Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1982 v28 No 4 Winter
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 28, NUMBER 4, AUGUST, 1982
Emanuel D. Rudolph, Editor
The Plant Science Bulletin is published six times a year, February, April, June, August, October, and December, at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Subscriptions $10.00/yr. Change of address should be sent to Editor. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BSA CALL FOR SYMPOSIUM PROPOSALS
BSA CALL FOR SYMPOSIUM PROPOSALS
BSA members are invited to submit symposium proposal s for the next Annual Meeting in Grand Forks, North Dakota, 7-11 August 1983. Forms for suggesting a symposium can be obtained from Dr. David Di1cher, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Jordan Hall 143, Bloomington, IN 47405, telephone 812-335-9455. They are due by September 15, 1982 to be considered. All proposals are subject to review and endorsement by a BSA Section or Committee facilitates the review procedure.
YOUNG BOTANIST AWARDS - 1982
The Botanical Society of America has again selected outstanding undergraduate students majoring in botany to receive certificates of merit and recognition. This year, 26 graduating seniors were recognized, based on recommendations from their mentors. The Society wishes them well in their future endeavors and invites them to become colleagues in the Botanical Society of America. Awardees and sponsors are listed below:
Sandra de Jesus Roman, by D.T. Webb, Dept. of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR 00931.
Linda C. Siebert and Paul L. Gunyuz1u, by C. R. Curtis, Dept. of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711.
Michael F. Gross, Marguerite C. Woodland and Eric E. Roden, by Stephen E. Williams and Susan E. Verhoek, Dept. of Biology, Lebanon Valley College, Annville, PA 17003.
Heidi A. Dolan, by Daniel C. Scheirer, Dept. of Biology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115.
David Kruse, by G. S. Knaphus, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
Mary Ann Berlincourt, Donna I. Ford, Lauren E. McEleney and Mark A. Sherman, by John L. Vankat, Dept. of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.
Anthony D. LaMontagne, by Edward L. Davis, Dept. of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003.
Karen Poulin, Peter Zika and Sally Mitoff, by Richard M. Klein, Dept. of Botany, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405.
Jeanne Grout, by Diana B. Stein, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA 01075.
Deanna Marie Ward, by Gilbert S. Trelawny, Dept. of Biology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22804.
Richard Winder, by Frank M. Hoffman, Slippery Rock State College, Slippery Rock, PA 16057.
Stuart S.Winter, by Nicholas C. Maravolo, Dept of Biology, Lawrence University, Box 599, Appleton, WI 54912.
Jens B. Mullen, by Tom S. Cooperrider, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242.
Robert Mitzel, by Robert B. McNairn, Biological Sciences, California State University, Chico, Chico, CA 95929.
Raffaella Torchia and Misuk Bank, by Ann M. Hirsch, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181.
Rachel Alice Wood and Angela Margareeta De Ruiter, by S. Preece, Dept. of Botany, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812.
Arthur Leo Kruckeberg, by R. F. Scagel, Dept. of Botany, The University of British Columbia, 2075 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1W5.
Newly Elected BSA Officers
New Program in NSF Development in Science Education
Dr. Anitra Thorhaug Receives Special Award
Orchids Are Very Popular
New Restoration and Management Serial
BIOSIS Search Tournament
U.S.-China Cooperative Programs
Advanced Study and Research in China
addressed to the CSCPRC, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418. Postmark/mailing deadline for applications: November 5, 1982.
Dr. Desmond D. Dolan Honored
MEETINGS AND COURSES
Pacific Science Congress
New Federal Grant Priorities
A Leroy Andrews Foray
Colloquium on Endocytobiology
Cytology and Hybridization
Congress on Plant Pathology
Cancellation of Ecology Congress
Buffalo Gourd Conference
Botanist for Connecticut College
will be involved in planning his/her research and teaching space. Connecticut College is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Letters of application, transcripts and three letters of reference should be sent to: Dr. Scott Warren, Chairman, Department of Botany, Connecticut College, New London, CT 06320.
Pollution Botanist for University of Montana
Smithsonian Foreign Currency Grants
Postdoc/Research Associate at Simon Fraser
Graduate Research Assistantship in Environmental Pnysiology/Physiological Ecology
RECENT BOTANICAL BOOKS
Addicott, Fredrick T. Abscission. University of California Press, 2223 Fulton St., Berkeley, CA 94720, 1982. xviii + 369 p., illus. ISBN 0-520-04288-3. $39.50. (A most comprehensive treatment of the separation of plant parts, from higher plants to lower plants and fossil plants; which considers anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, genetics, evolution, and agricultural applications; beautifully illustrated by Alice B. Addicott; and documented with a 39 page bibliography.)
