Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1979 v25 No 1 SpringActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

VOLUME 25, NUMBER 1, March, 1979

Richard M. Klein, Editor, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405
Editorial Board
Jerry D. Davis - University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI
Peter Heywood - Brown University, Providence, RI
Anitra Thorhaug - Florida International University, Key Biscayne, FL
Richard P. Wunderlin - University of South Florida, Tampa, FL

Change of Address. Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America. Inc., Dr. Barbara D. Webster, Department of Agronomy & Range Science. University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Subscriptions for libraries and for persons not members of the Society can be obtained for $10.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical Society of America. Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.

Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Microfilms of the Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.

Report on the Botanical Society of America Delegation to the People's Republic of China, May and June 1978
74th Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America
Editorial Search Committee


Report on the Botanical Society of America Delegation to the People's Republic of China, May and June, 1978
A. Thorhaug, Department of Biological Sciences
Florida International University

In early 1971, after our government had received broad hints about reopening the question of Sino-American relationships, an invitation went to two American biologists to enter the People's Republic of China. One of these was Professor Arthur Galston of Yale University, a member of the Botanical Society. Galston returned in 1972 to work at the Lu Gou Ch'iao Agricultural Commune twenty miles from Peking. In 1976, the president of the Botanical Society, Peter Raven, appointed Galston to head a committee on liaison between the People's Republic of China and the Botanical Society of America, and prolonged but very friendly correspondence began for an exchange of delegations. A ten-person delegation was officially invited in 1977 from the Botanical Society of America to be guests of the People's Republic of China. From the several hundred botanists who applied, a delegation consisting of botanists representing a broad spectrum of botanical interests, regions of the United States and age was chosen including Lawrence Bogorad, Harvard University, leader and plant physiologist; Bruce Bartholomew, University of California-Berkeley, systematics; R. H. Hageman, University of Illinois, physiology; Richard A. Howard, Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, systematics; J. William Schopf, UCLA, paleobotany; Jane Shen-Miller, National Science Foundation, physiology; Richard C. Starr, University of Texas, phycology; William Tai, Michigan State University, cytogenetics; Anitra Thorhaug, Florida International University, marine botany and pollution; and Thomas Elias, Cary Arboretum, phytogeography and systematics.

As reported by Thomas Elias and Anitra Thorhaug at the plenary session of the 1978 Botanical Society meeting in Virginia, the delegation was met with every courtesy and much warmth and graciousness by the many groups of Chinese scientists. They appeared delighted to host us and were anxious to hear of progress in United States science in a number of categories of botany which were of great interest to them. In city after city the groups asked that their best regards be sent to specific botanists they knew or had read of and to the members of the Botanical Society of America at large. They were most anxious for contacts to be made between their own research groups and those in various laboratories in the United States carrying out the same type of research.

Our delegation had submitted a list of cities to be visited from which the Chinese had selected a group of cities within the available time each of which had from two to eight institutes of botany. We proceeded from Canton in the subtropical south, where we visited the South China Botanical Garden, the Fushan Marsh Gas Electrical Power Station (biogas), Sun Yat-sen University, Ding Hou San Arboretum and the Institute of Botany; to the southwest Yunnan Province, where few visitors had previously visited the Institute of Botany and the Yunnan University. We then proceeded to Shanghai, to the old and illustrious Institute of Plant Physiology, as well as the Lung Hua Seedling Nursery and Botanical Garden (containing the most outstanding collection of bonsai plants any of us had seen), the Ma-Lo People's Commune, the Biochemistry Institute, an Agricultural Academy and the noted Futan University. We went to the beautiful garden city of Hangchow, where we visited the Botanical Garden and the University; then proceeded to Nanking, the Institute of Botany, Agricultural Institute of Kiangsu Province, Nanking University, the Soils Research Institute, and the Institute of Geology and Paleontology. At this point the group was split into two parts. The major group went to Wuhan (also called the oven of China for its excessive summer temperatures), to visit the Institute of Botany in Wuhan University, the Provincial Research Institute of Hydrobiology, and the Academy of Agriculture of Hopeh Province. The other group, consisting of myself and Richard Starr, proceeded to the much cooler seacoast town of Tsingtao and visited the Institute of Oceanology, the Huang Hai Fisheries Institute, the College of Oceanology and the Tsingtao Aquarium and Marine Museum. We reunited in Peking, the center and heart of all science in China, where we visited the Botanical Garden, the Atomic Institute of Agriculture, the Institute of Genetics (Academia Sinica), the famed and central Institute of Botany (Academia Sinica), the illustrious Peking University and the Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Academia Sinica. Returning to Canton, we exited, exhausted, through Hong Kong.

Realising that one of the important functions of our mission was to transmit information to United States botanists, we assigned a "responsible party member" for each institute to write a trip report and also assigned a specialist as we visited various laboratories within the institute to write reports on, for instance, "tissue culture" or "electron microscopy" at that institute. This report plus synthetic articles give our opinions about a spectrum of subject areas between the many institutes (i.e., Phytosystematics, Physiology, Botanical Gardens, etc.) studied and will be published by Stanford University Press, U.S.-China Relations Division, in early spring. The volume will contain names and addresses of all people visited as well as past, present and future research in all the departments mentioned above. Since these are the major places of plant research in China, it should be extremely helpful in assessing the state of botanical science in China as well as of specific interest to people wishing to make further contact with their Chinese colleagues, most of whom will be listed. It is best to order a copy now for you or your library; final price at cost will be between $7.50 and $12.50. To order, write to Dr. Anitra Thorhaug, c/o 600 Grapetree Drive, #4EN, Key Biscayne, Florida 33149.

The organization of science in China is different from the United States, since all science is done under the auspices of the federal or the provincial government. There is national science program planning, as well as provincial science program planning (so that provincial needs can be met). During the past ten years (1967-1978) the Cultural Revolution took place. At the People's Party Congress in March 1978, this revolution has been replaced by a new emphasis on science and technology, which has been headlined recently in United States news media: Graduate programs came to a standstill during the Cultural Revolution, but have now been reinstituted and a desire to exchange students on a graduate and post-graduate basis was reiterated over and over.

