Other helpful features (in all four volumes) are the inclusion of indices to community synonyms and indices of species with codes of all communities in which they occurred. The latter is coded to reflect species that were constant in communities (bold) or sub-communities (italic). Each volume also includes a substantial bibliography of pertinent and up-to-date literature.

One criticism that I had was what I considered to be the unnecessary repetition of introductory material among the four volumes. The 13 pages covering "style of presentation" were repeated in their entirety in each of the four volumes. Likewise, the directions for each key were highly repetitive (occasionally within the same volume for different keys), but did include additional information for some vegetation types. This practice was particularly superfluous in volume 3 where essentially the same introductory comments were repeated for each of the three keys in that volume. It would have streamlined the work if the keys to all communities had been placed together in the first volume with only a single set of introductory comments. It would have sufficed to omit the "style of presentation" comments from all but the first volume. In total, these modifications alone would reduce the content of the series by nearly 55 pages. The bibliographies of each separate volume also contained a large number of repeated general references, e.g. works by Adam, Braun-Blanquet, Ratcliffe, Tansley, Tutin et al., etc. that were cited in all four volumes. Volume one could have included these citations in a separate category as general references and omitted them from the remaining volumes.

Although each volume had keys to the included communities, it would have helped to have a "master" key that directed the reader to the appropriate starting volume. As a North American, I would have sought the Alnus glutinosa-Carex paniculata (W5) community in volume 4 (Aquatic communities, swamps and tall-herb fens) because we consider any wetland dominated by woody vegetation to be a swamp. We have other regionally specific definitions for terms such as marsh and fen. However, this treatment employs quite a different usage of the term "swamp", which is a wetland "dominated by bulky emergent monocotyledons". Indeed, a number of the synonyms for the W5 community are referred to as swamps and clarification would have been facilitated by an introductory key, which would also serve to make this work of more universal appeal.

On the other hand, the consistency among volumes was excellent. The same basic format was followed rigorously for all the community treatments and indicated a meticulous editorial review of the work. Accordingly, all four volumes stand as cohesive treatments of an overall unified project rather than to appear as individual works with little continuity. In general, I liked the format. However, I might have preferred to have the distribution maps of communities placed together at the end of each treatment, rather than being scattered throughout the text.

The paperback copies that I reviewed were of good quality with sharp and even printing. The distribution maps were particularly crisp. The type is fairly small and lines are set somewhat close together, but the text is quite readable. Although this printing format reduced the overall size of the work, the extremely small margin used along the bound page edges would make them difficult to Xerox without some distortion. Only one of the four volumes was blemished by a series of folds in the corner of the first 50 or so pages. The bindings were glued well and the covers contained attractive color photographs. The subtitle print on the spine of volume 4 is reduced in size because of its fewer pages. Otherwise, all four volumes possess the appearance of a well-matched set. There are a few discrepancies in the publication information. Although volume 2 is said to be "first published in 1991" the publication date provided by Cambridge Press ( is actually 6 February, 1992. Volume 4 does not include the ISBN code or publication date for the paperback edition. That information (given above) was obtained from the Cambridge web site. These errors should be corrected in subsequent printings.

The fruit of nearly a quarter century of effort, this series on British plant communities represents an exceptional and comprehensive compilation that will become a classic and vital reference for ecologists and botanists. It is a pleasure to see the publication of such a careful and valuable contribution and one that also sets a new standard for field ecological surveys. The recent release of all volumes as reasonably priced paperback editions now makes this important reference work available to a wide audience of scientists and students.

- Donald H. Les, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs

Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution. Hanski, I. A. and M.E. Gilpin, eds. 1997. ISBN 0-12-323446-8 (paper US$44.95) ISBN 0-12-323445 (cloth US$89.95)512 pp.  Academic press. 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA92101-4495.

The rapidly expanding interest in spatial dynamics of patches of animals and plants makes Hanski and Gilpin's edited volume Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution a timely text for both population and conservation biologists. The editors tackle the great challenge of joining the fields of ecology, genetics and evolution under the rubric of metapopulation biology. In their first volume Metapopulation Dynamics: Empirical and Theoretical Investigations (Hanski and Gilpin, 1991) they used the narrow definition of metapopulation as a significant turnover of local populations, local extinctions and colonization . The second book explores the broader view of metapopulations as an assemblage of discrete local populations with migration among them through the varying perspectives of thirty authors.