Bailey, John A. and John W. Mansfield, eds. Phytoalexins. John Wiley and Sons, One Wiley Drive, Somerset, NJ 08873, 1982. (A Halsted Press Book) ix + 334 p., illus. ISBN 0-470-27291-0. $75.95. (A series of technical papers about the chemistry, biosynthesis, and metabolism of natural plant disease resisting antibiotics which consider current information about phytolexins in different plant families, their toxicity to parasites, and their role in disease resistance.)
Botschantzeva, Z. P. Tulips; Taxonomy, Morphology, Cytology, Phytogeography and Physiology.Translated and edited by H. Q. Varekamp. A. A. Balkema Rotterdam, available from Merrimack Book Service, 190 Merrimack St., Lawrence, MA 01843, 1982. ix + 230 p., illus. ISBN 90-6191-029-3. $70.00. (A major monograph on the Middle Asian tulips, translated from the Russian edition, which is full of information and illustrated with beautiful color plates.)
Chandler, Lynda E. Tropical Flowers of the World Coloring Book. Dover Publications, Inc., 180 Varick St., New York, NY 10014, 1981. 46 p. ISBN 0-486-24206-4. $2.00 paper (Forty- five large outline drawings, with common and scientific names and country in which they are found, can be colored using the text instructions and colored pictures on the covers.)
Daniels, M. J. and P. G. Markham, eds. Plant and Insect Mycoplasma Techniques. Halstead Press Book, John Whiley and Sons, 1 Wiley Dr., Somerset, NJ 08873, 1982. 369 p., illus. ISBN 0-7099-0272-7. $49.95. (An introduction to ways of studying plant and insect diseases caused by the prokaryotic class Mollicutes which includes microscopical, cultural, serological, and biochemical techniques.)
Fraenkel-Conrat, Heinz and Paul C. Kimball. Virology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 07632, 1982. x + 406 p. ISBN 0-13-942144-0. $32.95. (A textbook that covers all aspects of viruses, while emphasizing the biophysical and biochemical aspects, and covers the various kinds and their effects on cells and organisms.)
Garfield, Eugene, et al. ISI Atlas of Science, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1978/80, Including Minireviews of 102 Research Front Specialties. Institute for Scientific Information, 3501 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, 1982. xvi + 540 p. ISBN 0-941708-00-4. $45.00 for individuals, $90.00 for institutions. (Eugene Garfield, the information innovator who established Science Citation Index and Current Contents, has again designed a work of great value to professionals, students, and historians of science. By the use of cluster-mapping of papers cited 17 or more times in 1978 in biochemistry and molecular biology, he and his colleagues have identified 102 specialties. Each is reviewed with recent classic (core) and currently important papers (including some for 1979 and 1980) identified and their relationship diagrammed. A large "map" relates the specialties and indicates overlaps.)
Gremmen, N. J. M. The Vegetation of the Subantarctic Islands Marion and Prince Edward. Dr. W. Junk BV Publishers, P.O. Box 13713, 2501 ES The Hague, The Netherlands, 1982. x + 149 p., illus. ISBN 90-6193-683-7. $48.00. (These isolated islands, north of the Antarctic Convergence (about 460S, 370E), are really oceanic and this detailed study of the vegetation using the Braun-Blanquet approach will help to familiarize botanists with their plant communities. This is volume 3 in a new Geobotany Series.)
Hya, Roy and Patrick M. Synge. The Color Dictionary of Flowers and Plants for Home and Garden. Compact Edition. American consultant George Kalmbacher. Published in collaboration with the Royal Horticultural Society. Crown Publishers, 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016, 1975, first paperback ed. 1982. 504 p., illus. ISBN 0-517-524562. $11.95 paper. (Over two thousand color pictures together with brief descriptions help make this a very popular reference book which is now available in paperback.)
Hora, Boyard, ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Trees of the World. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, 1981. 288 p., illus. ISBN 0-19-217712-5. $24.95. (The editor, with the assistance of 39 experts, presents basic information about trees and forestry, and discussions of the major useful tree genera, including all conifers, and of tropical trees, all beautifully illustrated in color.)