A preponderance of the botanical research in China occurs at government research institutes; however, there was a substantial amount occurring within universities by faculty, who are just recently being increasingly freed from teaching time to pursue their independent research. Quite frequently a faculty member at a university or college has a joint appointment at the nearby research institute and pursues research there.

The major research foci could be explained in the following way. The role of botanical gardens in China is in a great state of flux, since activities and the role of the classical botanical garden changed greatly during the Cultural Revolution. Size, number of staff and collection of Chinese plants are often impressive. Phytotaxonomy had received a considerable amount of support and a great deal of energy of Chinese botanists has gone into this


field. There is a specific journal, Acta Phytotaxonimica Sinica, whereas all other botanical research is reported in the Acta Botanica Sinica. The major project pervading all taxonomic work at the present time is the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinica, which involves more than 200 botanists and will comprise 80 volumes by 1985. Five have now been published, ten are in press, with two volumes appearing shortly. An excellent article on phytotaxonomy will appear in a book by Bruce Bartholomew, including a list and addresses of all the workers separated by field, and an extensive bibliography. Forestry and urban forestry have received great attention; many of their urban trees are well designed and cared for. Unconventional crop breeding methods in China include wide hybridization between distantly related and unrelated plant species, being carried out at almost every commune. William Tai reports extensively on these aspects in Botany in China. Biochemistry and physiology suffered more than some of the other branches of botany during the Cultural Revolution, since these were thought to be more esoteric and not as practical toward the goals of the Chinese people. Thus many of the more physiological biochemical programs are being reinstituted now which have been dormant during the past ten years. Nitrogenase research, algae as fertilizers, however, as well as photosynthesis, is receiving considerable attention at some of the physiology institutes. Agriculture was considered one of the important goals of the last thirty years and previous delegations reported on this. * The state of phycology and marine botany is intertwined. Laminaria japonica being cultivated on a large scale is one of the highlights of the practical applications of phycology. Although phycological research is going forward in many research institutes, the Institute of Oceanology in Tsingtao seems to be the center of phycological and marine botanical work. J. W. Schopf has written an extensive report on paleobotany and palynology.

During the May and June 1978, the Botanical Society of America delegates had a taste of the varied and prolific botanical research occurring in this important botanical nation, the People's Republic of China, which has been closed off during the past thirty years from availability of information flow to most American botanists. Upon arriving home in the United States, many of the delegates tried to write short articles and get them in specific journals so that the information could be passed to the interested botanists. A book, Botany in China, will now contain an extensive summary of the information gained.

In summary, the People's Republic is a rapidly expanding botanical nation where a variety of crop-related and practical botanical research has been going on for thirty years. Recent events have signaled an increased interest in more theoretical aspects of botany. Thousands of trained botanical workers are diligently keying up in a series of laboratories throughout the Chinese provinces for a "springtime of science" in which botanical research is expected to lead the way to the level of modern western technology. We can expect a much more meaningful exchange between our Chinese colleagues and ourselves with respect to a whole realm of fields in which they have important and interesting research going forward.

* Plant Studies in the People's Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Plant Studies Delegation. 1975. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 205 pp. and Johnson, V. A. and H. L. Beemer, Jr. (eds.). 1977. Wheat in the People's Republic of China: A Trip Report of the American Wheat Studies Delegation. CSCPRC Report No.6. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 190 pp.


*Herbert G. Baker (1979), Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

*Shirley C. Tucker (1979), Department of Botany, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

*Patricia K. Holmgren (1975-1979), New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458

*Barbara D. Webster (1977-1981), Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616

Program Director:
*Charles Heimsch (1979-1981), Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056

Editorial Committee, American Journal of Botany:
William L. Culberson (1977-1979), Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27706
A. Carl Leopold (1978-1980), Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
Nels R. Lersten (1979-1981), Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011

Editor, American Journal of Botany:
*Ernest M. Gifford, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, California 95616

Editor, Plant Science Bulletin:
*Richard M. Klein (1976-1980), Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401

Business Manager, American Journal of Botany:
*Richard A. Popham (1973-1982), Department of Botany, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210


Past President, 1978:
*William A. Jensen, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

Past President, 1977:
*Warren H. Wagner, Jr., Department of Botany, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109


Past President, 1976:
*Barbara F. Palser, Department of Botany, P.O. Box 1059, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854

Chairperson (1978-1980):
* Judith G. Croxdale, Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

Vice-Chairperson (1979-1981):
Philip V. Ammirato, Department of Biology, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027

Secretary (1979-1981):
Dan B. Walker, Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):
Jerome P. Miksche, Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

Chairman (1979):

*Edward E. C. Clebsch, Graduate Program in Ecology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

Vice-Chairman (1979):
Jerry M. Baskin, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506

Secretary (1977-1979):
Carol C. Baskin, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):
Patricia A. Werner, Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, Michigan 49060

Chairman (1979-1980):

Emanuel D. Rudolph, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Vice-Chairman (1979-1980):
David H. Rembert, Jr., Biology Department, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208

Secretary-Treasurer (1971-1979):
*Ronald L. Stuckey, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1973-1981):
Emanuel D. Rudolph, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Chairman (1977-1979):

Peter R. Day, Department of Genetics, Connecticut Agric. Exp. Stat., New Haven, Connecticut 06504

Vice-Chairman (1977-1979):
Henry Aldrich, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Secretary (1975-1979):
Annette Hervey, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458

Representative to the Council (1977-1979):
*O'Neil Ray Collins, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):
Peter R. Day, Department of Genetics, Connecticut Agric. Exp. Stat., New Haven, Connecticut 06504

Chairman (1979):

Gar W. Rothwell, Department of Botany, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701

Secretary-Treasurer (1978-1980):
*Charles N. Miller, Jr., Botany Department, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59801

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1978-1979):
David L. Dilcher, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401


Chairman (1977-1979):

*James R. Rosowski, School of Life Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588

Secretary (1978-1980):
Russell L. Chapman, Department of Botany, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):
Larry R. Hoffman, Department of Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801

Chairperson (1977-1980):

