Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1981 v27 No 4 Winter
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 27, NUMBER 4, AUGUST, 1981
Emanuel D. Rudolph, Editor, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210
The Plant Science Bulletin is published six times a year, February, April, June, August, October, and December, at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Subscriptions $10.00/yr. Change of address should be sent to Editor. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NOTICE FOR ALL MEMBERS
The Directory of the Botanical Society of America is now being assembled by the Secretary, Carol C. Baskin. Any member that has reason to believe that any information about their address, phone number, sectional affiliations, or other information about them is now in error should immediately send a postcard with the correct information to: Dr. Carol C. Baskin, Secretary, the Botanical Society of America, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506. The deadline for receipt of
FLORA MESOAMERICANA. The Missouri Botanical Garden, the Instituto de Biologia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the British Museum (Natural History), London are collaborating to produce a synoptic Flora of the estimated 16,000 vascular plants of Mesoamerica. This Flora will serve as a concise identification manual of Mesoamerican plants.
Such a project has been discussed in the botanical community for many years and is of such a magnitude that it would, if it were to be successful, require the cooperation of many institutions within Mesoamerica and outside of it. With this basic premise the three organizing institutions began discussions for a Flora Mesoamericana Project in 1979 and appointed G. Davidse (MBG), M. Sousa (UNAM), A.D. Chater (BM) and C.J. Humphries (BM) as organizers and editors of this project. From these initial discussions a plan of action was developed. In early 1980 a broad outline of the plan of action was distributed to individuals and institutions from Mesoamerica, the U.S. and Europe, historically active in Mesoamerican botanical studies. Comments were solicited and invitations were extended to attend an organizational and planning meeting sponsored by the three organizing institutions in St. Louis, 14-15 July 1980. Twenty-five persons representing 13 institutions attended: British Museum (Natural History), California Academy of Sciences, Colegio Superior de Agricultura Tropical, Duke University, Field Museum of Natural History, Herbario Nacional de Colombia, Herbario Nacional de Nicaragua, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Missouri Botanical Garden, National Science Foundation, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Universidad de Panama. General approval and support were given to the need for such a project and wide agreement was reached on matters of procedure.
The Flora will be published in Spanish by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and will appear in seven volumes over a period of twelve years. As much of the Flora as possible will be written by experts, the remainder by staff of the organizing institutions. It will summarize existing information and incorporate much new research. Keys and descriptions will be included at all levels. Types and selected specimens will be cited, and sufficient synonymy will be given to correlate the Flora with previously published work in
In general the style of the Flora will be very similar to that of Flora Europaea.
The area to be covered by the FloraMesoamericana will include Panama, the Central American republics, the Yucatan Peninsula and Chiapas. Where to draw the exact boundaries for the Flora was largely pragmatic. Having the Panamanian-Colombian frontier serve as the southern boundary seems to be logically dictated on a geographical basis. In addition, since the Flora of Panama ends at that border and since the new Flora de Colombia project will adequately cover the area east of this border, this boundary seems to be a logical one. The northern boundary clearly should be in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region. A very good phytogeographical one seems to be the following (M. Sousa and D. Breedlove, pers. comm.): from the Gulf of Tehuantepec along the Tehuantepec River, to the Sierra Mixe to the 300 m contour, west along the Sierra Mixe and the Sierra de Juarez to the Papaloapan River, and along this river to the Gulf of Mexico. However, it was strongly and unanimously agreed at the St. Louis meeting that such a boundary would be highly impractical for specimen handling and distribution plotting and that using the Veracruz-Oaxaca and Tabasco-Chiapas borders would at once be practical for specimen handling and at the same time include virtually all of truly tropical Mexico. It was realized that a case could well be made for extending the northern boundary into Veracruz and perhaps into Tamaulipas. However, a significant number of basically northern species would then be included (Rzedowski, pers. comm.). Thus a practical political boundary was chosen with the provision that for taxa extending just beyond this boundary and which seem to have a truly southern tropical derivation, authors could decide to include these taxa in the Flora on a case-by-case basis.
A four-year collecting program has been started by the three organizing institutions in conjunction with other botanists and institutions in Mesoamerica. It is aimed at significantly strengthening current attempts to collect in poorly or never-collected areas before the surviving natural vegetation is completely destroyed. A knowledge of these areas is necessary for comprehensive coverage in the Flora.
