Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1977 v23 No 2 SummerActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

June 1977 Volume 23 No. 2


Building Botany. Martin C. Mathes   14
Phytopsychics. Raymond O. Flagg   15
Committees for 1977   16
Activities of the Society   16
Meetings, Conferences. Courses   16
Botanical Potpourri   17
Help!   17
Deaths of Members   17
Professional Opportunities   17
Personalia   18

Book Reviews
Plants. An Introduction to Modern Botany. V. A. Greulachand J. E. Adams   18
Geographical Guide to Floras of the World. S. F. Blake and A. C. Atwood   18
Guide to the Literature of Botany. Benjamin Daydon Jackson   18
Wild Flower Name Tales. Berta Anderson   19
Florae URSS. S. Lipschitz   19
Progress in Botany. Volume 37.   19
Gardening with Perennials: Month by Month. Joseph Hudak   19
The Mosses of Southern Australia. George A. M. Scott and Lima G. Stone   20
The Development and Function of Roots. J. G. Torrey and D. T. Clarkson (eds.)   20
Introductory Plant Physiology. G. Ray Noggle and G. L. Fritz   20
Microbiology of Aerial Plant Surfaces. C. H. Dickinson and T. F. Peerce (eds.)   21
Trees and Man. Herbert L. Edlin   21
Water Deficits and Plant Growth, Volume [V. T. 7'. Ko.rlowski (ed.)   21
Vegetation and the Atmosphere. J. L. Monteith (ed.)   22
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies on Plasmodesmata. B. E. S. Gunning and A. W. Robards (eds.)   22
The Northwest European Pollen Flora, I. W. Punt (ed.)   23
Atlas of the Japanese Flora, H. Horikawa Yoshiwo   23
Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms. Charles B. Beck (ed.)   23
High Yielding Rice Cultivation: A Method for Maximizing Rice Yield Through `Ideal Plants.' Seiyo Matsushima   24
Fennoscandian Tundra Ecosystems, Part 2. F. E. Wielgolaski (ed.)   24
Effects of Air Pollutants on Plants. T. A. Mansfield (ed.)   24


Building Botany

Martin C. Mathes
College of William and Mary
Williamsburg, Virginia

Botanists have been pondering the future of their discipline since Theophrastus recognized the uniqueness of plants. Finally, we are now in an era of awareness which should minimize pondering because of the plethora of interest at all levels of the educational process. We need to stop quiescent contemplation, take advantage of the concern generated by our environment and strike while the iron is of considerable temperature. The remarks of Robert A. Paterson in the teaching section of the A. 1. B. S. meetings prompted me to organize my thoughts and pro-vide a brief description of the programs I have designed to encourage botanical interest in plants while gradually building a botanical program with a firm foundation with-in the framework of a Biology department. The implementation of these programs is impossible in the absence of helpful, qualified colleagues, certain basic facilities (such as a greenhouse) and moderate financial support in the form of grants or departmental funds, but certain of our programs require only initiative.

The College of William and Mary currently has 4,466 undergraduates with 33 Master of Arts students enrolled in a Biology department composed of 19 full-time faculty. Depending on the criteria used for counting, we have 6 botanists.

During the past 9 years the number of biology majors has progressively increased with 162 declared junior concentrators in 1976 and a corresponding interest in botany and exotic areas such as plant pathology. My course in Plant Development at the sophomore-junior level has in-creased from an initial 20 students in 1970 to the present enrollment of 157 while Plant Physiology has maintained a level of 30-35 students. There are a number of uncontrolled parameters which have contributed to our botanical popularity, but I feel that our conscious community and student programs have been major factors in maintenance and continued growth of our programs.

We operate on the premise that exposure to plants will kindle an innate awareness and lead to curiosity concerning the growth, structure and classification of plants. Our emphasis on community involvement permeates our total program with two aspects worthy of mention. Trained assistance in the greenhouse represents major problems—money and knowledge. We have appealed for help from local groups of retired individuals and have greatly benefited from their knowledge and interest in volunteer services. We have two regular people who have worked for 3 hours each week for 3 years. They weed, repot, drink coffee, talk to students and communicate our program to their many friends. At times during the last 4 years we have had as many as five volunteers who have found an area of significant contribution in our botany program. They have also initiated a Plant Club in the Welcome Wagon group. This club uses our facilities for meetings and frequently calls upon members of the Biology Department for a variety of programs.

An additional phase of our program involves the botanical development of our campus. Botanists should be able to provide input in the planning stage of campus landscape considerations in small colleges where professional horticultural experience is usually lacking. We are fortunate because our administration shares our concern and we have been able to demonstrate a portion of our

botanical program in the heart of our campus in a ravine area. Our Board of Visitors has recently adopted a definitive resolution establishing the William and Mary Wild-flower Refuge enabling us to preserve a portion of our environment and prevent construction while providing an area for the collection, exhibition, and educational utilization of native Virginia plants. This phase of our program has been possible as a result of the actions of a community group which has served as an advisory committee. De-pending on the magnitude and availability of financial support, our facility will include an outdoor amphitheater and, as the landscape plan develops, a self-guided tour of the plants. Native Virginia plants will be obtained, planted and maintained through the activities of student groups, garden clubs and interested members of the community. We have also developed a Plant Rescue Squad (a la Ritchie Bell) as a result of the activities of Dr. Donna E. Ware. The objectives of the "Squad" include the inspection of properties (i.e., home sites and highway rights-of-way which are scheduled to be cleared) for the identification and subsequent transplantation of rare and/or desirable species. Some of these plants will be placed in the Refuge area. The development of a Refuge area in the center of campus has underlined interest in our botanical environment and has provided a means of involvement at the student, administrative and community levels. Members of the Biology Department also serve in an advisory capacity and provide programs for our extensive Community Garden program thereby encouraging the knowledgeable cultivation of improved botanical species. Programs involving topics such as the culture of houseplants are also presented on a routine basis to interested dormitory groups and garden clubs.

Our botany program is centered in the greenhouse where we attempt to expose plants to a wide variety of human types. The program is designed to entice the maximum number of individuals into an area where they may learn about plants. For example, the entry to the green-house has been provided with grass-green indoor-outdoor carpeting, display cases, an aquarium and cages with mice and snakes for those with strong animal interests who usually also wander into the realm of green plants. This area was made possible by a small grant from the Treakle Foundation. In the greenhouse we attempt to cover all open bench space which is not used for research or laboratory activities and provide areas of special interest including heuristic Iluernias. The trimmings from all unruly plants are placed in a free cutting box. Students quickly learn that this represents a potential source of houseplants suitable for dormitory life. The student path quickly became snake to Sanseveria to Venus fly trap to sensitive plant to free cuttings. The care of these plants in dormitories becomes a greater problem during extended vacations so we decided to provide a free fringe-benefit—Plant Sitter Service. Our students fill the greenhouse with a wide variety of plants during our long Christmas break. Many of the free cuttings return as thriving plants. This is a minimum effort on our part, because we are between semesters, have the open bench space as a result of the completion of laboratories, and must provide care for year-round greenhouse residents. A little water goes a long way to demonstrate esoteric aspects of our program such as the location of the greenhouse and the presence of a botany curriculum. An additional service is provided on Green Thumb Day (a la H. Hansen) which naturally occurs on St. Patrick's Day. Students will be invited to share soil and get repotted for the spring season. The greenhouse labelling program includes brief descriptions