*Anitra Thorhaug, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199

Vice-Chairperson (1977-1980):
John L. Gallagher, Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., 200 Southwest 35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97330

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1980):
Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental & Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92664

Chairperson (1979):

*Dale Smith, Department of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106

Chairperson-elect (1979):
Daniel J. Crawford, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

Secretary (1977-1979):
David Seigler, Department of Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801

Treasurer (1978-1979):
Mark W. Bierner, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1979-1980):
David A. Young, Department of Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801

Chairman (1979-1980):

Gerald J. Gastony, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401

Secretary-Treasurer (1978-1980):
*James D. Caponetti, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37916

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1979-1980):
Patricia G. Gensel, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

Chairperson (1979):

James L. Seago, Department of Biology, State University College, Oswego, New York 13126

Vice-Chairperson (1979):
Nancy G. Dengler, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S lAl

Secretary-Treasurer (1978-1980):
*Rudolf Schmid, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1978-1980):
Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011

Chairman (1979-1980):

*Loran C. Anderson, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306

Secretary (1977-1979):
Melinda F. Denton, Department of Botany, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1979-1981):
David E. Giannasi, Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602

Chairman (1979):

Charles R. Curtis, Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19711

Vice-Chairman and Program Coordinator (1979):
Barrett N. Rock, Department of Biology, Alfred University, Alfred, New York 14802

Secretary (1979-1981):
*Larry R. Yoder, Ohio State University, Marion, Ohio 43302

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1980):
S. N. Postlethwait, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Chairman (1979):

E. Marie Boyle, 1521 Norman Road, Havertown, Pennsylvania 19083


Secretary-Treasurer (1979-1981):
*Alfred E. Schuyler, Academy of Natural Sciences, 19th & Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103

Chairperson (1979):

Ronald J. Taylor, Biology Department, Western Washington State University, Bellingham, Washington 98225

Vice-Chairperson (1979):
Richard J. Naskali, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843

Secretary-Treasurer (1977-1979):
*David Bilderback, Department of Botany, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59801

Chairman (1977-1979):

*James F. Matthews, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina 28213

Secretary-Treasurer (1978-1980):
Michael J. Baranski, Department of Biology, Catawba College, Salisbury, North Carolina 28144

Chairman of Activities Committee (1979-1981):
James W. Wallace, Department of Biology, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina 28723

*Persons so marked are members of the Council.

74th Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America

The annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America will be held 12-17 August at the Oklahoma State University at Stillwater under the auspices of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and Oklahoma State University. Registration forms and information about housing arrangements and meals will appear in BioScience in April 1979. If you don't subscribe to BioScience, write to AIBS, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209 for registration forms. The Council of the Botanical Society will meet during the meeting week and all members may present suggestions and items of business to the Council through the Secretary of the Society, Dr. Patricia Holmgren. There will also be a general business meeting at which all members can participate in considering major issues before the Society. In addition to reports to be read at contributed paper sessions and symposia, members may present demonstrations. Abstracts and paper titles must be submitted to the appropriate Section secretary.

Several field trips are included in the programs of the Society, its sections, and allied societies that are participating in the Oklahoma meetings.

FERN FORAY (10-12 August) sponsored by the American Fern Society and the Pteridological section. The area of the trip will be northwest Arkansas. Contact Dr. W. Carl Taylor, Botany Department, Milwaukee Public Museum, 800 Wells St., Milwaukee, WI 53233.

FORAY TO NORTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA (11-12 August) sponsored by the Ecological Society of America, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and the Systematic section. Contact Dr. Paul Nighswonger, Department of Biology, Northwestern Oklahoma State University, Ala, OK 73717.

WICHITA MOUNTAINS AND CADDO CANYON (11-12 August) sponsored by the Ecological Society of America, American Society of Plant Taxonomists and the Botanical Society. Contact Dr. James K. McPherson, School of Biological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74074.

GRASSES AND GRASSLANDS OF OKLAHOMA (11 August) sponsored by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and the Systematic section. The trip will visit the grasslands of north-central Oklahoma. Contact Dr. James R. Estes, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73069.

PHYCOLOGICAL FIELD TRIP (12 August) sponsored by the Phycological Society of America and the Phycological section. The Chickasha National Recreation Area will be visited. Contact Dr. Lois Pfeister, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Aklahoma, Norman OK 73069.

STRIP MINES IN THE ARKOMA BASIN (11-12 August) sponsored by the Paleobotanical section. Mines to be visited are in southeastern Oklahoma and some yield excellent compressions of Pennsylvanian plant remains. Contact Dr. Charles N. Miller, Jr., Department of Botany, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 58912.

Registration for the Fern Foray and the trip to the strip mines is to be made through the individuals noted above. Registration for the other trips should be made through AIBS on the form provided with the registration package.

Editorial Search Committee

On 1 January 1980, my five-year term as Editor of the American Journal of Botany comes to an end. President William Jensen has appointed, in accordance with the constitution, a search committee consisting of Theodore Delevoryas, Barbara Palser, Richard Popham and Ernest M. Gifford (Chairman) to recommend a new Editor at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the Society who will assume the editorship at the beginning of January 1980.

I believe that the editor should have a respectable publication record plus competency in English and a working knowledge of German, French and Spanish. Probably, the person should be fairly senior in rank.

Currently, the editorship carries an honorarium of $2500 a year and, although this can hardly be considered adequate pay for professional services, it does help. Your suggestions for candidates to replace me will be greatly appreciated. A brief statement in support of your nomination(s), not excluding yourself, should be sent to Dr. Ernest M. Gifford, Editor-in-Chief, American Journal of Botany, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.


The Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation had a show, "Reflections from the Third Day. Photographic Revelations of Plant Design" from 20 November 1978 through 16 February 1979.
The Kentucky Academy of Science Foundation for


Botanical Research is now receiving applications for 1979-1980 grants of $500 to support student research. Grants are open to applicants enrolled in a college or university within Kentucky and from students from outside the State whose research involves a study to be conducted within the State. Applications should be sent to Dr. Joe E. Winstead, Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101.

The Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation has established the George H. M. Lawrence Memorial Fund to honor the memory of the founding director. The income from the fund will be used to provide an annual award to support doctoral research in one or more of Dr. Lawrence's fields of special interest.