The book contains four sections: conceptual foundations, metapopulation theory, metapopulation processes, and case studies. The opening section (Part I) develops several perspectives of the current state of the field. Wiens describes the need to link landscape ecology, a patterns based approach to describing spatial heterogeneity, to the more dynamic, process oriented nature of metapopulation biology. Part II explores the rapidly changing theories in metapopulation biology, extending from classical models to local community structure. Additionally, two chapters describe the role of population genetics in metapopulation theory. These chapters challenge research to move beyond descriptions of patterns of genetic differentiation among populations (as in the genetics case-study in Part IV) to extend our empirical understanding of what determines distribution of genotypes across a landscape.

Part III addresses more specific processes of extinction, migration, and establishment of new local populations. Ims and Yoccoz explore the limitations and advantages of several methods for obtaining empirical data on these three processes to support parameter estimates in theoretical models. The final section shows how the theoretical framework of metapopulation biology links into empirical data. The four examples include genetic and ecological data and use one example each of a mammal, a butterfly, a plant, and a plant-herbivore system. Only the butterfly example shows substantial evidence for the link between classical metapopulation theory and data, offering an open invitation for further tests of the models. The greatest discussion of plants is the final chapter on genetic structure. The authors (Giles and Goudet) begin by reminding us of population genetic theory and frame their discussion in a metapopulation framework.

The editors have made substantial attempt to link the distinct perspectives of ecology, evolution, and genetics through section introductions and frequent cross referencing among chapters, but many conceptual leaps remain to be tackled. Case studies, which were not present in the first book, still take a minor role in comparison to the theoretical portion of the book (four chapters of case studies as opposed to 11 chapters of theory). There is a bias through much of the book towards animal metapopulations. Moreover, there is a frequent bias towards a genetic perspective for plant studies, and a strongly ecological and ecological-theory bias in animal studies.  I see the lack of plant examples as a challenge to botanists to examine how plants fit into the current theory, or how theory needs to be expanded in order to include specifics of plant systems in processes of local population extinction, migration and colonization.

The edited volume is an excellent updated introduction to the literature of metapopulation biology for all students of biology. I recommend this text to anyone with an interest in spatial patterning of organisms. However, some chapters are geared towards the modeling enthusiast, whereas other chapters walk the reader through the basics of certain fields, making it tough to tell if the intended reader is at the student or professional level. As the author's state, not all readers will equally appreciate each chapter. In general, the limitations of the book reflect the limitations in the application of the rapidly changing theory. This book shows that we are getting closer to the difficult link between ecology, evolution, and genetics under a metapopulation framework, but we are not there yet.

- Courtney J. Murren, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269

Literature Cited

Gilpin, M. and Hanski, I. 1991 Metapopulation Dynamics: Empirical and Theoretical Investigations Academic Press, London.

Book Review: Developmental and Structural

Vascular Morphogenesis: In Vivo, In Vitro, In Mente. Little, Charles A., Vladimir Mironov, and E. Helen Sage, Eds. 1998. ISBN 0-8176-3920-9 (cloth US$89.95) 265 pp. Birkhauser, Boston, 675 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139.

This book is part of a series of volumes that is intended to describe current research in mesoderm development and blood vessel morphogenesis in mammals. The focus of the book, a collection of about a dozen papers, is thus almost exclusively within the context of mammalian systems (with some text devoted to avian systems as well). Experimental work on genetic controls and chemical gradients that activate and inhibit angiogenesis is described. Of the three parts of this book, the "in mente" section, which discusses theoretical approaches and model systems in vascular morphogenesis might hold some interest for botanical readers. Some useful topics in this section include ideas about the formation of net-like structures, spatial flow distributions, and biophysical restraints in growth systems. The mathematical models that are presented might be useful for workers in various aspects of theoretical botany. Still, this book is probably not appropriate for botany libraries--it should be available to interested readers who have access to a medical library.

- Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University.

Book Review: Ethnobotanical

Medicinal Plants of the World. Ivan A. Ross, 1999. ISBN 0-89603-542-5 (cloth,US$99.50). xiii + 415 pp. + 3 pages of color plates between pp. 210 and 211. Humana Press, Inc., 999 Riverview Drive, Totowa, New Jersey 07512.

You are wondering about the title. "All of them, in only 415 pages?" No, of course not; only 26 species are treated.

I have no idea how many medicinal species there might be. I can get a clue from a Koeltz flier that I received in the same mail with this book: Giuseppe Penso, Index Plantarum Medicinalium Totius Mundi Eorumque Synonymorum, 1997, 1062 pages; in the tag line, it is said to be an index of over 12,000 medicinal plants. It may well be an index of medicinal plants of the entire world along with their synonyms. I haven't seen it. But it gives me a feeling for how far off the mark this book's title is.

One cannot help noticing what is omitted: not a single mint, no composites, no mention of marijuana, no mushrooms, no ginseng, no gingko, no St. John's Wort. The rationale for what to include, what to exclude, is nowhere explained. Ross' book treats the following: Abrus precatorius (Fab.), Allium sativum (Lil.), Aloe vera (Lil.), Annona muricata (Annon.), Carica papaya (Caric.), Cassia alata (Fab.), Catharanthus rosea (Apocyn.), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Cyperus rotundus (Cyper.), Curcuma longa (Cucurbit.), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malv.), Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malv.), Jatropha curcas (Euphorbi.), Lantana camara (Verben.), Mucuna pruriens (Fab.), consistently misspelled as Macuna, and therefore inserted here, Mangifera indica (Anacardi.), Manihot esculenta (Euphorbi.), Momordica charantia (Cucurbit.), Moringa pterygosperma (Moring.), Persea americana (Laur.), Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbi.), Portulaca oleracea (Portulac.), Psidium guajava (Myrtac.), Punica granatum (Punic.), Syzygium cumini (Myrtac.), and Tamarindus indica (Fab.)

My motive for listing the included species is, if one of these is your research material, you might want to consult this book. For each species, there is an extensive listing of common names, including the country where it is called that, a brief botanical description, a distribution statement, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities and clinical trials. Everything in the treatments is alphabetical, to the extent possible. There is some serious scholarship here.

But there is no index. Therefore, if you want to know whether antifungal activity has been recorded for, say, Lantana camara, you must first turn to the table of contents, find the page number, then look under the last category where each "activity" is treated alphabetically: antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, etc.

Nearly every statement has a reference to the literature, given as a superscript on the pattern of K23019 or M28527 and readable only through the bottoms of your bifocals. And you will find them all in the bibliography, fully 56 pages long in two-column format. (Well, almost all; I found one identified as A05153 that got omitted.) I have no idea what the origin of these reference codes might be, and it is nowhere explained. The author is an employee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and it may be these are identifiers in some kind of literature database maintained by that bureau.

Chapter 1 in all this is a sort of primer of elementary botany. Why it is there, I have no idea. It explains about leaf and stem, flower and fruit. But when the various terms are explained, the alphabetical arrangement is abandoned. You don't need this to follow the book, and it is not all that well done: "ventricillate" when "verticillate" was meant, "trifoliate" when "trifoliolate" was meant, and so on.

Most of the words that make up scientific names are derived from Latin or Greek. Because the species treated here came to the attention of science from their uses in folk medicine, it is not surprising that a goodly number of his generic names and specific epithets are derived from aboriginal languages, not from Greek or Latin; I make it about one third. Anyway, no translations or explanations of the Latin names are offered.

The implication is left (on page 1) that binomial nomenclature is an outgrowth of the first International Botanical Congress in Paris in 1867. Binomial nomenclature was just over a century old at that time. But the author's point is that common names are in no sense standardized, whereas Latin binomials are, more or less. "In an effort to familiarize readers with the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature system, the code's Latin binomial is used for each plant (page v)." Well, no, the binomials themselves are not in the code. The rules for forming the binomials are there, as are rules aplenty for deciding which binomial may be adopted. Many species (none of them here, I think) have half a dozen binomials that are equally correct according to the rules; the choice becomes a matter of taxonomic judgment and opinion. No synonymy is given in this book, but so far as I can tell that won't cause any trouble. Because so many workers in medicinal botany may start from the common name, the author helpfully includes almost 40 pages of cross references to common names, but only to those used in this book. Nonetheless, there are approximately 1800 of them, by my rough count.