of laboratory and research experiments, plastic sandwiches of xerox (do not fade) copies containing plant narrative, a self-guided greenhouse tour containing an extensive description of the more interesting plant species, and an area featuring a "Plant of the Month". I consciously limit my greenhouse time (since this is not the major portion of my duties), yet encourage all groups, from juveniles to geriatrics, to share our facilities. We keep our tour-time to a minimum by touring only with potential tour group leaders, such as teachers in the local school systems. This reduces our time and allows the group leaders to emphasize appropriate aspects and maintain their individual schedules. In certain cases, we provide Kalanch~e foliar plantlets, cups and soil to groups that notify us in advance. Our greenhouse tour is coupled with a self-guided building tour which will be coupled to a self-guided Refuge tour and a self-guided campus plantings tour. We are very fortunate to have a wide diversity of horticultural plant materials as a result of the activities of the ]ate John T. Baldwin. These tours demonstrate the presence of a strong botany program to prospective student groups visiting under the auspices of the admissions office, recruiting coaches, parents and random tourists.

The members of our botany faculty actively participate in off-campus speakers programs. We have an effective BioBureau which includes graduate and faculty volunteers who have developed presentations for purposes (lectures, seminars, thesis, special interests, etc.) other than pro-grams for the local school systems. Alterations primarily in the levels of presentation, result in a minimum effort for the presenter and beneficial experiences for the primary and secondary schools. A program coordinator processes all calls so individuals arc not pestered and the number of presentations may be limited to coincide with the wishes of the individual members of the BioBureau. This program is varied each semester, depending on the availability of participants, and has included topics such as "Show and Tell Embryos" at the primary level. We have also used volunteer seminars presented at neighboring institutions as a means of recruitment for our Master's program. This William and Mary Visiting Biologists Program has been temporarily curtailed because of funding restrictions.

Group activities with botanical connotations are focused by our Phi Sigma Biological Honor Society. The emphasis on Biology and academic achievement provides a group of highly motivated students who are very capable and visible. I have served as faculty advisor for projects as varied as campus beautification by planting bulbs and the sale of Biology department T-shirts with biological designs selected from entrants in a campus-wide contest. Society members also aid in the synthesis of an annual non-fundraising Biology newsletter to all alumni who were biology majors. The mailing costs of the BioBugle are borne by the Office of Development since our missile maintains our contacts with alumni at the departmental level and provides a refreshing break in the monotony of standard College fund seeking letters.

I hope that this brief description of my efforts to pro-vide a viable basis for our botany program has triggered some thought processes and as a result we will be more able to deal with significant increases in interest in the manifold areas of botany. We realize that certain aspects of our current program apply to a small college atmosphere, but the limitation of certain of these programs to selected student populations, such as Biology majors, may provide appropriate, manageable numbers even in the largest universities. I would appreciate your suggestions so we may improve our program.


Raymond O. Flagg
Carolina Biological Supply Company

The past decade has produced an electronic version of Druidism galvanized in beliefs based primarily on misinterpretations and possibly intentional misrepresentations (1, 2, 3). This has distressed many biologists (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). When faced with questions about such nonsense as "primary perception in plants," 1 have found that answers such as, "Plants don't have nerves." and "No one has been able to repeat that experiment.", do not seem to change substantially the beliefs of the neodruid who has "facts" available in newspapers, popular journals and The Secret Life of Plants (2).

I accidently came upon a group investigating the pre-supposedly emotional responses of a plant with a lie detector presciently called a "psychogalvanometer." My arrival was greeted with glee for the audio-amplifier was howling out the reactions of the plant to physical stimuli. Just seeing that plant reactions can be projected electronically is apparently sufficient to confirm in the minds of innocents that The Secret Life of Plants is gospel. I removed the electrodes from the leaf and attached them to a piece of wet folded filter paper. The response of the audio-amplifier to changing moisture conditions in the filter paper closed the mouths and opened the minds of the would-be phytopsychics.

Although the wet-filter-paper test of the apparatus used on this occasion proved only that this group did not know what it was doing, it accomplished in less than a minute w hat I had not been able to do in much discussion. I prefer the filter-paper effect to the Backster Effect.


  1. Backster, Cleve. Evidence of primary perception in plant life. International Journal of Parapsychology 10: 329-348. 1968.

  2. Tompkins, Peter and Christopher Bird. The Secret

Life of Plants. Harper and Row, New York, 1973.

  1. Lawrence, L. George. Experiments in electroculture.

Electronic Experimenter's Handbook, Winter Edition

131-137. 1974.



Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT. 05401

Editorial Board
Donald Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley

June 1977   Volume Tewnty-three    Number Two

Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr.Barbara D. Webster, Department of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Society can be obtained for $10.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.

Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.

The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.


  1. Galston, Arthur W. The unscientific method. Natural History. March 1974. pp. 18-24.

  2. Salisbury, Frank B. The return of superstition. Bio-Science 24: 201. 1974.

  3. Hecht, Adolph. Emotional responses by plants. Plant Science Bulletin 20: 46-47. 1974.

  4. Rensberger. Boyce. Scientists rebut theory that plants

can emote. N.Y. Times, January 30, 1975. p. 20.

  1. Galston, Arthur. The sensuous plant. Horticulture 54 (8): 34-43. 1976.

  1. Majumder, Sanat K. The legacy of plant-world: myth and reality. Plant Science Bulletin 22: 28-29. 1976.


Committee on Corresponding Members

Barbara F. Palscr (1979), Chairwoman

Peter H. Raven (1978) Theodore Delevoryas (1977) Merit Awards Committee

Alexander H. Smith (1977), Chairman

Charles B. Heiser, Jr. (1978) Frank B. Salisbury (1979) Ex officio: President

Darbaker Prize Committee

Robert W. Hoshaw (1977), Chairman

Larry R. Hoffman (1978) Karl R. Mattox (1979)

New York Botanical Garden Award Committee

David W. Bierhorst, Chairman Harold A. Mooney (1977) Theodore T. Kozlowski (1978) Michael Neushul (1978)

Jeanette Siron Pelton Award Committee

Paul B. Green (1977), Chairman

Virginia E. Walbot (1977) Donald R. Kaplan (1977) Peter K. Hepler (1977)

Election Committee

James A. Quinn (1977), Chairman

Thomas N. Taylor (1978) Loran C. Anderson (1979) Deana T. Klein (1980) Ex officio: Secretary

Education Committee

Janice C. Coffey (1977), Chairwoman

Robert S. Platt (1977) Daniel J. Crawford (1978) Charles R. Curtis (1978) William L. Stern (1979) Shirley Graham (1979)

Browning Award Committee

Robert Bandurski (1978), Chairman

J. W. de Wet (1978)

Conservation Committee

Bruce MacBryde (1977), Chairman

Jean H. Langenheim (1977) David Fairbrothers (1978) James L. Reveal (1978) Andrew M. Greller (1979) Charles Lamoureux (1979)

Committee for Scientific Liaison with

the People's Republic of China

Arthur W. Galston (1977), Chairman

Edward S. Ayensu (1977) Thomas S. Elias (1977) John B. Hanson (1977) Richard M. Klein (1977) Anitra Thorhaug (1977)

Membership Committee

Samuel N. Postlethwait, Chairman

Thomas K. Wilson Barbara D. Webster

Representative to AAAS A. Orville Dahl (1977)

Representative to AIBS Theodore Delevoryas

Representative to Biological Stain Commission William A. Jensen (1977)

Representative to Corresponding Society of Assembly of Life Sciences

Patricia K. Holmgren (1979)


The Botanical Society of America will hold its 72nd annual meeting at Michigan State University on 22-27 August 1977 in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Registration forms and information about meals and housing can be obtained from the AIBS, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209. Y'all come!