When completed, the Flora will comprise a data base for the floristics and taxonomy of the area. From such a firm taxonomic framework it will be possible to plan more effectively detailed taxonomic studies in the area, as well as broader programs in conservation and land use. Additionally, we foresee that the production of local and special purpose floras of individual countries or areas and covering such topics as economic and medicinal uses will be a major spin-off from the Flora Mesoamericana.
The organizers and editors welcome inquiries and correspondence concerning any aspect of the project--Gerrit Davidse (Organizer and Editor), Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166, U.S.A., Mario Sousa (Organizer and Editor), Instituto de Biologia, Herbario Nacional, U.N.A.M., Apartado Postal 70-367, Mexico 20, D.F., Mexico, C.J. Humphries, (Organizer), and A.O. Chater (Editor), Botany Department, British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K.
Tree-Ring Information Newsletter:
Register for International Service in Education:
promotion of Dr. T. D. Jacobsen to Assistant Director and Senior Research Scientist. Dr. Jacobsen came to the Institute two years ago as Assistant to the Director and Research Scientist, after receiving his doctorate and teaching at Washington State University. Besides his administrative duties, he will be continuing research in systematic botany, especially on the genus Allium.
New Secretary and Treasurer of Holly Society of America:
Advanced Study and Research in China:
International Phycological Congress:
Short Courses in Nonparametric Statistics:
Symposium on Genetic Engineering
Botany Chairperson. Louisiana State University:
Visiting Professorships at the Universidad de Costa Rica:
visiting professors in natural resources management and economic botany for a period of one or two years. They must be willing to teach and do research. If interested contact: Dra. Eugenia M. Flores, Directora, Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, Costa Rica, Central America.
Plant Population Biologist, University of Georgia:
Postdoctoral Fellowships and Ph.D. Opportunities, Simon Fraser University:
Dr. Eric Hulten, a corresponding member of the Botanical Society of America, Director Emeritus of the Botanical Department of the State Museum of Natural History, Stockholm died 1 February 1980 at the age of 86; he was born 18 March 1894. He was an preeminent authority on arctic floras.
Dr. Leonard Teitell a member of the Botanical Society of America interested in fungi died on 17 December 1980, his wife, Ruth P. Teitell, 7704 Brocklehurst St., Philadelphia, PA 19152 reports.
C. Mervin Palmer, Kendal at Longwood, Box 220, Kennett Square, PA 19348, a member of the Society has died.
Altmann, Horst. Poisonous Plants and Animals; Illustrated and Identified with Colour Photographs. Translated and edited by Gwynne Vevers. Chatto and Windus, distributed by Merrimack Book Service, 99 Main St., Salem, NH 03078, 1980. 143 p. ISBN 0-7011-2526-8 $5.95 paper. (A Chatto nature guide to European organisms some of which are also found in North America.)
Benzing, David H. The Biology of the Bromeliads. Mad River Press, Rt. 2, Box 151-B, Eureka, CA 95501, 1980. xvi + 305, illus. ISBN 0-916422-21-6 $14.40 (15.26 in CA) paper. (A detailed guide for both botanist and gardener that provides clear information about aspects of the family from cells to ecology and techniques for the grower.)
Bernath, Stefen. The Cactus Coloring Book. With an Introduction and Captions by Carolyn S. Ripps. Dover Publications, 180 Varick St., New York, NY 10014, 1981. 46 p. illus. ISBN 0-486-24097-5 $2.00 paper. (An original work with full page illustrations of commonly cultivated cacti for coloring, using colored pictures on the covers as a guide, and containing brief notes about each one.)
Galston, Arthur W. Green Wisdom. Basic Books, 10 East 53rd New York, NY 10022, 1981. xii + 217 p., illus. ISBN 0-465-02712-1. $12.95. (A series of brief essays for the general reader most of which originally appeared in NaturalHistory, about plant life and diversity.)
Heiser, Charles B., Jr. Seed to Civilization; The Story of Food. 2nd edition. W. H. Freeman and Co., 660 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94104, 1981. xiv + 254 p., illus. ISBN 0-7167-1264-4 cloth, 0-7167-1265-2 paper. $19.95 cloth, $9.95 paper. (An update of a treatment of the biological and social aspects of human foods.)
Harz, Kurt. Trees and Shrubs; Illustrated and Identified with Colour Photographs. Translated and edited by Gwynne Vevers. Chatto and Windus, from Merrimack Book Service, 99 Main St., Salem, NH 03078, 1980. 144 p. ISBN 0-7011-2542-X $5.95 paper. (A beautifully illustrated Chatto nature guide to common European trees and shrubs some of which are cultivated in North America.)