When next you have guacamole, do not let cage birds have their free-flying exercise period in the same room; ground pulp of Persea americana is poisonous to the little guys, at least when fed by gastric incubation (page 246). Whether budgies and canaries will eat it voluntarily, I don't know. Some people are violently allergic to avocados (page 245). It is clear it's a dangerous world we and our pets live in.

Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI 54901;

Book Review: Horticultural

The Gardener's Guide to Growing Daylilies Grenfell, Diana, 1998. ISBN 0-88192-461-X (cloth US$29.95) 160 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.

The Gardener's Guide to Growing Daylilies by Diana Grenfell arrives as the latest in the Gardener's Guide series from Timber Press, covering the many species and very many hybrids which come from the genus Hemerocallis. Several chapters and sections are written by other authors active in growing and breeding daylilies, and there is a forward by noted author Adrian Bloom.

The Gardener's Guide to Growing Daylilies opens with a treatment of the early history and botany of Hemerocallis, followed by numerous chapters on the various species, hybrids, and groups of daylilies, including a discussion of diploid versus tetraploid daylilies and consideration of special types such as the spider and unusual daylilies. This is followed by "A Selection of the Best Daylilies," and a treatment of the use of daylilies in the garden and of their breeding. The author then presents a chapter on noteworthy daylily collections, and invited chapters by other knowledgeable authors describe the state of daylilies in some countries outside the United Kingdom, from which Diana Grenfell comes. The fact that the author comes from the UK strongly colors the information presented in the text, and these chapters act to add balance to the book, expanding its audience and relevance to North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The Gardener's Guide to Growing Daylilies closes with information on the cultivation of daylilies. Appendices concisely and completely define botanical terms, supply a bibliography, and list daylily societies along with places to view and purchase these popular garden plants.

This particular volume lives up to the reputation of this series of books in being informative, attractive, and useful. Diana Grenfell does a commendable job of explaining and defining daylilies, their parts and categories. She clearly and concisely defines the various terms which apply specifically today lilies, such as the difference between star and spider daylilies. However, there are several obvious weaknesses in this book. The author admits that the chapter on "A Selection of the Best Daylilies" is a personal selection, but the title seems inappropriate, since taste varies so widely. "My Favorite Daylilies" would have been afar more accurate and appropriate chapter title. This sort of personalism also creeps in with long lists of cultivar and breeder names, relevant for someone who is personally conversant with such details but not for a more general audience. For a turgid example, see p. 121: American breeders Bob Schwarz, Ken Durio, Dan Trimmer, Patrick Stamile, Mort Morss and others on both sides of the Atlantic are working with converted Spider Variants such as "Cat's Cradle", "Red Thrill", "Spider Miracle", "Fol De Rol", "Wildest Dreams", "Black Plush", "Garden Portrait", "Spindazzle", "Parfait", and "De Colores." A few sentences like this would have been appropriate, but in The Gardener's Guide to Daylilies they are very common. This excessive detail may make this book very useful for those who are seriously committed to Hemerocallis, but it may also make the book quickly seem dated. Beyond serious amateur and professional breeders, such detail will be of little interest.

The chapters and sections of chapters by authors other than Diana Grenfell do broaden the perspective of this volume, but they too suffer from excessive detail as noted above. The chapter on New Zealand is a notable exception. Also, some sentences make little sense either on their own or as part of this book, e.g. "There is something about the magic of daylilies that causes professional men and women to abandon successful careers in midstream and turn to breeding them for a living." (section by David Kirchhoff; p. 109) The photographs found in this volume are not the best to be found in the Gardener's Guide series, with many being dull colored, even accounting for the warm, flavonoid-dominated palate which predominates in Hemerocallis.