THE FOURTH ANNUAL COLLOQUIUM ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE, organized under the auspices of the College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University, will be held 6-9 September, 1977. Information can be obtained from the College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

PLANT GROWTH REGULANT POTENTIAL IN WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION is the theme of the Fourth Annual Technical Meeting of the Plant Growth Regulator Working Group to be held 9-1l August 1977. The program will include contributed papers, the symposium and five workshops. Information can be obtained from Professor Page W. Morgan, Department of Plant Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840.

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY FOR ECONOMIC BOTANY will be held 11-15 June 1977 at the University of Miami and the Fairchild Tropical Gar-den in Coral Gables, Florida. Contributed papers, field trips and a symposium on Toxic Plants will be featured. Additional information can be obtained from Gregory J. Anderson. Biological Sciences U43, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 06268.

BOTANICAL TOUR TO COSTA RICA is scheduled for 21-26 June 1977 by the Rare Fruit Council International of Miami. The tour will include a visit to the Turrialba experimental farm of the Organization of American States, the Lankester Garden and to the active Irazu volcano. Information can be obtained from Miami-Metro News Division, 499 Biscayne Blvd., Miami, FL 33132.

ROYAL SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM ON CANADA AND WORLD FOOD will be held 22-24 August 1977 at Carleton University. Contact P. Garneau, 344 Wellington St., Ottawa, Ontario K1A ON4, Canada.

INTERNATIONAL LEGUME CONFERENCE will be held at the Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, England on


24 July-4 August 1977. Contact A. Bunting, University of Reading, RG6 2AS, England.

FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS will be held 4-9 September 1977 in Reading, United Kingdom. Contact Dr. J. Coombs, Tate & Lyle, Ltd., P.O. Box 68, Reading RG6 2BX, Berkshire, England.

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TISSUE CULTURE FOR HORTICULTURE will be held in Ghent, Belgium on 7-9 September 1977. Contact the Secretariat, Laboratorium voor Tuinbouwplanteneelt, Rijksuniversitelt, Ghent, Coupure Links 553, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

CANADIAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGISTS (La Societe Canadienne de Physiologic Vegetale) will hold its annual meeting with the American Society of Plant Physiologists at the University of Wisconsin on 16-20 August 1977.

CONFERENCE ON STRESS PHYSIOLOGY IN CROP PLANTS will be held 28-30 June 1977 at Boyce Thompson Institute. Contact Harry Mussel, Boyce Thompson Institute, 1086 N. Broadway, Yonkers, NY 10701.

BIOCHEMISTRY OF PLANT PHENOLICS CONFERENCE will be held 29 August-2 September 1977 in Ghent, Belgium. Contact Jerry McClure, Botany Department, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS will be held 5-9 February 1979 in Christchurch, NZ. Contact Royal Society of New Zealand, P.O. Box 12249, Wellington, New Zealand.

TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR PLANT PROPAGATORS, an introduction to techniques for rapid plant propagation and recovery of virus-free plants, is being offered by the W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY 12946. Contact Dr. Donald K. Dougall at the Cell Science Center for dates of this and other plant tissue culture courses and programs.

BOTANICAL BEACHCOMBERS AND EXPLORERS: Pioneers of the 19th century in the Upper Great Lakes, will be the title of a special lecture by Prof. Edward G. Voss at the Historical Sectional meetings in conjunction with the AIBS meeting.


Unipub (Box 433, Murray Hill Station, N.Y., NY 10016) announces that it has been selected as the distributor of the 15 new abstract journals on agriculture published by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux of Great Britain.

The symposium on "Taxonomic and Morphological Relationships of the Psilotaceae," presented at the 1976 AIBS meeting at Tulane University, was published in the January-March 1977 issue of Brittonia.

"An Essay on the Architecture and Dynamics of Growth of Tropical Trees" by Francis Halle and R. A. A. Oldeman in an English translation by B. C. Stone is avail-able from the University of Malaya Cooperative Book-store, University of Malaya Library Building, U.M. Cam-pus, Kuala Lumpur 22-11.

The National Council for U.S.-China Trade published a 236-page report on "China's Agriculture" including maps and charts of China's agricultural zones and crop seasons. Copies ($25.00) are available from the National Council for U.S.-China Trade, 1050 17th St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. The same organization has also published a directory of research institutes in the People's Republic of China.

Beginning on 18 April 1977, the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation of the Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh will display "Flowers of the World," watercolors of Leslie Greenwood. Mr. Greenwood has received two gold medals from the Royal Horticultural Society and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of the Arts and a Fellow of the Linnean Society.

Papers presented at the conference on "Ethical and Economic Issues: University Policies for Consulting, Over-load Instructional Activities and Intellectual Property" at the University of Southern California's Office of Institutional Studies are available from Ellen Stewart, Conference Coordinator, Office of Institutional Studies/SSW 403, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA 90007.


The Editor's cri de coeur in the March 1977 issue elicited three responses, one of questionable propriety. Announcements, lead articles, comments on the botanical scene or suggestions are most welcome. Members interested in serving on the Editorial Board of the Plant Science Bulletin should contact the editor. Duties consist primarily in soliciting articles of interest for the Bulletin.


Lee Bonar, Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of California, Berkeley, died 1 March 1977 at the age of 85.

L. Edwin Yocum, Professor and Chairman Emeritus of George Washington University, died 23 February 1977 at the age of 86.


AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY is being sought at Texas A&M University, with a specialization in Environmental Pollution. The position requires the Ph.D. degree in plant physiology with sup-porting background in chemistry, biochemistry and environmental science. The appointment requires teaching of an introductory plant physiology course and a senior level course in environmental plant physiology and the development of a research program in cooperation with state agencies and private interests in identifying certain air pollution problems in Texas that are harmful to trees, crops and ornamental plants. A resume including back-ground, coursework, publications, experience and three references should be sent to Dr. C. R. Benedict, Faculty Search Committee, Department of Plant Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PLANT SYSTEMATICS is being sought by the University of South Carolina. The Ph.D. is required and field orientation and knowledge of contemporary and traditional plant systematics is expected. Vitae, a statement of research interests, teaching experience, reprints and three letters of


recommendation should be sent to Dr. Wade T. Batson, Department of Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208.