The report of the Botanical Society's delegation to China will be published this spring by the Stanford University Press. Entitled "Botany in China," the book will be edited by Dr. Anitra Thorhaug and written by the ten delegates of the Society plus Dr. Arthur Galston, Chairman of the Liaison Committee of the Society.

The Historical Section of the Botanical Society will sponsor a special lecture at the annual meeting of the Society at Oklahoma State University in August 1979. Dr. Kenneth L. Jones, Emeritus Professor of Botany at the University of Michigan will speak on "The study of lives of scientists as a bridge between science and the humanities" on Tuesday 14 August 1979.

"Restoration of Major Plant Ecosystems," a collection of papers has been published by Elsevier Press. Proceeds from the book will go to the Physiological Section Student Fund. Copies are available from Dr. Anitra Thorhaug, 600 Grapetree Drive, #4EN, Key Biscayne, FL 33149.

The Flora North America Project was recently revitalized by the Man and Biosphere Program as a binational effort between the United States and Canada to produce a conventional flora of the vascular plants of North America north of Mexico using traditional methods. Funding for the proposed five volumes is provided by the National Park Service, with long-term support being explored by a Program Council chaired by Peter H. Raven. The Editorial sub-committee consists of Reed C. Rollins, Howard S. Irwin and Roy L. Taylor; James L. Reveal has been appointed Editor. Individuals wishing additional information should contact Dr. James L. Reveal, Editor, Department of Botany, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

The Phloem Translocator, a newsletter for the dissemination of information to the phloem workers of the world has published its first issue in January 1979. Botanists interested and wishing to be placed on the mailing list should contact Dr. Michael A. Walsh, Department of Biology, Plant Anatomy Research Laboratories, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322.

The Missouri Botanical Garden and the New York Botanical Garden have been awarded a grant of $200,000 by the U. S. Office of Education to be used to recatalog the libraries at both institutions.

A summary of past, present and future botanical research in the People's Republic of China by the Botanical Society of America delegation of ten visit to ten cities and 35 botanical institutions, universities, etc., May-June, 1978. Including a list of workers by field (names and addresses), summaries on botanical gardens; systematics and herbaria; phytogeography, threatened, endangered and rare species; forestry; plant breeding; molecular genetics; physiology and biochemistry; phycology; marine botany; agriculture; paleontology; and energy-related aspects of botany. Place orders now for this historic book to be published at cost in April through the Botanical Society of America (estimated cost $7.50 to $12.50) by writing to Dr. A. Thorhaug, ed., 600 Grapetree Drive, #4EN, Key Biscayne, Florida 33149.

Endangered Plant Species of the World and Their Endangered Habitats: A Compilation of the Literature by Meryl A. Miasek and Charles R. Long contains over 600 citations in an attempt to document world-wide efforts to list endangered plants and their special habitats. The bibliography can be obtained for $3.50 from The Library, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458.


Dr. Barbara F. Palser of Rutgers University has been awarded an honorary D.Sc. from Wellesley College.

Dr. Y. P. S. Bajaj, Professor of Tissue Culture at the Punjab Agricultural University has joined the Indian Council of Agricultural Research as a National Fellow.

Dr. E. Hennipman, Rijksherbarium, Leiden, Netherlands received the 1979 Jesse M. Greenman award for "A monograph of the fern genus Bolbitis (Lomariopsidaceae)." The award of $250 is presented annually by the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical Garden to recognize the best paper in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral thesis. Papers published in 1978 are now being considered for the 12th annual award and reprints should be sent to Dr. Alwyn H. Gentry, Department of Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63110.

Dr. T. T. Kozlowski, Professor of Forest Science at the University of Wisconsin, was awarded the degree of D.Sc. from the University Catholoque de Louvain, Louvain-la-Nueve, Belgium.


AN OPENING IN MYCOLOGY exists in the Department of Biology, Harvard University. The area of research interest is not necessarily restricted to taxonomy, but applicants should at least show strong interest in systematics as the position includes duties as curator of the cryptogamic collection of the Farlow Herbarium. Nominations and applications should be sent to Dr. Martin Zimmermann, Harvard Forest, Peter- sham, MA 01366.

A BOTANIST is being sought to fill a tenure-track position at the assistant professor level. Appointment begins 16 August 1979 with a salary range of $14,000 to $14,800. Primary responsibilities include teaching an undergraduate vascular plant systematics course, development of another undergraduate and graduate level courses in areas of expertise, curating the herbarium and establishing independent research/graduate programs. The Ph.D. is required. Forward resume and three letters of evaluation to Dr. Syed M. Jalal, Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, NO 58202.

A DIRECTOR OF THE HERBARIUM is being sought at the Southern Methodist University. Applicants must be well established in the field, hold the Ph.D. and have qualifications for a tenured appointment at the associate or full professor level. There must be a commitment to undergraduate and graduate teaching, administrative and curatorial experience and demonstrated competence in research in plant systematics.
Resume including teaching, research, administrative and curatorial experience, a statement of research and professional goals and names of at least three references should be sent to Dr. Venita F. Allison, Chairman, Department of Biology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275.

POST-DOCTORAL SUMMER RESEARCH STIPENDS are available for field research at the Mountain Lake Biological Station of the University of Virginia. Stipends of


$1500 are available for studies of a wide variety of terrestrial and fresh water environments. Deadline is 15 May 1979. Contact Dr. James L. Riopel, Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.

AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY and assistant botanist in the Agricultural Experiment Station is being sought by the University of California. The 11 month appointment is 75% research, 25% teaching. The candidate is expected to develop a research program on cellular mechanisms of uptake of organic molecules including soil-applied herbicides. The Ph.D. is required, as is a strong background in appropriate biophysical techniques. Teaching responsibilities include an upper-division, undergraduate course in plant physiology and/or a course in weed science. Applications including resume, statement of research and teaching goals, transcripts and three letters of recommendation should be sent to Dr. D. E. Bayer, Botany Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

POST-GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS at the Hunt Institution will be available for the 1979-1980 period. Fellowships are tenable in the History of Botany, Botanical Biography and Iconography, Bibliography and History of Botanical Art. Stipends will be $10,000. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae and the names of three recommenders plus a brief description of the proposed research project. Send to Dr. Robert W. Kiger, Director, Hunt Institute, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.