In short, The Gardener's Guide to Growing Daylilies, while interesting and useful, is one of the weaker volumes in that series. This series usually aims to be helpful for a wide range of readers, from professional horticulturists and botanists to home gardeners, and succeeds. This particular volume would be of use in a university library, professional library, or in the library of an amateur who is very interested in daylilies. Its appeal may be more limited for a broader audience due to excessive detail, which makes for heavy reading.

- Douglas Darnowski, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801

Reviews: Interactive CD-ROM

Trees and Shrubs of the Campus of Iowa State University Aldworth, S. J, 1998. (Paper and CD-ROM, price not given) 215 pp. Iowa State University Printing Services, Iowa State University, USA. System Requirements: PC compatible computer with Windows 95+ or a Macintosh computer and a CD-ROM drive (Netscape Navigator is required, but is included on the disc).

After using this CD-ROM and perusing the accompanying guide book, I was left with a desire to visit the Iowa State University (ISU) campus and take a tour of the 100 trees included in this multimedia package. I also wish that more university campuses had a guide like this. Although this CD-ROM and book is intended for use on the ISU campus, it would be useful to anyone interested in learning more about trees and their identification, ecology and uses.

The creation of this multimedia package was the result of a master's degree project by Aldworth. It was modeled after a previous book published by the ISU Botany Club called Trees of Central Campus (1971 and 1976). The first edition covered 29 species and the second edition covered 47 species. It was originally intended to be used as a reference guide for students in the campus" dendrology course. The current package, with 100 species, considerably expands the previous coverage.

Much of the material is identical in the CD-ROM and the book, although the presentation of the material differs in some respects. The major difference is that the book displays features of the plants as line drawings, while the CD-ROM uses color photos. The book is also based on the concept of walking tours organized around certain parts of the campus, each of the species being arranged according to the portion of the campus in which it occurs. The location of each tree and shrub is identified by number on detailed campus maps.

The CD-ROM is designed using HTML, the familiar format used on the Internet for web pages. In fact, the entire contents of the CD-ROM are identical to what is available on the ISU campus web pages at The advantage to the CD-ROM is that access is much faster, especially when loading the abundant pictures that are a part of the guide. Instead of being arranged by location on campus, the species are arranged into alphabetical, hypertexted indices, one by scientific name and the other by common name.

The most striking feature of the CD-ROM is the large number of pictures that are included. For each species there is at least a picture of the tree or shrub taken on the campus and a map showing where it can be found on campus, as well as pictures showing flowers and/or fruits, leaves, and bark. Additional pictures are included for some species. Access to the variety of pictures is by clicking on small icons on the left side of the front page for each species. There are also pages, accessible by icons, to the distribution (with distribution maps) and ecology of each species, as well as pages telling about uses by humans and other species.

The CD-ROM has a few unique features that are particularly useful. Clicking on one of the icons on the front page for each species takes the user to an information page about that species, which also contains links to line drawings comparing the current species with related species. From the start page for the program, there is also a link called "natural habitat," which takes the user to a page with a color figure outlining the basic habitat types in which the trees and shrubs in the program are naturally found. Clicking on any of the names for these habitat types takes the user to a brief description page, which also contains a list of species common to that habitat. Also included is a brief glossary and a bibliography which can be accessed from the front page or from clicking on words within other pages.

It's hard to find anything about this multimedia package to criticize. If anything, it should be expanded in the future to include a little more taxonomic information. It would be useful to anyone who is looking for computer based botanical guides. More importantly, I would suggest this as a blueprint for producing other such packages for other university campuses and even for arboreta and botanical gardens.

- Bryan Ness, Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA

Plant Family Album, an Interactive Botanical Review, Vol. 1: The Rosidae Waterway, M.J. and H. C. Rimmer, 1996. (CD-ROM, price not given). System Requirements: A PC compatible computer with Windows 3.1 or 95 and a CD-ROM.