AN ASSISTANT CURATORSHIP is open at the University of Michigan Herbarium. A vascular-plant systematist position at the Ph.D. level will become available with the duties divided between a research program of the appointee's choice and supervision of curatorial operations. Eventual promotion to Associate Curator and Curator may be expected. No formal teaching is involved, nor is professorial title in the Division of Biological Sciences to be obtained. Applicants should send vitae, academic transcripts and a statement of research interests, three letters of recommendation and indications of curatorial experience to Dr. Robert L. Shaffer, University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

FULBRIGHT-HAYES AWARDS for opportunities abroad for university teaching and advanced research for 1978-1979 are again under consideration. Information can be obtained from the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 11 DuPont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036.

FERDINAND AND EMMA MICHEL MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP for the study in the Holy Land of the History of Religions and/or the plants of the Bible will be awarded on the basis of academic promise, leadership potential, recommendations and past performance. Applicants should be between the age of eighteen and 25 years. The applicant is to conduct original research which is to result in a scholarly product. A resume, proposed pro-gram, supporting documents and letters of recommendation should be sent to Miss Hedwig Michel, President, The Pioneer Educational Foundation, Inc., P.O. Box 57, Estero, FL 33928.


The University of Wales has awarded Dr. William Springthorpe Lacey a Personal Chair in the School of Plant Biology, University College of North Wales, Bangor. This Chair recognizes Professor Lacey's contributions to paleobotany over a period of more than 30 years.

The Torrey Botanical Club announces the award of $250 to Timothy J. Fahey, for the highest quality student-written paper published in the Bulletin for 1976. Mr. Fahey, now a graduate student at the University of Wyoming, did the research while at Dartmouth College. The Torrey Botanical Club will continue to make this award each year and encourages students to submit manuscripts to the Bulletin.


GREULACH, V. A. AND J. E. ADAMS. Plants. An Introduction to Modern Botany. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1976. xii -}- 586 pp.

In this book Greulach and Adams present a useful introduction to important concepts and principles of mod-ern botany. The text is designed for a one-semester course in general botany and is suited to students with a wide range of interests.

The text is divided into sections covering the ecological importance of plants to man; the scope and diversity of the plant kingdom including plant classification and plant types of the past; the structural organization of plants; physiology and physiological ecology; autecology and synecology; and reproduction, heredity, and evolution. Each of these sections is highlighted by tables and illustrations including electron-micrographs, photomicrographs, photographs, graphs, diagrams, and drawings. Each chap-ter is followed by a list of bibliographic references. An appendix outlining basic chemical concepts is included for an understanding of the chemistry used in the text, as well as a glossary of scientific terms.

This information is presented in an interesting, up-to-date manner. Emphasis has been placed on those aspects of botany which have been increasing in importance in recent years such as photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, and genetics. Historical introductions to many of these topics are included to illustrate the development of botanical concepts through continuing research.

Greulach and Adams have provided us a useful and interesting introduction to the more important concepts and principles of modern botany. It is an excellent text for a semester course in introductory botany.

Janet R. Sullivan University of Vermont


BLAKE, S. F., and ALICE C. ATWOOD. Geographical Guide to Floras of the World. An Annotated List with Special Reference to Useful Plants and Common Plant Names. Part I. Africa, Australia, North America, South America, and Islands of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Washington, 1942. Reprinted by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, Konigstein/Ts., 1974. 336 pp., DM 90.—.

Originally published as U.S. Dept. of Agric. Misc. Publ. No. 401, first reprinted by Hafner Publishing Company (1963), this work is again reprinted. The Geographical Guide to Floras of the World was intended as a three part work. Part II contains western Europe. It was originally published as No. 797 (1961) and reprinted by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers (1974). Part III, which was to contain central and eastern Europe and Asia, was not published.

This work is still very useful, providing a well organized listing of general and local floras with informative notes on all entries. The geographical subdivision is highly detailed, greatly facilitating its use. Numerous references to very local floras (i.e., County, District, island), not normally encountered, are given. A list of periodical abbreviations is provided to prevent ambiguity. An author index, providing full names and year of birth and death, and a geographical index are also provided.

The quality of reproduction is excellent in keeping with the high standards of Otto Koeltz Science Publishers.

This work, with its companion volume, is one of the most useful botanical bibliographies available.

JACKSON, BENJAMIN DAYDON. Guide to the Literature of Botany; Being a Classified Selection of Botanical Works, Including Nearly 6,000 Titles not in Pritzel's "Thesaurus". London, 1881. Reprinted by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, Koenigstein/Ts., 1974. xxvi + 626 pp., DM 110.—.

Originally published by Longman, Green & Co./Dulau & Co. and reprinted by Hafner Publishing Co. (1964), this important botanical bibliography is reprinted for a second time. The Guide to the Literature of Botany is of interest because of its arrangement by subject and for its number of entries. The citations are very cryptic, sometimes to the point of exasperation, as only the bare essentials are pro-


vided. Brief information notes are provided for some of the entries.

Reproduction and paper are of excellent quality. This work is very useful and one of the most important bibliographic references, but does take some getting use to because of its older and abbreviated style of citation.


ANDERSON, BERTA. Wild Flower Name Tales. Century One Press, Colorado Springs, Colo. 1976. 124 pp. illust. $6.95.

All too often plant names are merely taught or learned by rote. We know that many plant names have great historical and even political significance, but rarely is this indicated to students or to laypersons. Yet, the adventurous lives of David Douglas, the Michauxs and Peter Kalm can bring plant names to life. Full-scale biographies of a few prominent botanists have been written, but briefer compendia are rare, a gap that Ms. Anderson has at-tempted to fill. With some excellent photographs of genera and species named for such botanists, interesting although abbreviated biographies are presented, mostly of Americans and mostly from the West. The title of the book is, unfortunately, clumsy and uninformative and may cause many professional and non-professional botanists to skip over a pleasant volume.   R. M. Klein

University of Vermont

LIPSCHITZ, S. Florae URSS fontes, (Russ.). "Nauka", Leningrad. 1975. 230 pp., hard-cover. 1 rubl' 18 kopeks.

This book has also the Russian title Literaturnye istochniki po flore SSSR (Literary Sources on the Flora of the USSR).

Scientific botanical work was begun in Russia upon the founding of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg in 1725. Since that time an enormous number of botanical publications has been accumulated. These materials have never been catalogued because the compilation of so di-verse and large a body of literature is so complex that this would have been an extremely difficult task. Consequently, the author decided to restrict himself to compiling a bibliography only of floristic literature on the wild vascular plants published between 1725 and 1973. This bibliography was published on the occasion of the XII International Botanical Congress at Leningrad.

Designed as a reference manual, the book includes all significant publications on the flora of the USSR; i.e., all "Floras", "Keys", "Synopses", "Lists of Plants", "Bibliographies of Floras and Vegetation", and "Atlases of Plant Illustrations", both on the All-Russian and local levels. There are 2368 entries divided into seven geographical sections: "USSR", "European USSR", "Caucasus", "Siberia and Soviet Far East", "Kazakhstan and Central Asia", "Plant Keys for Secondary Schools", and "Addenda". In each section entries are arranged alphabetically by author. An "Index of Authors' Names" of 25 pages is provided at the end of the book. Anonymous and collective botanical works are included in the "Index" under their titles.