Hughes, Norman F. Palaeobiology of Angiosperm Origins, Problems of Mesozoic Seed-Plant Evolution. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1976, first paperback ed. 1982. vii + 242 p. ISBN 0-521-28726-X. $19.95 paper. (A new paperback edition of this volume of the Cambridge Earth Science Series of texts.)
John, G., ed. Application of Vegetation Science to Forestry. Handbook of Vegetation Science Part xii. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, P.O. Box 13713, 2501 ES The Hague, The Netherlands, 1982. xi + 405 p. ISBN 90-6193-193-2. $79.50. (An important summary, by experts, of the history and status of vegetational research in forestry in 14 temperate countries, European except for Canada and Japan.)
Kaimowitz, Jeffrey H., compo Botanical Imprints in the Watkinson Library to 1800. Watkinson Library, Trinity College, Hartford, CT. 36 p., no price given, wrappers. (A checklist arranged alphabetically by authors.)
Manners, J. G. Principles of Plant Pathology. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1982. viii + 264 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-24301-7 cloth, 0-521-28592-5 paper. $47.50 cloth, $17.95 paper. (A textbook that provides an insight into the principles of plant diseases which has a good glossary, bibliography and index.)
Margaris, N. S. and H. A. Mooney, eds. Components of Productivity of Mediterranean-Climate Regions, Basic and Applied Aspects. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Photosynthesis, Primary Production and Biomass Utilization in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems, held in Kassandra, Greece, September 13-15, 1980. Dr. W. Junk BV Publishers,
P.O. Box 13713, 2501 ES The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981. 279 p., illus. ISBN 90-6193-944-5. $49.50. (This volume in the tasks for Vegetation Science (no. 4) is devoted to a consideration, from many points of view, of the vegetation type most characteristic of the Mediterranean area which is the focus of most of the papers.)
Mathias, Mildred E., ed. Flowering Plants in the Landscape. University of California Press, 2223 Fulton St., Berkeley, CA 94720, 1982. xiii + 254 p., illus. ISBN 0-520-04350-2. $16.95. (The first edition was called "Color for the Landscape," and as Sir George Taylor says in his foreword to this edition it, "cannot fail to bring aesthetic and intellectual enjoyment to its user." The fine color pictures of flowering trees, shrubs, vines and ground covers which are useful for tropical and subtropical gardens include some California natives.)
Poissonet, P., F. Romane, M. A. Austin, E. van der Maarel, and W. Schmidt, eds. Vegetation Dynamics Grasslands, Heathlands and Mediterranean Ligneous Formations. Symposium of the Working Groups for Succession research on permanent plots, and data-processing in phytosociology of the International Society for Vegetation Science, held at Montpellier, France, September 1980. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, P.O. Box 13713, 2501 ES The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981. x + 283 p., i11us. ISBN 90-6193-636-5. $85.00. (This 4th volume of Advances in Vegetation Science, a reprint from Vegetatio, vo1s. 46/47, contains 27 papers presented at a meeting that primarily was centered on succession in various habitats.)
Prance, Ghi11ean T., ed. Biological Diversification in the Tropics. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of the Association for Tropical Biology, held at Macuto Beach, Caracas, Venezuela, February 8-13, 1979. Columbia University Press, 562 West 113th St., New York, NY 10025, 1982. xvi + 714 p., illus. ISBN 0-231-04876-9. $60.00. (Thirty-seven papers arranged into a number of broad topics, based on the refuge theory: geomorphology, palynology, and paleoclimatology; vegetation; insects; vertebrates; primates and anthropology; evidence from the old world tropics; and theoretical and practical aspects.)
Sen, David N. and Kishan S. Rajpurohit, eds. Contributions to the Ecology of Halophytes. Dr. W. Junk BV Publishers, P.O. Box 13713, 2501 ES The Hague, The Netherlands, 1982. viii + 272 p., i11us. ISBN 90-6193-942-9. $69.50. (A multi authored volume, number 2 in the "Tasks for Vegetation Series," that considers new aspects as well as a summary of plants of saline habitats in terms of their biology, biogeography, ecology, physiology and potential uses.)