AN ASSISTANT PROFESSORSHIP IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY will be filled by the Biology Department of Yale University. The department is interested in applicants working in molecular aspects of genetics or development of plants or animals. The successful candidate will be expected to contribute to a strong departmental program in molecular biology and to participate in undergraduate and graduate teaching. Curricula vitae, resume of past and present research and names of three referees should be sent to Chairman, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520.

AN ASSIST ANT PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURE is being sought by the University of Delaware. A recent Ph.D. in plant science with emphasis on horticultural physiology and ornamental horticulture is required. Duties include developing and teaching undergraduate courses in greenhouse management, production and management of ornamentals and a graduate course, to advise undergraduate and graduate students and guide thesis research, and to develop an active research program in horticultural physiology and ornamental horticulture. Send letters of application, resume, transcripts and three letters of reference to Dr. C. R. Curtis, Chairperson, Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711.

AN ASSISTANT OR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY is being sought by Northeastern University to teach introductory plant biology or a quarter of the large general biology course, a comprehensive plant physiology course and to share teaching of other advanced plant science courses or cell physiology and to develop graduate courses in area of specialty. Candidates must develop research of own and graduate students in physiology of vascular plants preferably with cell-physiological or biochemical orientation. The Ph.D. and teaching experience and evidence of recent productivity are required. Curriculum vitae, transcripts, statements of current and planned research and names of three references should be sent to Dr. Daniel Scheirer, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115.

AN ASSISTANT OR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR IN BOTANY/MARINE ECOLOGY is being sought by North-eastern University. The successful applicant will teach one term of the large biology course or alternatively, teach or share botany and related courses for majors and non-majors, to share teaching of one-quarter ecology course required of biology majors and to develop advanced courses in specialty. The successful candidate will develop a research program of own and graduate students in botanical aspects of ecology, preferably in phytoplankton/and or marine aquatic systems and will have corollary responsibility to share guidance of graduate students in plant science and ecology with other faculty. A Ph.D. is required as is teaching experience at the introductory level. Send curriculum vitae, transcripts, statement of current and planned research and the names of three professional references to Dr. Ernest Ruber, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FELLOWSHIP at the post-doctoral, doctoral and graduate student level will be offered to support independent research in association with staff of the Institution. Contact the Office of Fellowships and Grants, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20506.

TEACHING AND RESEARCH ASSISTANTSHIPS are open for qualified students desiring to pursue an M.S. degree at the Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware. Contact Dr. C. R. Curtis, Chairperson, Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711.

STAFF POSITIONS IN SYSTEMATIC BOTANY are open in the Department of Botany, Smothsonian Institution. Candidates with active research programs in monographic and/or floristic botany are sought. Preference will be given applicants with Ph.D. and demonstrated interest in evolutionary interpretations. Interested persons should send a statement of general research goals, curriculum vitae, U.S. Civil Service Standard Form 171, names of three references and a set of reprints to Dr. Dieter C. Wasshausen, Chairman, Department of Botany #161 NHB, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20506.

AN ASSISTANT TO THE DIRECTOR AND BOTANICAL RESEARCH SCIENTIST is being sought by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. The position will carry faculty appointment as Research Scientist, equivalence Assistant Professor with 75% of time devoted to managerial and other assignments and the remainder to elective research. A letter of application, curriculum vitae and letters from three referees should be sent to Dr. Robert W. Kiger, Hunt Institute, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.


AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POLYPLOIDY: BIOLOGICAL RELEVANCE will be held 24-27 May 1979 at Washington University, St. Louis. Contact Dr. Walter H. Lewis, Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130.

THE MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION of the University of Virginia will offer courses for under- graduate and graduate credit. The first term, 18 June-17 July, 1979 will include courses in Field Biology of Green Plants, Taxonomy and Ecology of Bryophytes and the Biology of Parasitic Angiosperms. The second term, 19 July-17 August, 1979 will offer Algology, Mycology, Forest Ecology and Paleobotany. Several fellowships will be available. Contact Dr. James L. Riopel, Mountain Lake Biological Station, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903.

A SHORT COURSE ON SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY MICROANALYSIS will be held at Lehigh University on 25-29 June 1979. The course, which costs


$495 will cover the fundamentals of SEM and electron microprobe, energy and wavelength dispersive x-ray detectors and other topics. The course is open to engineers, scientists, technical managers and advanced technicians. Contact Prof. J. I. Goldstein, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Lehigh University, Whitaker Laboratory #5, Bethlehem, PA 18015.

THE 37th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY SOCIETY OF AMERICA and the 13th Annual Meeting of the Microbeam Analysis Society will be held at the Convention Center, San Antonio, TX on 13-17 August 1979. Dr. Myron C. Ledbetter has organized a symposium on "Electron Microscopy in the Plant Sciences." Information can be obtained from Dr. William H. Massover, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.

BIOLOGY OF PTERIDOPHYTES will be offered as a course by the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse at the University Wisconsin System Pigeon Lake Field Station on 8-27 July 1979. The course will emphasize identification and field ecology (habitat, reproduction, life history) with supplementary material on classification, phylogeny, and systematics. The instructor is James H. Peck. Contact the Director, Pigeon Lake Field Station, UW-Superior Superior, WI 54880.

THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PHOTOBIOLOGY has been organized under the auspices of the Association Internationale de Photobiologie and will be held on 20-25 July 1980 in Strasbourg, France. Contact M. Charlier, Secretaire General, Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, lA avenue de la Recherches Scientifique, 45045 Orleans Cedex, France. Details and forms will be sent only to those who contact the Secretaire Generale.


Dr. Paul A. Vestal, Professor Emeritus at Rollins College died 12 September 1978.

Dr. Hilda F. Rosene, University of Texas at Austin, died 21 December 1978.

Dr. William J. Robbins, New York Botanical Garden and Rockefeller University, died in October 1978.