As this bibliography is the first book of such nature published in the Soviet Union, it was in great demand: the entire edition of 2000 copies was sold out within a few days before the Botanical Congress.

The book should be valuable not only to students of the floras of the USSR and parts of Europe and Asia, but to the students of the flora of U.S.A. as well, because the work includes a number of publications of early Russian botanists in which plants of the American provinces of Russia have been treated. The book is a valuable reference source and it would be desirable to have an English edition.

A. Baranov Harvard University

Progress in Botany. Vol. 37. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. 1975. 402 pp. $49.20.

Volume 37 of Progress in Botany treats in the usual way recent and not so recent advances in botanical re-search reviewed by a slate of competent people. Since the book is a review of papers it is impossible to give here more than an abbreviated table of contents. The general topics discussed are: general and molecular cytology, cytology and morphogenesis of the fungal cell, morphology and morphogenesis of cells of higher plants, morphology of vegetative organs of higher plants, morphology and anatomy of reproductive organs of higher plants; cell electrophysiology and membrane transport, plant water relations, mineral metabolism, biophysical aspects of photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, aspects of steroid biosynthesis in plants, developmental physiology, locomotion; organization and replication of the eucaryotic chromosome, recombination, mutation, genetic regulatory mechanisms in fungi, extracaryotic inheritance; systematics and evolution of seed plants, paleobotany, floristic geobotany, floral and vegetation history, sociological geobotany, experimental ecology, flower ecology.

The individual chapters are of different levels of use-fulness for the American reader. Some chapters rely pre-dominantly on Anglo-American literature or journals easily available here. Typical in this respect is all physiology or chapters with genetical and biochemical content. Other chapters contain literature not so easily available like Girbardt's review of papers of the cytology and morphogenesis of the fungal cell.

The treatments by the different authors vary greatly in style and depth. Some contributions give factual presentations and read almost like textbooks; others are large annotated literature lists. Some papers seem to go too extensively into the explanation of established knowledge for a review book, e.g. the introduction to starch metabolism on page 125. One of the most significant compilations is the table of evidence and symptoms of DNA amplification and "metabolic" DNA in plant nuclei and plastids (after 1970) on pages 200/201.

The book is well organized and edited. Few errors were encountered in the (typewritten) printing. Among the amusing ones was the reference to the Canadian Journal of Coil Science on page 376.

In this tidal wave era of literature, the book is a welcome summary for our graduate students in their respective fields. It should, therefore, be in all libraries dedicated to graduate research.

H. Lieth University of North Carolina


HUDAK, JOSEPH. Gardening with Perennials: Month by Month. Demeter Press, New York. 1976. xvi + 398 pp.; indexes. $12.50.

An ever-heightening interest in gardens and gardening has swept this country during the past decade. Not only is vegetable-growing de rigueur, but flowers, too, have an important role in any garden. The easy, no-care approach has, in the past, dictated the use of annuals. But the serious gardener has always recognized the payoff of spending


that little extra time to grow perennials. The book publishing industry, ever hot on the trail for a new trend, is now into the How-To of growing perennials in the home garden.

The author of this reference, a professional architect, has limited the plants covered to "hardy, herbaceous perennials and winter-tolerant bulbs". He has categorized these plants on a month by month, expected-time-offlowering from March through September; and further subdivided each month's flowers by color. If you answer public questions or if you would like to grow an all white or all blue garden and don't want to spend the time to do your own researching, then this is a book for you. Also included under the description of each flower are native habitat (actually the locale) and bits and pieces on cultivation, pests and diseases. There is a brief section on hardy ferns; a section entitled "Useful Lists" lists flowers by categories such as sun-shade, wet-dry, etc. Sixteen pages of color photos of flowers enhance the book. A bibliography and an index to common and scientific names complete the book.

There are two serious drawbacks. Hudak describes a number of perennials which can only be obtained by digging wild plants. The practice is certainly to be frowned upon since most amateurs are notoriously unsuccessful in transplanting this type of material. Nor does the author warn that some of these plants are on "protected lists".

Hudak's home base is the Boston, Mass. area, a far more temperate region than, for example, the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, where the only reliably hardy herbaceous perennials are horseradish and rhubarb; and inclusion of hardiness zones, now found in all major seed catalogues, would have made this a more useful reference.

Deana T. Klein St. Michael's College

SCOTT, GEORGE A. M. AND ILMA G. STONE. The Mosses of Southern Australia. (Illus, by Celia Rosser.) Academic Press, London and New York. 1976. xv + 495 pp.; 86 plates. $46.00/18.50 (cloth).

Although much has been written on Australian mosses, especially the Tasmanian mosses, Scott and Stone have produced an elegant book, the first published for the area. The book is profusely illustrated by Celia Rosser whose habit sketches and detailed drawings of the 117 plants portrayed bring the flora to life for the reader. The book covers primarily the temperate moss flora, mostly mosses found in southern Australia south of a line from Sydney across to Geraldton (ca. . of the country), plus a few exotic or tropical mosses whose ranges extend into the region.

The manual has an abbreviated nine page introduction containing a discussion of the early work on Australian mosses and a guide to the keys, text and illustrations. The genera keys are relatively short, employing only a few characters. There is also a guide to quick identification where genera and species are grouped according to some morphological or ecological character, such as "leaves with ciliate margins", "epiphytes on tree-ferns", etc.

The classification is based on that of Sainsbury, A Handbook of the New Zealand Mosses, who in turn has followed H. N. Dixon's system. None of the families is described. Each genus description is followed by a species key and a description of the species and varieties. Descriptions are written in a conversational manner with only some features being described, making comparisons difficult. Following each description is the chromosome number, if counted from Australian plants, the distribution, both within and outside Australia, and a list of illustrations. The common mosses and/or those that the authors "know well" are described more fully than others and a list of all other Australia taxa is given. A glossary and an extensive bibliography conclude the book.

The 86 plates are the book's best feature. The artist has captured the essence of each species with a beautiful habit sketch. A leaf and a detailed drawing of its cells, all X1000, usually complete each plate. There are no illustrations showing any details of sporophyte characters. Perhaps the worst feature of the plates is that there is not enough cellular detail and habit sketches often overlay those that do appear so as to decrease their utility. The British price of £ 18.50 (ca. $31.00 US) seems much more reasonable than the American $46.00 and with that much difference it is worthwhile to purchase the book from Academic Press in London.

Robert R. Ireland National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

TORREY, J. G. AND D. T. CLARKSON (eds.). The Development and Function of Roots. Academic Press, N.Y. 1975. 618 pp. illust. $32.25.