Hickey, Michael and Clive King. 100 Families of Flowering Plants. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1981. xix + 567 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-23283-X cloth, 0-521-29891-1 paper. $66.00 cloth, $19.95 paper. (A guide for students to families, particularly of temperate regions, which gives basic information including economic uses and distribution and detailed floral and fruit illustrations of one or more representative genera in each.)
Hu, Shiu-Ying. An Enumeration of Chinese Materia Medica. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong (Distributed by University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA 98105, 1980. xxiv + 287 p. ISBN 0-295-95744-1 $21.50. (A list of 1,700 plants and 135 animals arranged alphabetically by their translated names with the Chinese, English and Latin names and a second list of them arranged systematically make this a useful reference work.)
Lyte, Charles. Sir Joseph Banks, 18th Century Explorer, Botanistand Entrepreneur. David and Charles, North Pomfret, VT 05053, 1980. 248 p., pls. col. b & w. ISBN 0-7153-7884-8. $32.00. (The third, and most readable, book length biography of Banks in this century devotes considerable space to his plant explorations, his influence, over 42 years, upon the Royal Society, and his part in the establishment of Kew Gardens.)
Miller, Orison K., Jr. and Hope H. Miller. Mushrooms in Color. E. P. Dutton, 2 Park Ave., New York, NY10016, 1981. xviii + 286 p., illus. col. ISBN 0-525-93190-0. $11.50. (Designed to be carried into the field by beginners. This beautifully illustrated guide with indicated identifying features introduces the most common, easily identified, edible and poisonous larger fungi.)
Schumann, Donna N. Living with Plants; a Gardener's Guide to Practical Botany. Mad River Press, Rt. 2, Box 151-B, Eureka, CA 95501, 1980. xx + 327 p., illus. ISBN 0-916422-20-8 $14.20 ($15.05 in CA) paper. (After a chapter introduction to basic botany by Richard W. Pippen, most of this volume is used to apply botanical and other information to practical gardening methods.)
Smith, Alexander H., Helen V. Smith and Nancy S. Weber. How to Know the Non-Gilled Mushrooms. 2nd ed. William C. Brown, Co., 2460 Kerper Blvd., Dubuque, IA 52001, 1981. vii + 324 p., illus. ISBN 0-697-04778-4 paper, $10.95. (A revision of a work previously titled "How to know the non-gilled fleshy fungi," 1973, in the pictured nature series which covers many fungi and is particularly strong on species of boletes and hypogeous types.)
Stace-Smith, Richard, Louis Johns and Paul Joslin, eds. Threatened and Endangered Species and Habitats in British Columbia and the Yukon. Proceedings of the Symposium Co-Sponsored by Federation of British Columbia Naturalists, Institute of Environmental Studies, Douglas College, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Branch held in Richmond, B.C. March 8 and 9, 1980. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Victoria, B.C., 1980. v + 302 p., illus. ISBN 0-7719-8465-0, paper, no price given. (This many-authored symposium has two papers on plants and their habitats along with a number of general papers considering problems relating to the topic.)
Staples, Richard C. and Gary H. Toenniessen, eds. Plant Disease Control; Resistance and Susceptibility. John Wiley and Sons, 1 Wiley Dr., Somerset, NJ 08873, 1981. xix + 339 p., illus. ISBN 0-471-08196-5. No price given. (The results of an international conference, this work reviews current understanding of mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and incompatibilities, as well as new directions for developing disease resistant plants.)
Smith, Robert Leo. Ecology and Field Biology, Third Edition. Harper and Row, Publishers. 1980. 835 p., illus.
A feature that I particularly like about the book is the great number of illustrations - tables, graphs, charts and sketches. Photographs are few, and most are of poor quality, in contrast to those in the first edition.
Following the textual material are appendixes on an annotated bibliography of statistical methods, techniques used in sampling communities, methods of measuring productivity and how to measure certain physical
environmental factors; a glossary; a list of general references including recommended guides for the identification of various groups of plants and animals, journals of interest to ecologists and a list of some current bibliographies, reviews and abstracts; a list of selected reference books; an extensive bibliography of articles used in preparation of the text and finally an index.
I would like to emphasize that the third edition of EcologyandFieldBiology is, in fact, a revision of the second edition), not just the old text with a new cover. Although a lot of the material in the second edition has been retained in the third, much of it has been rewritten and/or reorganized, and much new material has been added. I highly recommend this book as a text for introductory ecology courses.