This multimedia CD-ROM was developed using Asymetric Multimedia Toolbook 4.0 and is interactive in several ways. Throughout the program, any word in the text that appears in blue can be clicked on and the user will either be taken to another part of the tutorial that explains the word or phrase, or a small window will pop up with a detailed definition. Many of the words and phrases are extensively cross-referenced in this manner. There is also a highly interactive section devoted to review quizzes. Rather than the traditional "fill in the blank" or matching, involving writing in the correct letter, most of the quizzes use the mouse to drag text bubbles onto pictures or to draw lines between terms and definitions. Navigation throughout the program is also interactive, with buttons for the main menu, going forward or backward, and for jumping to certain parts of the program. Overall, the program is easy to use, informative, and graphically pleasing. Although the documentation on the CD-ROM says it will work with Windows 3.1, without reference to processor speed, judging by its speed on the Pentium (266 MHz) with Windows 95 I used to review it, it would probably operate unacceptably slow for many users on a 486 operating in Windows 3.1.

On the opening page of the program, new users are immediately directed to follow a different route than experienced users. The new users section lists the credits and contains a dedication page to Dorothy E. Swales, Curator Emeritus of the McGill Herbarium. On the dedication page users can also click on a button to go to a biography page for Swales. Proceeding takes a user past the credits page to a page that explains the basic ways to navigate through the program, which almost seems extraneous, once a user has already gotten this far.

The Main Menu allows entry, by the click of a button, to any of four different sections: "Introduction to Families," "North American Flora," "Review Quiz," and "Glossary." There is also a smaller button at the bottom of the page that leads directly to the "Family Index."

The Introduction to Plant Families is essentially a text based discussion of the taxonomic principles used to classify flowering plants, focused primarily on the Rosidae. Throughout the discussion are hypertexted words and phrases (in blue) that lead the user to more in-depth information on related topics, with up to date bibliographies. As a part of the discussion there is a brief introduction to the many classification systems that have been proposed, including those by Engler and Prantl, Bessey, Cronquist, Dahlgren and others. A few paragraphs about the use of DNA sequence data in evaluating classification systems is also included. Paging completely through this section leads to the Family Index, in which buttons representing each of the 40 families included in the program are arranged by order according to Cronquist (1988). Clicking on a button leads to an in-depth set of pages describing the family, complete with numerous figures. Continuing one more page takes the user to the Family Index Cards, where families can be arranged within their orders according to Cronquist (1988), according to orders alphabetically, and by themselves alphabetically. Clicking on the family names on any of these takes the user to the same family pages as mentioned above.

The individual family pages are the core of the program. Certain of the larger and more common families are treated in greater depth, but all the families are treated to a moderate extent. Within the family pages are detailed descriptions of the morphological characters used to define the family, complete with color pictures. Pictures include not only external traits, but also cross sections of ovaries and flower and fruit dissections. Pictures of some of the major genera are included and each set of pages concludes with a concise one page summary of the family.

The North American Flora section contains pictures of 120 North American species from the Rosidae. Along with the pictures are a set of icons to the right, which when clicked, cause windows to pop up giving the species name, family, habitat in which the plant is found, edibility, medicinal uses, toxicity, and other miscellaneous information. The pictures are accessible from a scientific name or common name index, or the user can page through the pictures sequentially, and if the number of the picture is already known the user can jump directly to it. The pictures are of excellent quality, although the choice of which species to include doesn't seem to follow a plan. For example, some genera, like Potentilla and Acer, are represented by several pictures, whereas other large genera, like Astragalus or Camissonia, are completely absent. The pictures that are included seem biased toward more northern and eastern species, probably reflecting the geographical location of the authors.

The Review Quiz section is extensive. The quizzes are arranged on individual pages as "miniature" quizzes. The Family Recognition section has 35 pages, and the matching and multiple choice sections have 45 and 25 pages respectively, so there is a large amount of review material. The family recognition questions involve showing the user one or more pictures of plants, usually focusing on flowers or fruits. A list of family names is arranged on buttons and when the user clicks on the correct name they can advance to the next page. If they choose the wrong name, they are given reasons why the choice is incorrect and they have to try again. Unfortunately there is no way to ask the program to reveal the correct answer. Another difficulty is that the pictures sometimes don't give enough information to easily determine the family, so that the family recognition exercises may be discouraging at times for students. The matching and multiple choice quiz sections are simply more intricate family recognition exercises where multiple pictures are shown and the user has to drag family names to the correct pictures or draw lines between the names and correct answers. Some of the quizzes in these sections also deal with recognition of plant parts, especially flower parts. Again, some of the quiz questions seemed like they would be a bit difficult for the average student, but maybe that leaves an opportunity for advanced students to be challenged.