It is virtually impossible to review comprehensively a book of this type. Drs. Torrey and Clarkson, in organizing the third Cabot Symposium, assembled plant scientists whose research encompassed almost all aspects of the structure, morphogenesis, physiology and ecology of roots. Each of the participants reviewed his field of specialization at a level considerably higher than that of an advanced text and just a bit lower than that of a re-view in Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology. In choosing the level of coverage, the authors very wisely allowed themselves room to introduce ideas, concepts and, in some cases, speculations that belong in a book of this sort and are rarely entertained in a monographic presentation. The result is, frankly, splendid. There is adequate coverage of the pertinent literature, mostly recent publications in the field, to provide a base for graduate courses that include the development and function of roots. The research worker can find enough ideas for a lifetime of intensive study. The book is very well edited and the jarring juxtaposition of varying styles of writing is kept to a minimum. Typographical and egregious errors are few and far between, the printing and binding are more than adequate, and photographs are satisfactory, although not sparkling.

One would have desired more coverage on mycorrhiza in view of the growing realization that this fungal-root association may be basic to water uptake by woody perennials, but several recent volumes fill this gap. Having been bothered for many years by the apparent absence of root hairs from many plants growing in soil and the positive statements in texts about the role of epidermal hair cells in water uptake, I looked in vain for a discussion of this matter. This is an observation, not a criticism.

Richard M. Klein University of Vermont

NOGGLE, G. RAY AND GEORGE L. FRITZ. Introductory Plant Physiology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1976. 688 pp. illus.

Plant physiology is an important subject in many fields other than botany. Noggle and Fritz have written a one-semester course for students in horticulture, soil science, crop science, forestry, or pest management who have var-


ied academic backgrounds, and perhaps no experience in biochemistry or physics. The course emphasizes higher green plants and the concept of "whole plant" physiology.

Each chapter is a self-contained, complete unit with all the biochemistry and physics needed to understand the subject matter. The material is given detailed explanations enforced with examples and analogies. The authors also discuss recent research papers and trends and list references at the end of every chapter to provide access to cur-rent literature. Many diagrams, photographs, micrographs, tables, and graphs support the various physiological concepts. The micrographs are especially well done, and the abbreviated outlines summarizing metabolic pathways are particularly useful. Tables of the international system of units and conversion factors are included in the appendices.

Although each chapter is self-contained, the order in which they are presented must be considered. For example, the chapters, "Water as a Plant Constituent" and "The Plant in Relation to Water", probably should have been placed before, not after, the chapters on nutrition and transport.

The book is detailed, clear, and well illustrated and would be a useful reference and text.

Marcia Harrison University of Vermont


Microbiology of Aerial Plant Surfaces. Edited by C. H. Dickinson and T. F. Peerce. Academic Press. 1976. 669 pp.

An account of a second international meeting on the subject of the microbiology of aerial plant surfaces is presented in this volume. This meeting was held at the University of Leeds in September 1975, while the first convened at the University of Newcastle in 1970. The title of the account of the earlier meeting was The Ecology of Leaf Surface Micro-organisms.

The intent of the second symposium at the University of Leeds was to cover the period of 1970-1975, and to broaden the coverage to include fruits, stews, and other organs, as well as leaves. T. F. Peerce and C. H. Dickinson organized both meetings and served as editors for both symposium volumes.

The book begins with a short Preface and Table of Contents listing the 31 papers. Some of the papers are written as reviews, while others report research undertaken by the authors.

Although this volume has not been arranged with sections specifically relating to various subject areas as was the account of the 1970 meetings, papers dealing with similar subjects have been grouped together somewhat.

The first nine papers generally deal with the structure of aerial plant surfaces and the effects that various environmental factors have on the function of those surfaces. The first chapter serves generally as an introduction to the volume and reviews the various aspects of the structure and development of the aerial surfaces of higher plants. This is followed by chapters discussing the effects of fungicides and other agrochemicals, air pollutants, acid rain, and ozone on the microorganisms of aerial plant surfaces. A chapter on the origins of the fine structure of plant epicuticular waxes is particularly well done and contains 31 SEM photomicrographs illustrating a wide variety of wax structures.

Following are over 200 pages devoted to various topics concerned with the ecology of microorganisms on aerial plant surfaces. A chapter discussing ecological concepts in studies of microorganisms on aerial plant surfaces falls short of its title but does serve to set off this series of papers. Several chapters are devoted to the collection and identification of plant surface microorganisms, while several more are concerned with the colonization and succession of these organisms.

Next are several papers discussing leachates, spore germination inhibitors, and nitrogen fixation by bacteria associated with aerial plant parts. This is followed by several papers concerned with the interactions among microorganisms and biological control of plant pathogens. The last few chapters treat a variety of topics.

In general, the volume is more a collection of papers than a coordinated effort to cover this broad area. How-ever, those interested in the ecology of microorganisms, especially the fungi, will find it useful.

C. L. Kramer Kansas State University


EDLIN, HERBERT L. Trees and Man. New York: Colum-

bia University Press. 1976, xvi -{- 269 pp., incl. index,

66 plates, and 23 figures. $25.00. (British ed. pub-

lished as: The Natural History of Trees.)

H. L. Edlin has expanded the theme of people as the custodians and benefactors of world forests as we recognize the need for conservation, understanding, husbandry, and continuity in management of tree resources. All important functions, relationships, and uses are present in four major subdivisions describing trees as (1) functioning organisms, (2) components of ecosystems, (3) a world-wide resource, and (4) providers of many needs of our society. Descriptions are accurate within a well-organized general framework with details cleverly woven in through-out. Every paragraph should be read carefully to gain interesting tidbits on such subjects as silviculture, dendrology, physiology, succession, and multiple-use concepts. Appropriate simplification moves the reader along smoothly with interspersed details carried neatly in the flow.

Terminology causes occasional difficulty as it reflects the author's specific background (e.g., phloem is referred to as bast). Helpful illustrations are well-chosen, though more would have assisted readers, especially to show growth processes, wood structure, and tree propagation techniques.

This book is not for readers with provincial interests. Its greatest strength is the global scale of its coverage describing forests as a very significant component of the world environment. This would have been a valuable text for this reviewer when once engaged in teaching thousands of students a survey of man and the forest environment. Unfortunately, the cost would have placed it out of reach of many of them.

Maxwell L. McCormack, Jr. University of Maine


KOSLOWSKI, T. T. (ed.). Water Deficits and Plant Growth, Volume IV. Academic Press, New York. 1976. 383 pp.

Water Deficits and Plant Growth is the fourth volume in a series on the relationships between plants and water. Each chapter was written by an authority in a particular area, resulting in a very accurate and extensive coverage of each topic. S. L. Rawlins dealt with soil water content and measurement, including the latest methods along with those traditionally used. The structure and function of stomata is discussed in depth by W. G. Allaway and F. L. Milthorpe, while stomatal conductance in the control of


gas exchange is covered by F. J. Burrows and F. L. Milthorpe. J. S. Boyer wrote on the effects of water deficits on photosynthesis and the subsequent loss of photosynthate. T. T. Koslowski wrote on water supply and abscession, including the effects of drought, flood, and chemically-induced changes in the water relations of plants. A very complete chapter on latex composition, flow and water relations was written by B. R. Buttery and S. G. Boatman. The effect of water deficits on nitrogen-fixing root nodules is discussed by Janet I. Sprent from both the morphological-developmental and physiological points of view. E. A. Hurd dealt with the breeding of plants for drought resistance in the last chapter.