Train, Percy, James R. Henrichs, and W. Andrew Archer. Medicinal Uses of Plants By Indian Tribes of Nevada. Quarterman Publications, Inc., 5 South Union St., Lawrence, MA 01843, no date (facsimile reprint of 1957 edition). 139 p. ISBN 0-88000-109-7. $25.00. (A record of about 200 plants considered medicinal by the Paiute, Shoshone, and Washoe tribes which includes Indian names, plant uses, and pharmacological information.)
Thomas, Robert C., James A. Ruffner, and Mary Michelle Watkins, eds. Research Centers Directory 7th Ed. Geographical and Executive Arrangement. Gale Research Co., Book Tower, Detroit, MI 48226, 1982. 1139 p. ISBN 0-8103-0456-2. $160.00. (The 5377 centers are geographically arranged and described; the second index is to executives and is keyed to the first; and the final index is to subjects.)
Verhoek, Susan and Mabel Jaques Cuthbert. How to Know the Spring Flowers. 2nd ed. William C. Brown Co., 2460 Kerper Blvd., Dubuque, IA 52001, 1982. 244 p., illus. ISBN 0-697-04782-2 paper. $9.95. (One of the pictured key series which has each of the commonest species that occur east of the Rocky Mountains illustrated and generally mapped. This edition has a key to families and an expanded introduction.)
Yeoman, M. M. and D. E. S. Truman, eds. Differentiation in Vitro. The Fourth Symposium of the British Society for Cell Biology. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1982. ix + 286 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-23926-5. Price not given. (Papers from a symposium that brought plant and animal tissue culture researchers together in an attempt to develop meaningful discussion. A third of the papers are on plant topics.)
Young, Paul G. The Botany Coloring Book. Illustrations by Jacquelyn Giuffré. Harper and Row Publishers, 10 East 53rd St., New York, NY 10022, 1982. u.p. ISBN 0-06-460302-4. $8.95 paper. (This is meant to be a learning aid for understanding plants by coloring structures which relate to functions and life histories and are explained in an associated descriptive text.)
Young, Raymond A., ed. Introduction to Forest Science. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1 Wiley Dr., Somerset, NJ 08873, 1982. xix + 554 p., illus. ISBN 0-471-06438-6. $25.95. (A broad overview of forestry by a battery of experts which presents current information and concepts about tree biology, forest management, and forest products for students.)
Dressler, Robert L. The Orchids: Natural History and Classification. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 332 p. + 16 color plates, 1981, $27.50.
I ordered this book because I realized upon seeing it advertised that I knew very little about orchids though they comprise one of the largest groups of flowering plants. I was not disappointed.
To some extent this book is disposed to popularizing orchids. The irony of this is explained by Dressler, after an initial invidious comparison with the "dull" composites, as a result of too many horticulturists and the rather difficult access to orchids in the wild. He might also have mentioned that orchids are on the international endangered species convention list, making export and import by botanists no simple matter. Moreover, as he does say, the abundant knowledge now available on culture techniques should make future study much easier, and horticulturists are to be thanked for much of this.
The first half of the book is devoted to structure, ecology, evolution, and geography. That fully 18 percent of the text is on basic morphological and structural definitions bears out Dressler's suggestion that orchids have the most highly modified floral structure in the plant kingdom. Though the book is clearly written throughout, even wittily, I found myself wishing I had an orchid flower and a dissecting microscope to check as I read through the definitions.
The synthesis of information is presented in the classification half of the book. Viewpoints are well defended, but Dressler candidly expresses doubts when he lacks information. The system followed relies heavily on the development and evolution of the column in relation to the anther(s) (basitony vs. acrotony), and groups with ambiguous ontogeny are therefore difficult to interpret (So, what else is new?)
The organization is similar to that in Pijl and Dodson's Orchid Flowers: Their Pollination and Evolution, but Dressler's strength is in the analysis of relationships. Pijl and Dodson explain specific pollination techniques in greater detail, e.g., in Stanhopea and Catasetum, and include a more thorough discussion of orchid evolution. Therefore, the two books complement each other rather than compete. I notice that since Pijl and Dodson first appeared (1966), hardly anything has been learned about the Apostasioideae, although phylogenists' consensus is that they belong within the orchid family.
I found the glossary useful. Dressler avoids arcane terms such as appendicle and frenicle, which mayor may not be developmentally/anatomically distinguishable. A great relief is the clear explanation of the difference between a stipe and a caudicle. "Mentum" is mentioned in the glossary but I could not locate a description in the text.