WHITE, MICHAEL J. D. Modes of Speciation. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco. 1978. 455 pp., illust. $27.50.

Periodic interpretive syntheses are necessary in order to make proper use of the data gathered or produced by scientists. This book is a good example of the genre, and a fine job it is. The author writes well, and has effectively marshalled the evidence to reach reasonable conclusions. I found myself underlining choice passages as I read. The author tries to cover both plants and animals, but the zoological part of the book is more successful than the botanical part. As a good zoologist, he is wedded to the so-called biological species concept, which botanical taxonomists have had to abandon as more productive of confusion than clarity when applied to plants. He has learned, and amply documented, that sympatric speciation can and sometimes does occur in animals as well as plants: one article of false faith properly discarded. He still accepts, however, the outmoded dogma that truly autoploid plants are rare, the seeming examples being mostly alloploids in disguise. Most botanical taxonomists have now learned better, although we will of course all admit that some apparent autoploids have been reconstituted from alloploids.

Botanists will find the book highly useful as a good exposition of what perceptive zoologists are thinking. Much of the theory is of course equally applicable to plants, but I get the feeling that the author is not really at home in the gardens of botany. That is no sin, but we should recognize the limitations as well as the virtues of the book. Even with these reservations, it is worth your money.
Arthur Cronquist, The New York Botanical Garden

STREET, H. E. (ed.). Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. Second Edition. Botanical Monographs, Volume II. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1978. 624 pp.

The fifteen chapters review past and present developments of the rapidly evolving technology of plant cell culture. The volume has been extensively revised and distinctly improved from the first edition. The edition has more than 1500 references. Most of the chapters are written by acknowledged experts in the respective fields. The topics center predominantly on culture methodology, growth behavior, cytology and physiology of cultured plant cells. The choice of topics reflects the aspects of greatest interest and challenge to the Editor and the book is a particularly fitting legacy left by the late Professor H. E. Street.

The better chapters include those on nuclear cytology and anther culture which critically evaluate current information on technology and cytology. A chapter on differentiation is a heroic attempt to enumerate and condense into forty pages our current understanding of cytodifferentiation and morphogenesis. A short chapter presents an informative review on progress in protoplast isolation, culture and fusion. Leaving aside over-optimistic predictions, the review on the use of in vitro methods in the study of plant pathogens and symbiosis contains a fine resume of the topics. A valuable asset is the inclusion of definitions of terminology; regrettably such terms as mutualistic symbiosis and biotrophic were not defined. Although the absence of reviews on such topics as organ and embryo culture, mutagenesis, and applied morphogenesis limits its value, the volume is highly recommended as a reference to past and present developments in plant cell biology and culture.
Oluf L. Gamborg, Prairie Regional Laboratory Saskatoon, Sask., Canada

HUFFORD, TERRY L. Botany: Basic Concepts in Plant Biology. Harper & Row, N.Y. 1978. 535 pp. $16.95.

If one takes the preface of this book seriously, it is difficult to understand what the author really intends to do. If it is " . . . designed to serve primarily to supplement, enlarge upon, and perhaps offer alternative viewpoints to material discussed in class, and not as a primary teaching tool, . . ." it does not come up to my expectations. One has the feeling that the author set out to write a "different" kind of textbook than the comprehensive ones currently available, since he states: "Moreover, it must be remembered that general botany is a subject for all students, not just those interested in a career in some aspect of the botanical sciences." Later, he suggests: "A major purpose of this text is to help students arrive at concepts which are both reasonable and usable rather than to encourage memorization of definitions and dogma. The students


should understand that our knowledge of plants is really just a compilation of the 'best inferences' we can make, based upon current information." If one expects then to find a unique book, he/she will be disappointed; however, the text is interesting to read and the range of quotations from Dr. Seuss to Shakespeare provides something for all students to consider within a framework of their varied appreciations and experiences. The human perspective is emphasized throughout; the book could loosely be described as a "plants and man" text, with the attendant moralizing, value judgments, etc., that often accompany such treatments.

The usual range of topics generally considered to be a part of the basic concepts in botany are covered in greater detail than one might wish if the idea of arriving at concepts, rather than a body of "facts", is desired. It seems that as more students express an interest in having a general knowledge of botany, they are being provided with textbooks that become increasingly "factual". By landing on middle ground, this text is neither an outstanding comprehensive treatment nor an adequately simplified version. It is not well illustrated by today's standards. Again, it is interesting to read and will probably be a fairly popular text as an alternative to the more in-depth treatments currently available.
Janice C. Coffey, Queens College, Charlotte, N.C.

NEWTON, W., J. R. POSTGATE, AND C. RODRIQUEZ-BARRUECO (eds.). Recent Developments in Nitrogen Fixation. Academic Press, N.Y. 1977. 622 pp. $31.25.

These reports were presented at the Second International Symposium on Nitrogen Fixation held in Salamanca, Spain in September 1976. The first meeting was held in 1974 in Pullman, Washington and the fact that a third such meeting was recently held in Madison, Wisconsin attests to the feverish pitch to which research on biological nitrogen fixation (and related, strictly chemical, phenomena) has risen. It is hoped that this review will precede the appearance of the volume describing the proceedings of the latter. The distribution of space to the various topics is approximately 100 pages for chemical systems, about 240 on the biochemistry and physiology of the process in asymbiotic microbes, 75 pages on strictly genetic aspects and perhaps 250 pages on the phenomenon in the more complicated symbiotic associations in plants.

Nitrogen chemistry and model systems are thoroughly discussed. The take home lesson here is that, leaving implications for the enzymatic process aside, the activation of nitrogen which occurs when coordinated to a transition metal must involve end-on coordination of N2 at a single metal site in which the reduction steps occur by single- electron steps. As aptly put by Leigh "the chemistry of coordinated dinitrogen is broader and more complex than ever expected."

Nitrogenase-components and mechanisms: It is well established that nitrogen-fixing procaryotes must be able to accommodate a rather stringent set of conditions: an Fe and an Fe-Mo protein, anaerobiosis at the active site, low potential electrons, an efficient MgATP generating system and an appropriate ADP/ATP ratio. While these conditions are rather well defined, exact mechanisms have not been elucidated even using EPR and Mossbauer Spectroscopy and may not be understood until the complete structures of proteins are known.