In addition to the detailed explanations and discussions presented in this book, a very extensive reference list is included with each chapter. This is an excellent reference, but probably is too specific for any general course in plant-water relations.

Cheryl Borgman University of Vermont


Vegetation and the Atmosphere. Edited by J. L. Monteith. Volume 1, Principles; Volume 2, Case Studies. Academic Press, London, New York, San Francisco. Vol. 1, 1975. XX, 278 pp., illus., £ 10.00. Vol. 2, 1976. XiX, 439 pp., illus., £ 15.00.

These two volumes deal mainly with the aerial environment of plants and the radiant energy, momentum, convective heat, and mass exchanges between the aerial environment and communities of plants. The title is broad and non-specific; the material covered could be considered micrometeorology of vegetation, or plant ecological physics.

The material presented follows a very logical outline. The first volume (Principles) leads off with a chapter en-titled "Micrometeorology and Ecology" which sets the tone of three of the most prominent subject-matter areas addressed by the two volumes: micrometeorology, whole-plant physiology, and plant ecology. Indeed, an alternative title or subtitle of the volumes might be Micrometeorology and Plant Ecology. The first volume then follows with two in-depth, theoretical chapters on radiation exchange in plant communities and on momentum, mass and heat ex-change in plant communities, followed by two chapters on the role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle and on the transport of particles in plant communities. Next, the reader finds a chapter discussing models of canopy ex-change of heat, water, carbon dioxide, and other gasses. The final chapter covers aspects of micrometeorological instrumentation.

The second volume (Case Studies) covers important agricultural crops and natural vegetative systems in thirteen chapters: temperate cereals; maize and rice; sugarbeet and potatoes; sunflower; cotton; Townsville stylo; coniferous forest; deciduous forest; tropical forest; citrus or-chards; swamps; grassland; and tundra. Most of the contributions cover the four topics of radiation exchange, aerodynamic exchange processes, heat and water balance, and carbon dioxide exchange. This method of presentation seems too repetitive to the reader who may be reading chapter after chapter, but it does allow specific comparisons among vegetative systems.

Both volumes have a uniform and well-defined list of symbols and definitions which largely follow the Systeme International units.

In general, the material in the volumes is covered extremely well. The few areas that are weak, or are not covered, should probably be considered beyond the scope of the books. The volumes focus on small-scale processes; they do not consider global atmospheric effects and inter-actions such as atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, potential climate changes, and possible effects of ozone depletion and concomitant ultraviolet radiation increases. The material generally does not cover physiological responses of plants in great detail, but they are sufficiently covered for the purposes of these volumes. Most of the material presented is from "fair weather micrometeorology" for obvious reasons. Not enough attention is given to plant controls and feedback in evapotranspiration, and not enough attention is given to partitioning evaporation from the ground surface and evaporation from the plants. How-ever, in the chapter on the hydrological cycle, considerable attention is given to rainfall distribution and interception effects.

These volumes should be very useful to teachers, graduate students, and researchers in crop micrometeorology or micrometeorological plant ecology. It is impossible for these two volumes to cite all relevant micrometeorology research on each type of vegetation, but each chapter contains an extensive list of references. In general, the contributors' choices of illustrations, and the publisher's rendering of these illustrations, is excellent.

L. H. Allen, Jr. University of Florida


Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies on Plasmodesmata. Edited by B. E. S. Gunning and A. W. Robards. Springer-Verlag. 1976.

Plasmodesmata have been objects of interest in botanical microscopy from the early studies of Tangl in 1879. Although their function may have seemed clear at the time, their real significance has remained unclear. This book provides a basis for understanding their true function by bringing together the available experimental and theoretical material. Considerable information is packed into this volume, much of it too detailed for easy comprehension. This is the result of a symposium format which provides valuable diversity of viewpoints, but makes for difficult reading.

The book has the format of contributed papers, each followed by an edited discussion. The subject matter ranges from the physical chemistry of transport through small tubes, to the specific involvement of plasmodesmata in growth and development. There are, however, questions which are either underrepresented or taken for granted in the discussion. The presence or absence of plasmodesmatal connections between apical meristem cells was a question to which I was unable to find a clear answer. Informational details are simply presented as the need arises in the discussion.

Despite these hindrances to easy reading there are some take-home lessons. Plasmodesmata are not simply cytoplasmic connections between neighboring cells. Their structure is becoming better understood and is becoming more closely linked to long-standing problems in trans-port. By taking seriously the ultrastructural and biophysical evidence, plasmodesmatal function in its most modern interpretation may explain the function of endodermis and the Casparian strip, as well as clarifying the movement of solutes through bundle sheath cells and other vascular structures of the "Krantz" type.

Plasmodesmata are not simply tubes or cell-plate regions whose complete closure has been prevented by the presence of spindle microfibrils. They are more likely to


be constricted tubules of endoplasmic reticulum trapped in the center of a membrane-bound channel between two cells. Here, we have the first step towards a more reason-able and detailed explanation of many transport phenomena, such as the mechanism and polarity of auxin movement. Indeed, there are many areas where we have considered auxin and hormone movement simply as some kind of strangely biased diffusion process, whereas plasmodesmata provide a continuous symplastic pathway through the plant.

Based on the size of the desmotubule lumen, and the frequency of plasmodesmatal distribution in specific cases, calculations are presented which seem to suggest that measured rates of auxin and metabolite movement can be accommodated within this hypothetical intercellular compartment.

The information density of this tome is certainly too great for easy reading, and some of the papers seem to make their points more clearly than do others. But who-ever takes it upon himself to work through it, or to read individual chapters of interest, will certainly be rewarded. The bibliography is extensive and excellent. At the very least one must conclude that plasmodesmata are more than mere holes in the wall.

Phillip M. Lintilhac University of Vermont

The Northwest European Pollen Flora, I. Edited by W. Punt. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford and New York.

This is the first of a planned series providing keys for the identification of pollen from plants presently growing within the area encompassed by Atlantic and northern France, the Benelux countries, most of Germany, Den-mark, southern Norway and Sweden, the British Isles and Iceland, or having grown in these regions in Quaternary times. Introduced plants which have become well established will be included, but garden and adventitious plants will be excluded as will plants distinctly confined to Alpine or Mediterranean regions. Pollen grains of all seed plants and spores from important pteridophytes and bryophytes will be treated. If a species is rare in the area, material from outside the region will be included for comparison. All material will be acetolyzed and mounted in both glycerine jelly and silicone oil for comparative purposes. Morphological descriptions will be uniform and measurements will be given for the extreme sizes in each mounting medium. No statistical treatment of sizes will be presented. Keys will differentiate between the lowest pollen-morphological entities (species or pollen types). The keys will rely on observations possible with the light microscope only, even though scanning electron micrographs will be displayed in addition to photomicrographs.