A final section is the Glossary. Unlike a standard print glossary, this glossary is picture-based. It is arranged by plant part, rather than alphabetically. For example, if the user wants to know what a placenta or locule is, he would click on "Gynoecium parts 2" to go to the appropriate page. This arrangement has the advantage that related terms are grouped together for easy comparison, but without an alphabetical listing it can be hard to find a term sometimes.

Overall this looks like it would be a very useful teaching tool for anyone teaching a plant taxonomy course, and could even be used as a supplement to a general botany course. The "Vol. 1" in the title implies that there will be more editions to come, and I hope this will be the case. Although the Rosidae encompasses a large number of families, there are many families left. There is no mention anywhere about what class will be covered in volume 2 and beyond, although I would vote for the Asteridae or maybe Liliidae. Let's hope more editions are forthcoming.

- Bryan Ness, Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA

Literature Cited

Cronquist, A. 1988. The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants, 2nd Edition. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.

[Postscript: Marcia Waterway has written the PSB Editorial Office to point out that the true publication date of the CD-ROM is 1998. The accompanying booklet is dated 1996! The CD-ROM is hard to find. For more information see -SR 6/16/99]

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send e-mail to <>, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly! - Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

American Bamboos Judziewicz, Emmet, J., Clark, Lynn, G., Londono, Ximena, and Stern, Margaret, J. 1999. ISBN1-56098-569-0 (cloth US$45.00) 392 pp Smithsonian Institution Press, 470 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7100, Washington, D.C. 20560.

Bibliografia sobre Gametofitos de Helechos y Plantas Afines 1699-1996 Perez-Garcia, Blanca, and Riba, Ramon.1998. ISBN 0-915279-61-4 (paper US$20.00) 98 pp Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166.

C4 Plant Biology Sage, Rowan F., and Monson, Russell K. 1999. ISBN 0-12-614440-0 (cloth US$84.95) 596 pp Academic Press Inc., 525B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.

Caesalpinia: A Revision of the Poincianella-Erythrostemon Group Lewis, G.P. 1998. ISBN 1-900347-32-6 (paper US$18.00) 233pp Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

Conservation of Plant Genes III: Conservation and Utilization of African Plants Adams, Robert P., and Janice E. Adams 1998. ISBN0-915279-56-8 (cloth US$40) 241 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166.

Ecological Vignettes: Ecological Approaches to Dealing With Human Predicaments Odum, Eugene. 1998. ISBN 90-5702-522-1 (paperUS$21.95) 269 pp PTT, P.O. Box 566, Williston, VT 05495-0566.

The Emergence of Agriculture Smith, Bruce D. 1998. ISBN 0-7167-6030-4 (paper US$ 19.95) 231 pp W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers, 41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010.

Feeding the Ten Billion: Plants and Population Growth Evans, L.T. 1998. ISBN 0-521-64685-5 (paper US$ 19.95) ISBN0-521-64081-4 (cloth US$54.95) 247 pp Cambridge University Press, 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia.

Flora Malesiana: Series II - Ferns and Fern Allies Hovenkamp, P.H., Nooteboom, H.P., Saunders, R.M.K., Laferriere, J.E.,Kato, M., Zhang, X.C. 1998. ISBN 90-71236-39-0 (paper Dfl.100,00) 334 pp Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Publications Department, P.O. Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands.

Florida Wildflowers in Their Natural Communities Taylor, Walter Kingsley. 1998. ISBN 0-8130-1616-9 (paper US$24.95) 370 pp University Press of Florida, 15 Northwest 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611-2079.

Fundamentals of Weed Science, Second Edition Zimdahl, Robert C. 1998. ISBN 0-12-781062-5 (cloth US$ 59.95) 556 pp Academic Press Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.

Gardening with a Wild Heart Larner Lowery, Judith. 1998. ISBN 0-520-21516-8 (cloth US$35.00) 280 pp University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720.