De Vogel, E. F. Seedlings of dicotyledons (Structure, development, types. Descriptions of 150 woody Malesian taxa). Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, Netherlands, 1980. 465 p. illus. color pls. (available from Unipub, 345 Park Avenue South, New York, N.Y. 10010. $125).
This beautifully illustrated and produced book is the result of a 3-year study in Indonesia, sponsored jointly by the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation and the Indonesian Lembaga Biologi Nasiona1, which allowed an investigation of the development of Ma1esian tree seedlings under nursery conditions. The author points out that, even after his survey of Ma1esian taxa, information is available only for half of Indonesian trees, frequently only for one species per genus. The book surveys seedling literature extensively, but not completely, (e.g., there is no reference to cryptogea1 germination). There are interesting chapters on the history of seedling research, seedling morphology, seedlings in taxonomy and seedling ecology, all of which produce valuable insights. About two-thirds of the volume is devoted to detailed descriptions of species in genera which were studied. The tropical view point leads to a new classification of seedling "types" based on developmental as well as morphological features, in which 16 categories are recognized. Diversity in tropical tree seedlings centres around the classical hypogeal germination which is common in tropical floras. Nevertheless, the epigea1 category (here referred to as the Macaranga-type)accounts for more than 50% of Malesian woody genera. A major conclusion of this study is that the first leaf pair in epigea1 seedlings is "paracotyledons" homologous with the second leaf pair in hypogea1 types. Evolution is said to have proceeded from the hypogeal to the epigea1 state by loss of "true" cotyledons. The argument is closely reasoned, but little anatomical evidence is produced to support it. The book is an outstanding addition to the literature on seedlings and germination.
Robert K. Godfrey & Jean W. Wooten. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern UnitedStates. Monocotyledons. University of Georgia Press, Athens, 1979. ix + 712 p.
In the preface of this fine book one reads that the senior author began work on a study of aquatic plants of Florida about 20 years ago, and that this was amplified over time to include the Small's Manual (1933) range plus Arkansas and Louisiana. It is thus a fitting companion to the manual of Correll and Correll, and will become a good friend to all who seek answers in the field. The introductory essay is brief, there being no exhaustive compilation of phytographica1 information (a compact glossary is at the end of the book), the straight-forward keys, descriptions and illustrations serving this task very well. The authors are careful to state their practical views on what constitutes an aquatic or wetlands plant, to indicate the professional areas this work is intended to serve, and to describe succinctly the habitats the book is intended to cover.
The body of the text is superior! I have worked many of the keys and find in them the best combination of terseness and efficiency. The same sense of balance in economy and coverage shows up in the descriptions of genera and species. The book is very well illustrated. The writers have the kind of confidence based on experience, and the honesty to recognize understanding of difficult groups. If there is a way to a concise treatment of a group, the authors have generally found it. I believe that the book will stand the test of time.
Karl V. Krombein, et al. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, ed 2. 3 vols. (Vo1. 1, Symphyta and Apocrita; vol. 2, Apocrita; vol. 3, Indexes). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1979. Vol. 1, $30.00; vol. 2. $28.00; vol. 3. $20.00 (from G.P.O., Washington, D.C. 20402).
The attention of botanists is called to this monumental work on Hymenoptera and especially to the botanically important section on Apoidea by Paul Hurd. This section, in Vol. II, is 468 pages long. It begins with a short but valuable introductory statement on the bees, and then lists 3465 species
in 121 genera and 8 families. Of interest to botanists is the list of flower records by plant species or genus for each species or subspecies of bee. Geographical ranges, literature references, synonymy, and other information are also given for each bee species. The work is a mine of information and will be very useful to some botanists.
W. Eschrich and H. Lorenzen, eds. Phloem Loading and Related Processes. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, 1980. 378 p. $55.70. Volume 93(1) of the BerichtedeutschenbotanischenGesellschaft published the proceedings of this symposium. Why it was believed to be valuable to reprint it at this price is beyond me. While many, if not most, of the individual papers are of excellent quality, there is no conceptual framework, no integration and no unification to allow students or researchers not intimately involved with the topic to orient themselves. Libraries with the journal need not purchase this volume.