Recent advances in the genetics of the biological system in asymbiotic microbes have been exciting for the mobility of nif (genes associated with N2 fixation) provides a powerful tool for studying its regulation and its possible insertion into a new system (the eucaryote) via an appropriate plasmid, thereby eventual cloning nif into agriculturally-important crop plants. Genetic aspects are clearly discussed by Ausubel, Brill, Dixon and others.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants taken in the broadest sense includes the nodulated legumes, the nodulated non-legumes (more properly termed actinorhizal nodulated angiosperms) and the loosely, primarily externally bound, associative systems characteristic of some grasses. This fine volume is concluded by papers on the actinorhizal-nodular systems. Lalonde's paper on the infection process in alder is in my opinion the outstanding report in the volume.

Well, it's all there, a host of facets the integration of which may provide an understanding of one of the most basic phenomena in our world, the means whereby gaseous N2 is recycled into the flux of living things. In the introduction Professor Bond notes that since the Third World Continents (South America and Africa) use only 10% of the world's production of fertilizer nitrogen, "one wonders whether the world can really afford to do it that way (i.e., "bag" nitrogen) as a permanent policy." Those who desire to attack the biological solution to the world's hunger should arm themselves with this volume, several other recent symposia proceedings, one of the recent encyclopedic works on background material and charge ahead! While there are many workers in the field as this volume attests, there are also many problems needing solution. A future Nobel Prize is in the offing. Jump in!
Warren S. Silver, University of South Florida

SMITH, H. (ed.). The Molecular Biology of Plant Cells. University of California Press, Berkeley. 1977. 506 pp., illust. $26.00.

This fine volume contains 17 papers addressing selected topics in basic cell physiology, biochemistry, and genetics. It is directed towards advanced undergraduate and graduate students not only in Botany but in other related fields. Each paper is written by a recognized authority, most of whom are British, and is placed under one of three major sections: (1) Plant Cell Structure and Function, (2) Gene Expression and its Regulation in Plant Cells, (3) The Manipulation of Plant Cells. Selected topics include: plant cell walls, membrane structure and transport, mitochondria, chloroplast structure and development, the genetic information of organelles and its expression, plant cell culture, and the physiology of protoplasts. As the title suggests, the major focus is on cellular molecular biology and metabolic paths and physiological processes of the intact plant are not stressed.

In spite of organizational difficulties imposed by a multiauthored text, Smith is successful in maintaining of continuity throughout the volume. Each chapter has a similar format, is well written, and provides the reader with a detailed, up-to-date discussion of each major subject. Numerous figures, graphs, tables and electron photomicrographs accompany each paper. Photo reproduction is good, most of the photomicrographs are crisp, and their inclusion provides additional clarification and stimulating reading. The volume is well referenced and has an adequate index. Each of the three major sections can in themselves be developed into separate volumes; their inclusion as sections


gives this volume an added dimension of breadth and the book stands as a basic text and reference source for further exploration in each general area. Chapters which I thought are particularly good include Chloroplasts--Structure and Function by N. Boardman and Phytochrome Action by P. Quail.

Although the coverage of topics in this book is generally thorough, there are several important omissions. There is only scanty reference to plasmodesmata and the types of intercellular communication which take place in plants, and more strikingly, there is hardly any treatment of vacuoles, certainly one of the most important of plant organelles. Plant development is touched on only lightly but will be addressed directly in a companion volume, Molecular Biology of Plant Development, which will be published soon. Overall the discussions in each chapter rate from good to refreshing and should provide a welcome addition to students in advanced plant physiology courses and in research.
Thomas C. Vogelmann, Syracuse University, N.Y.

MILLAR, ANDREE. Orchids of Papua New Guinea. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 1978. 101 pp., illust. $25.

Any book on the orchids of New Guinea is certainly welcome, and this book is a very pleasant surprise. Although the price might seem a little high for such a short book, the excellent color photographs justify the price. There are twelve color photographs showing collecting trips, as well as various habitats such as swamps, rain forest, and savannah. The best part of the book is the collection of approximately 143 color photographs of orchid flowers and plants. Although one could criticize one or two of the photographs for being slightly fuzzy or overexposed, almost all of them are really excellent. Several of the genera are illustrated in color for the first time anywhere, at least anywhere readily available.

The book begins with a short section on where orchids grow in Papua New Guinea. This includes a climatic chart of altitude, temperature ranges, humidity ranges, rainfall, and when the wet season occurs. Some of the notes on particular species are intriguing. Dendrobium williamsianuln, for example, grows in areas "protected by swamps, mosquitoes, leeches and crocodiles." The rainfall chart contains some interesting information, such as that the rainfall at Kikori averages 5800 mm between May and August.

A one page tabulation of the genera of orchids of Papua New Guinea is given which lists the 131 genera recorded from Papua and the number of species in each genus in Papua. The total list records 2751 species of orchids in the 131 genera, with 39 % of the species being found in only two of the genera, Bulbophyllum and Dendrobium, with 569 and 512 species respectively. Forty pages of the book are devoted to species of Dendrobium and nine pages to Bulbophyllum. Included in the Bulbophyllum photographs are some showing natural pollination of several species.

The remaining genera treated in this book are all lumped under the general heading Other Orchids. As far as I can tell, there is no rational organization of this section: the genera are arranged neither phylogenetically nor alphabetically nor by taxonomic group. Although it would have been more convenient to have arranged the genera in this section by some scheme, the fault is overcome by an index to all species.

Each species illustrated is accompanied by a short description of the habitat, the general plant aspect, and a description of the flowers in nontechnical terms.

The species identifications are followed by a five page section of cultivation notes, and although the notes are primarily for growing conditions in Papua, they will be of interest to anyone trying to grow these species. One very useful note was the suggestion of feeding one's plants with a little cold beer quarterly. A page and a half of notes on photography give some insights into the trials and tribulations of such work. The book concludes with a short glossary and an explanation of the names of some of the authors. Some of the definitions in the glossary are over simplified, and others somewhat misleading (rostellum).