Icones Pleurothallidinarum XVII. Systematics of Subgen. Pleurothallis, sect. Arbortivae, sect. Truncatae, sect. Pluerothallis, subsect. Acroniae, subsect. Pleurothallis, sungen. Dracontia, subgen. Unciferia Luer,Carlyle 1998. ISBN 0-915279-63-0 (paper US$25) 121 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166.

Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers 1994-1995 Goldblatt, Peter, and Dale E. Johnson, eds. 1998. ISBN 0-915279-59-2 (paper US$20) 208 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166.

Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates Dehgan, Bijan. 1998. ISBN 0-8130-1628-2 (paper US$24.95) 638 pp University Press of Florida, 15 Northwest 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611-2079.

Mistletoes of Africa Polhill, Roger, and Wiens, Delbert 1998. ISBN 1-900347-56-3 (cloth £70.00) 370 pp Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

9th International Exhibition of Botanical Art &Illustration White, James J., and Bruno, Lugene B. 1998. (paper US$25.00) 191pp Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.

Nutrient Use in Crop Production Rengel, Zdenko, ed. 1999. ISBN 1-56022-061-9 (cloth US$29.95) 267 pp Food Products Press, 10Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580

Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives, VII Arditti, Joseph, and Pridgeon, Alec M. Eds. 1997. ISBN 0-7923-4516-9 394 pp Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061.

Plant Cell Culture Protocols v. III Hall, Robert D. Ed. 1998. ISBN 0-896-03549-2 (cloth US$79.50) 421 pp Humana Press, 999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208, Totowa, NJ 07512.

Plant Lipid Biosynthesis: Fundamentals and Agricultural Applications Harwood, John L ed. 1998. ISBN 0-521-62074-0 (cloth US$105) 378 pp Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

The Plant Vacuole Leigh, Roger A., and Sanders, Dale. 1998. ISBN 0-12-441870-8 (paper US$59.95) 463 pp Academic Press Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.

Plato's Plant: On the Mathematical Structure of Simple Plants and Canopies Schieving, Feike. 1998. ISBN 90-5782-003-X (cloth US$93.50) 360 pp Backhuys Publishers, P.O. Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, the Netherlands.

Proceedings of the VI Congreso Latinoamerican de Botanica 1998. ISBN 0-915279-58-4 (cloth US$50) 514 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166.

Proceedings of the Symposium Taxonomy. Evolution and Classification of Lichens and Related Fungi, London 10-11 January 1998 Wedin, M., Tonsberg, T., and Brown, D.H. eds. 1998. ISBN 0-9523049-7-X (paper £10) 209 pp. The Lichenologist, c/o Academic Press Limited, 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX, UK.

Introduction to Plant Physiology Hopkins, William G. 1998. ISBN 0-471-19281-3 (cloth US$97.95) 512 pp Wiley Publishers, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158.

Sierra Nevada Wildflowers Horn, Elizabeth L. 1998. ISBN 0-87842-388-5 (paper US$16.00) 225 pp Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1301 S. Third Street W., P.O. Box 2399, Missoula, Montana 59806.

Terroir: The Role of Geology, Climate, and Culture in the Making of French Wines Wilson, James E. 1998. ISBN 0-520-21936-8 (paperUS$39.95) 336 pp University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720.

A Treasure of Masdevallia, Vol. 23Luer, Carlyle 1998. ISBN 0-915279-64-9 (paper US$60) Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166.

Tyler's Herbs of Choice: the Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals Robbers, James E., and Tyler, Varro 1999. E. ISBN0-7890-0159-4 (cloth US$39.95) 300pp The Haworth Herbal Press, Inc., 10 Alice St, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

Tyler's Honest Herbal, 4th Ed. Foster, Steven, and Tyler, Varro E. 1999. ISBN 0-7890-0705-3 (cloth US$49.95) 386 pp The Haworth Herbal Press, Inc., 10 Alice St, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

Wild Orchids Across North America: A Botanical Travelogue Keenan, Philip E. 1998. ISBN 0-88192-452-0 (cloth US$39.95) 321 pp Timber Press, Inc., 133 s.w. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

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