No good orchid book is complete without some magnificent color photographs. Those presented here are chosen to illustrate habits, habitats, pollination, and taxa. All tribes and most subtribes are illustrated, and there are many line drawings of flower dissections.
This is a well-prepared study and represents both a state-of-the-art message and a sterling introduction to this interesting family. I am happy to declare that this is an immensely satisfying book.
Wetherell, D. F. Introduction to In Vitro Propagation, Avery Publishing Group, Wayne, NJ, 198. 87 p. $7.95.
This paperback is written for "professional horticulturists, foresters, nurserymen, (and)growers" and "amateurs" (hobbyists) who are interested in using plant tissue culture methods. It is a basic, complete, and inexpensive "how-to" manual which should serve this audience well. There is a logical progression of 12 chapters covering the setup and operation of a small (possibly "home-based") culture facility, lab techniques, selection and preparation of culture media, and instructions for each of Murashige's three "culture stages", i.e. initiation of aseptic cultures, multiplications of propagules, and reestablishment of plants in soil. Appendices include a glossary, list of suppliers, and bibliography. Some knowledge of basic botany and chemistry (e.g. chemical symbols, molar solutions, pH) is advisable, even though attempts are made to describe every operation unambiguously.
This book will be less valuable for advanced students or researchers. These people should already have the required lab equipment, supplies, and advice at hand, and would find only the last third of the book useful. While the text is excellent on the "how to's", its brevity on the underlying biology limits its value for class work. The glossary and bibliography are also too short for class use. Nevertheless, undergraduates beginning research in my lab have found the book helpful as a supplement and bridge between their course work and the scientific literature.
In sum, this is a well-executed effort that fills a real need. Photos supplement
the text at appropriate places, and the large type is suited to the cookbook style, where the book is read at a distance while the hands are busy. This is the first offering in Avery's Plant Tissue Culture Series.
Charles-Edwards, D.A. The Mathematics of Photosynthesis and Productivity. Academic Press, 24-28 Oval Dr., London, England NW1 7DX, 1981. $25.00 ISBN 0.12. 170580.3
This superb little book is packed with information concerning the modeling of photosynthesis by whole leaves. It is logically and concisely written. The notation used is carefully annotated at the end of each chapter. The reader should have no difficulty following the mathematical derivations. Some of the notation is standard internationally, but quite a few symbols are defined differently, and the reader must frequently look them up.
There are only four chapters, a seemingly small number for such a large topic. The introductory chapter explains the fundamental philosophy about the advantages of modeling and introduces the photochemistry of photosynthesis. Chapter 2 plunges directly into the analytical description of photosynthesis in response to carbon dioxide concentration, oxygen concentration, incident light and temperature. The photosynthetic model is applied to C3 and C4 plants separately. Temperature effects on the compensation point, leaf conductance, and light saturated net photosynthesis are described analytically. A major contribution in the second chapter is a discussion of the necessity to understand, and measure, the relationship between specific photosynthetic activity and photosynthesis per unit leaf area. Leaf volume, or leaf mass, is a measure of its "metabolic" volume, since photosynthetic capacity depends on the total enzyme substrate available. Specific photosynthetic activity is the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf volume.
Of particular value is the chapter on canopy photosynthesis. It is here that an extension is made from modeling of single leaf photosynthesis to a collection of leaves within which light, temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration are varying. The importance of leaf orientation as it affects light attenuation in the canopy and the effect on the productivity by the entire leaf canopy is better understood through this mathematical analysis.
The final chapter deals with crop productivity as predicted from the 1eaf photosynthesis and canopy models of the previous chapters. Here the theory of root/shoot interactions is brought into play and a model is developed which predicts not only total dry matter production, but also the production of the separate crop components, e.g. leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. Finally, the model is applied to the prediction of grain yields; an exercise which is very promising of future advances in this field.
This book is a marvelous sequel to J.H.M. Thornley's (1976) magnificent analytical treatment of Mathematical Models in Plant Physiology. My main criticism is that most of the literature to which reference is made is English, predominantly from the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute in the U.K., and nearly all of the data base is from that laboratory with only a little from Australia. The literature referenced is only given as a list of additional reading; there are no direct references to original works. The book is free of typographical errors, nicely printed and bound, and totally logical.
David M. Gates, University of Michigan