In summary, this is a very worthwhile book for anyone interested in orchids. Botanists who do not work with orchids might find it useful as an introduction to some of the orchid genera of the New Guinea area.
Norris H. Williams, Florida State University

SPENCER, D. M. (ed.). The Powdery Mildews. Academic Press, NY. 1978. 565 pp.

When I first picked up this book, I thought it might be a monograph on the taxonomy and morphology of the Erysiphaceae, but it is not. Instead, it is an overview of this group of fungi as parasites and plant pathogens. There is a chapter on taxonomy of the powdery mildews by C. E. Yarwood, which is joined by chapters on the distribution, epidemiology, host-parasite interactions both from the viewpoint of genetics and of physiology, and chemical control of the group. The last eleven chapters each cover powdery mildew diseases of specific crops. There is some duplication of effort; Yarwood, for example, discusses xerophytism among these fungi, while Butt also reviews the significance of this quality in epidemiology of the diseases they cause. Different treatments of the genetics of pathogenecity and resistance are given in three chapters, with each author citing his own work in the subject most extensively. This diversified view is probably useful, however, in pointing out different currents in study of these fungi. I found the chapter by Bushnell and Gay on the exciting work done with dissected and isolated haustoria particularly useful in summarizing present information on the physiology of these structures. The editor states in his preface that he hopes the book "will be useful to students of plant pathology and to all those professional workers with an interest in plant diseases . . . and not just the powdery mildews". I believe that his hopes will be met.
Vivienne N. Armentrout, California State Polytechnic

NELSON, PAUL V. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Reston Publishing Co., Reston, Va. 1978. 518 pp., illust.

Greenhouse Operation and Management by Paul V. Nelson is an excellent collection of information indispensable to anyone seriously interested in the greenhouse industry. The author's emphasis on practical issues makes this text a source of information to aid in solving the daily problems that face every greenhouse manager. The text is very up to date in the recent technological advances of importance to the industry. Equally important is the analysis of these new developments in terms of their economic


value. Also provided is a down to earth look at the basic monetary considerations important to the successful operation of a greenhouse business. The nuts and bolts of the business are not slighted in coverage. The sections on greenhouse horticultural operations are well written, easily comprehended and detailed enough to present a good picture of the options available in daily operations. The chapters on insect and disease control are excellent. They provide a very concise and practical description of the issues involved in successful and safe pest management. I was especially impressed by the compatibility chart, it was the first time I had seen such practical information in a text. The usage of trade names enhances the value of the data presented. The procedures suggested for pest management are up to date with the most recent methods. The section on disease control is concise and to the point. The information is basic, well explained and descriptive enough to be useful. Both sections have excellent reference texts cited for use in gaining more specific information. Obviously you can write a book about each of the sixteen chapters that would provide an even better reference source. The intention of this book being what it is, I feel the author did an excellent job of presenting relevant and up to date in- formation about so many facets of the business. Practical issues, data and methods make this text a unique and valuable book.
Lynn Leclerc, University of Vermont

HALLE. F., R. A. A. OLDEMAN, and P. B. TOMLINSON. Tropical Trees and Forests: An Architectural Analysis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. 1978. xvii + 441 pp. 120 illust. $62.50.

This book is an expansion of the architectural analysis of tropical trees which was first published by Halle and Oldeman in 1970. The importance of tree architecture is evident by the number of papers which have treated the subject since the 1970 book. The present book is in English which is an advantage for the American audience as the earlier book was only translated into English in 1975. Since the 1970 book, tree architecture has been studied by botanists of many disciplines such as taxonomists, anatomists, morphogeneticists, physiologists and biogeographers. This new work brings together some of this more recent research. The book is illustrated with much new material, both line drawings and photographs, which show the architectural types clearly. An illustrated key to architectural types is included, and interesting short sections include details of the architecture of lianas, herbs and fossils. Reiteration of tree models is well explained and illustrated, i.e. where there is multiple expression of the growth model. I know from experience in the field that reiteration often makes the different models hard to recognize when the complete growth sequence from seedling to adult tree is not available for study. Many examples are given of each architectural type which enhances the usefulness of the book. The nomenclature of species is at times confusing in the many examples of models cited. For example, of the four species of Rosaceae cited on page 250, two are names no longer in use. On page 250 the family is called Rosaceae, elsewhere it is referred to under the correct name Chrysobalanaceae for the species cited. This book will be of great use to tropical biologists and should be studied by all who work in the field. It is a pity that the price is so high that many residents of the tropics wil1 not be able to afford it.
Ghillean T. Prance, The New York Botanical Garden

ALVIM, P. de T. and T. T. KOZLOWSKI (eds.). Ecophysiology of Tropical Crops. Academic Press. 1977. 502 pp. $29.50.

This volume is based on material from the 1975 International Symposium on Ecophysiology of Tropical Crops held in Brazil. The editors have attempted to bring together the current state of knowledge concerning the ways in which environmental and cultural factors affect growth and yield of tropical crop plants through the intermediation of physiological processes. Introductory chapters describing climatic effects on plant physiology and development and characteristics of tropical soils are followed by separate chapters on rice, sugarcane, pineapple, grasslands, root crops, sweet potato, coffee, cacao, rubber, tea, oil palm, coconut palm, citrus, banana, cashew, and mango.

While the various chapters lack a common format, most authors have reviewed substantial bodies of literature which should make the book an excellent starting point for students interested in tropical crop production. Exceptions include the chapter on coconut palm, which has no literature citations after 1968, and the chapter on mango, which is quite superficial. The author of the sugarcane chapter reviewed much of his own extensive work, but failed to tie it together with the research of others.

The goal of evaluating the effects of a variety of environmental factors on crop production has been adequately met in most chapters. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms involved in these responses were frequently overlooked or discussed in a cursory manner. The value of this book lies not so much in the presentation of new information as in the collection of difficult-to-obtain environmental and production data for a wide variety of important, tropical crops.
James K. Detling, Colorado State University

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