A. Fahn. Secretory Tissuesin Plants. Academic Press, N.Y., 1979. 302 p. $42.00
This well organized, carefully documented volume will be the standard reference on secretory tissues for many years. To avoid the often perplexing problem of distinguishing between secretion, excretion and recretion, Fahn uses only the term secretion definded as the elimination of substances stored for remobilization which can be withdrawn from further metabolic processes. Only specialized single cells and multicellular processes structures eliminating specific substances are called secretory tissues and are included in the book. Wall formation, cutinization, cuticularization, suberization, and wax deposits are properly omitted. Part 1 is devoted to structures secreting unmodified or only slightly modified substances including hydathodes, salt glands, and nectaries. Part 2 focuses on secretory tissues synthesizing secreted substances including mucilage-secreting tissues, glands of carnivorous plants, myrosin cells, stinging trichomes, lipophilic secreting tissues, and 1aticifers. Each chapter is well balanced; data from light and electron microscope studies dominate, augmented with physiological, ecological, and evolutionary information. Functional and evolutionary considerations are sometimes lacking. On occasion, Fahn speculates on the evolution of some structures; I wish he had been more venturesome. Professor Fahn has admirably filled the need for a modern synthesis of secretory tissues.
H. C. Bold, C. J. Alexopoulos, and T. De1evoryas. Morphology of Plants and Fungi. 4th edition. Harper & Row, N.Y., 1980. $23.95.
This latest edition of Bold's standard text contains some important changes. Two new authors have made contributions and, as indicated by the title, the fungi are given separate kingdom status. The section on fungi has been totally rewritten by Alexopoulos, De1evoryas has extensively revised the sections on fossil vascular plants, and Bold has expanded the chapters on liverworts and mosses. The remaining sections are updated by including references to recent literature. The overall format and most of the illustrations in the present version are the same as those of its predecessor.
It is easy to fault books which emphasize selected genera for not including the "pets" of the instructor and one could easily nominate many more organisms for inclusion. I was particularly disappointed to find that the sections on prokaryotes and on the algae had not received more attention. The prokaryotes have a rich structural and developmental diversity which is often neglected in the traditional microbiology course as well as in plant morphology. There is only a vague reference to the changing concepts of green algal phylogeny and there is no mention of the prasinophytes, nor of other organisms which could be used to illustrate the more recent hypotheses. Despite these criticisms, this text has proven to be useful to many young botanists and I'm looking forward to using the new edition in my course on non-vascular plants.
H. T. Hartmann, W. J. Flocker and A. M. Kofrank. Plant Science. Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981. 676 pp. $26.95
This book was designed as a text for plant science courses "at the lower division level and in community colleges" and must be judged by this standard. Organized into three major units dealing with plant structure, classification and growth; with horticultural crops and urban forest practice; and with cereal, forage, and other crops, the student is exposed to a logical developmental sequence of plants and their cultivation - both theoretically and proctica11y. It is probably a direct competitor of Janick et a1. and admirably holds its own against Janick's book. Generally it is a more useful book for those students who require the applied information at a more sophisticated level than can be obtained by reading the plethora of How-To books on the market, and
need the underpinnings that theory and fundamental botany provides.
It is a large (and expensive) volume, well illustrated with graphs, tables and photographs drawn from primary sources and each chapter ends with appropriate references and supplementary readings. Review questions are included, but their value is small since they tend to be material found in the text and not questions that stimulate thinking. All-in-all, the authors have prepared an excellent, valuable and seminal book.
Fifteen undergraduate students majoring in botany have received citations from the Botanical Society of America for excellence in botany. The awardees were selected on the basis of recommendations from members of the Society and were presented with certificates of recognition. They were also informed of Society activities, and were encouraged to attend the annual meeting and to join the Society. Awardees and sponsors are listed below.
Barbara Webster, Ray Evert, John Romberger
Janet A. Trott and Susan L. Schumacher by Charles Curtis, Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711.
Kim Dean Bowman, Cecilia P. Devlin, Laurel Renee Riffle, Kelley Joan-Ramsey, Alice Elaine Johnson, Luann K. Stall, by John L. Vankat, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.
Delores A. Sowinski, by Richard L. Hauke, Botany Department, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881.
James A. Peeples, by Tom S. Cooperrider, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242.
Philip D'Eon, by E.R. Rivera, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854.
Helen Moore, by Ann. M. Hirsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181.
Frederick R. Garrison, by R. M. Klein, Botany Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401.
Two notations or corrections should be made in the book of abstracts of papers presented at the recent meetings held at Indiana University. The symposium - Endangered ecosystems (p.52-53) - was cancelled because essential financial support did not develop. The abstracts by Council, Dacey, and Davis were inadvertently included as part of the symposium; the papers to which they relate were presented in a session of the Physiological Section.