This first volume treats the Caprifoliaciae (11 pollen types), Primulaceae (20 pollen types), Adoxaceae (1 type), Sparganicaceae and Typhaceae (3 types), Gentianaceae (8 types), and Guttiferae (4 types).

The book is nicely produced with 54 full-page plates and 144 pages on high quality paper. At a list price of about $19.25 it is no bargain, especially since all the material is reprinted from the Review of Paleobotany and Palynology. It will be of use to anyone working on pollen analysis within the area treated and should probably be included in any palynological library for the use of pollen morphologists and plant taxonomists.

James J. Flynn State University of New York at Albany

YOSHIWO, HORIKAWA. Atlas of the Japanese Flora II: An Introduction to Plant Sociology of East Asia. Bakken Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 1976. 362 maps, I-XII (Indices). 35,000 yen (cloth, boxed).

An elegant oversized book, Volume II follows essentially the same format as Volume I. All pages are devoted to Spermatophytes while the preceding publication included some Pteridophytes and Bryophytes. The first 8 illustrated pages are devoted to 3 families of Gymnosperms; the next 195, to 59 families of Archichlamydeae; the next 148, to 25 families of Monochlamydeae; and the last 11, to 25 families of Monocots. A total of 362 taxa are represented. A short discussion of methods is found on page 8.

Each page contains the scientific name of the taxon, of each common synonym, and of the family. The common and family names appear in Japanese "Katakana" and in Roman letters. The life form (modified from Braun-Blanquet and Ellenberg) and general distribution are given. The illustrations consist of an areal map of Japan and neighboring regions with dots, each representing a "geoquadrat" (10 minutes in latitude and 15 minutes in longitude), to indicate locations of the taxon. In addition there are 2 other diagrams indicating elevational distributions: one between meridians 120° and 146° across Japan, and the other between parallels 24° and 46° as one moves from north to south.

There is a minor error on page 6 under the heading "Contents"; pagination for distribution maps should read: 501 (not 601) -862.

The diagrams illustrating elevational distributions are very interesting. This volume will be extremely useful to phytogeographers, plant sociologists, and ecologists who wish to make comparisons of life forms, habitats, etc., between vicariads of Japan and other regions.

A. J. Sharp University of Tennessee


Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms. Edited by Charles B. Beck. Columbia University Press, New York. 1976. 341 pp.

This book is a compendium of papers concerned with an unsolved botanical problem of great importance, the origin of the angiosperms. Most of the included papers were originally presented at the 1973 International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, and they represent a great range of approaches to the subject.

A reading reveals that while the central parts of this problem, such as the naming of a direct, Mesozoic ancestor of the angiosperms, and a description of its reproductive ecology and the forces that shaped it, remain unanswered, progress in the form of the accumulation of an information base is being made. Additionally, these combined papers improve the focus on the problem, and a clarification of the component problems emerges. For ex-ample, the point has been reached that there is general agreement on lower Cretaceous strata as the most likely places for future search for significant fossils. Working with this, Rudolf Schuster presents a study of the positions of the continents, the available intercontinental migration routes and the kinds of potential faunal vectors at that time.

What is most encouraging is that the threads that are beginning to align are the results of inquiry by diverse methods. Micro- and mega-fossils, modern pollen, seeds, seedlings and chromosomes, plate tectonics and theoretical constructs such as neoteny are the bases of arguments


delineated in this book. Their mutual support itself is significant, and this range of approaches is educational. Additionally, the reference lists for each article give access to review articles and recent work, and thus vastly contribute to this book's value as a resource.

Jerry 1. Davis University of Vermont


MATSUSHIMA, SEIYO. "High Yielding Rice Cultivation: A Method for Maximizing Rice Yield Through `Ideal Plants' ". University of Tokyo Press. 1976. 367 pp., illus.

The author presents detailed results of a lifetime of precise research on the various aspects of rice culture. The presentation is well organized, clearly expressed and documented with extensive data. The book contains 14 chapters, more than one-half of which deal with the ideal plant concept and the balance covers other aspects of high yield culture.

It is possible that some of the principles proposed will have minimal value or perhaps will require modification as they are applied to varieties having genetically con-trolled ideal plant type. Similarly, the application of certain principles may be more difficult on directly sown rice in contrast to transplanted rice.

This reviewer believes that every rice researcher should study this book and that many rice growers around the world could profit from the application of certain concepts that are presented.

Howard L. Carnahan California Co-operative Rice Research Foundation


Fennoscandian Tundra Ecosystems, Part 2. Edited by F. E. Wielgolaski. Ecological Studies. Vol. 17. Springer-Verlag, N.Y. xiii + 337 pp. $57.00.

The 37 papers comprising this volume are the result of tundra biome projects performed under the auspices of the International Biological Program (IBP) in the Fennoscandian countries.

The book is divided into 3 main sections: Animals, Conservation and recreation in tundra ecosystems and Models for integration and prediction. The animal section, which runs for 228 pages, is further subdivided into Faunal structure of research areas, Organization and dynamics of population, Bioenergetics and Herbivory aspects.

The emphasis of the volume is definitely on the in-vertebrate components of the tundra ecosystem. Only scant attention is given to the role played by passerine birds, reindeer, domestic sheep and small rodents.

Most of the papers have been published earlier in a more complete form in European journals that are not


readily available in American libraries. Oftentimes the reader is referred to these earlier papers for a more complete description of techniques employed or for a more complete presentation of the data.

The value of this book would have been greatly enhanced if each of the sections and subdivisions had been prefaced by the editor explaining why the various 'studies had been undertaken and how the results fit into the over-all functioning of tundra ecosystems.

In the final section, Models for Integration and pre-diction, no attempt is made to incorporate the data presented in the previous 242 pages of the volume into the mathematical models and systems analyses of the tundra ecosystem.

Richard C. Rosen University of Vermont

Effects of Air Pollutants on Plants. Edited by T. A. Mans-field. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series No. 1. Cambridge University Press, New York and London. 1976. 209 pp., illust.

This book does not live up to its title nor the general purposes expressed on the flyleaf and by editor Mans-field. This is a compendium of nine papers with no flow across papers. It does not serve as an effective review for students nor as a critical forum foi established workers. The individual papers are well developed and all present new experimental data that is of value to serious re-searchers. This latter attribute makes the volume worth-while and it will probably find its place on the researcher's shelf. It is not recommended as a textbook but should serve as a useful reference volume.

The first chapter presents a sound discussion of gas exchange but does little with pollution. The next two chapters present experimental results regarding certain aspects of effects from fluoride. Chapter four is the only chapter on photochemical oxidants (ozone) and covers specific experimental results. The next two chapters cover aspects of effects from sulfur dioxide—specifically on lichens and a case study of Lolium perenne. The latter would be of special interest to agronomists.

The last two chapters cover experimental work with heavy metals. The last chapter has an intriguing title (Pollution and Evolution) but covers evolution concepts using a heavy metal (Cu) as the model. A case study for one of the ubiquitous gaseous pollutants would have greater value. Appendix I serves as a good introduction to atmospheric chemistry and Appendix II is a good summary of metabolic and biochemical effects.

Walter W. Heck North Carolina State University

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