Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1972 v18 No 1 Spring
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
March 1972 Vol. 18 No. 1
Continental America's Tropical Garden William T. Gillis 2
Continental America's Tropical Garden
William T. Gillis
Have you ever heard of a garden that sponsors the region's largest white elephant sale, grows no annual plants, sometimes has to plant trees with a stick of dynamite, and invites the public to walk on the grass? The Fairchild Tropical Garden near Miami, Florida, is such a garden.
The Fairchild Tropical Garden is one of the few thriving tropical gardens in the world; it is certainly one of the few in the Western Hemisphere that is not retrogressing. It was the dream project of Colonel Robert H. Montgomery who founded it. Montgomery had one of the largest private palm collections in the world. Im the mid_30's, he felt that there was a need for a garden full of tropical and subtropical plants which could be enjoyed by the public. He and his wife, together with some friends, started what is now known as the Fairchild Tropical Gar-den, and named it after Dr. David Fairchild. Fairchild, a prominent plant explorer, was a retired chief of the United States Department of Agriculture, Seed and Plant Introduction Section.
Many persons have become acquainted with the name of Fairchild through his five books, especially his autobiography, The World teas My Garden. Both Fair-child and Montgomery owned property on the ridge of Miami oolitic limestone which runs more or less parallel to the Atlantic coast in Dade County. The area is the most frost-free of any place in peninsular Florida. It is on this limestone ridge that Colonel Montgomery founded the 8:3-acre Fairchild Tropical Garden. The garden immediately adjoins Matheson Hammock, a large tract of undisturbed native growth donated to the county by the Matheson family.
William Lyman Phillips, a landscape architect, was invited to draw up a plan for the garden. Phillips assisted Frederick Law Olmsted in laying out the Mountain Lake Sanctuary( Bok Tower) at Lakes Wales, Florida, and was chief consultant in the development of McKee Jungle Gardens at Vero Beach. He also designed the townsites of Balboa and Pedo Mi/iuel in the Canal Zone. Originally the garden was laid out in plots which centered on special plant families. Now, although plants are often placed in the garden according to their systematic position, this policy is not followed to the letter. Rock walls of native limestone, a number of lakes, and other accoutrements of landscaping were established on several levels so that the garden provided a number of interesting vistas--as much as could be obtainable in a relatively flat area such as South Florida. One of the problems in planting is the rock near the surface. Often when a moderate size tree is placed in the ground, the hole to receive it must be blasted with a stick of dynamite.
A number of special collections are world famous. There are nearly four hundred kinds of palms at Fair-child Tropical Garden; its palm collection is one of the largest assembled in any one garden in the world. Additional palm taxa of unknown species in the garden may represent new species when more study is carried out.
The garden has specialized in cycads and has close to eighty species representing all ten genera. From the first, a collection of vines was planned for the garden. Fair-child was very interested in them and had introduced tropical vines from all over the world to this area. A large number of these decorate the vine pergola which runs along Old Cutler Road at the front of the garden.
A number of trees have interesting ground cover plants at their bases. The ground cover collection includes Asystasia, Rhoeo, Wedelia and Oplismenus species. In addition, a very large collection of plants indigenous to the Bahama Islands is planted in the lowland area of the garden. The plan is to have nearly every native tree of the Bahamas growing here as a germ plasm bank of material against. the time when the natural habitat of these plants may be destroyed by the growing development of the Bahamas. An extensive orchid collection is housed in the rare plant house along with a large fern, begonia, and bromeliad collection. A special area of the garden is known as the Rainforest. It simulates to some extent the natural West Indian rainforest. Sprinklers provide water to this area of the garden every morning when it doesn't rain.
The bookshop at the garden, one of the finest south of Washington, D.C., in terms of botanical selections, has a very good collection of current titles on tropical gardening, horticulture, landscape design, and economic uses of plants, along with current botanical reference books. Adjoining the bookshop is a museum which specializes in memorabilia of Fairchild and houses a special exhibit on the use of the coconut in the world's economy.
An educational program has been established at the garden for a long time. Courses are offered year round to the general public in basic horticulture, plant iden_ lifieation, palms and cycads, palm weaving, orchids and their culture, ornithology, etc. For several years the gar-den has cooperated with the University of Miami and'the National Science Foundation in offering a seminar in advanced tropical botany (luring the summer. Several members of' the garden's professional staff have adjunct faculty posts at the University of Miami and occasionally offer courses there. A link with Harvard University has been established through adjunct staff members at the Harvard Forest.
A quarterly bulletin is issued to members of the garden. It contains news of garden events, special notices about plants of note, articles on various aspects of horticulture and botany, and other items of interest. A newsletter keeps members informed of events between issues of the bulletin.
The research program of the garden has been growing steadily for the last ten years. In 1967, a new research laboratory was built at a cost of Si 53,000. This laboratory, named the William J. Robbins Plant Science Building, is located about a mile from the garden on a section of Colonel Montgomery's estate that was set aside for educational and scientific purposes. On these grounds are located the director's home, the laboratory, the nursery, and the slathouse for the main garden. Many unusual trees and shrubs which are not found elsewhere in the area but which were introduced by Montgomery or Fairchild during their travels are growing there. A major portion of the cycad plantings is on the laboratory
grounds. The research center building, named after Rob-bins, who was president of the garden at the time the building was constructed, houses the herbarium, an anatomy-morphology laboratory, a physiology laboratory with a control room for special growing conditions, a studio for the botanical illustrator, a library, a photographic darkroom, offices for the staff, a seminar room, and an office for the secretary and receptionist.
Twenty-eight research papers were produced by the research program's small staff during 1970 and published in nineteen journals. A major contribution to the research at the garden was Dr. P. B. Tomlinson's studies on the anatomy of the monocotyledons with emphasis on palms. In recent years additional work has been carried out on mangroves, the morphology and growth of South Florida trees, the physiology of fruit ripening, the role of ethylene in plant growth, and taxonomic problems in Anacardiaceae, Theophrastaceae, Picrodendraceae, and Malpighiaceae, as well as Bahama flora. The director, Dr. John Popenoe, has been working on cultivation of Annona and Rollinia species and cultivated forms of Cassava (Manihot). A large planting of Tripsacum and other maize relatives has been established at the research station for workers throughout the country. Development of plantings of Old World mangrove species, an interest of Fairchild's, continues.
The herbarium of the garden is housed in the research center. The curator attempts to have all of the plants growing in the garden represented in this collection both in flowering and fruiting condition, an objective which will probably not be fulfilled in his lifetime. Specimens are also filed here of plants growing in cultivation elsewhere in South Florida such as at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Introduction Station, a short distance down Old Cutler Road. Many of these plantings represent the only living specimens of the species concerned outside of their wild state, e.g. Ulbrichia beat ensis, endemic to Beata Island. Also the herbarium is a repository for wild plants of South Florida, especially those of the Everglades National Park and the Florida Keys, and for vouchers of plants being studied by the staff. A rather large collection of West Indian plants has been built up. The general emphasis of the herbarium is upon cultivated tropical and subtropical plants from all over the world especially the native flora of South Florida and the Caribbean basin. An exchange program is in progress with other herbaria. Presently the herbarium houses about 15,000 specimens including ten cases of palms.
The garden has several "specimen trees" which are unusual and which attract considerable attention among botanists as well as the lay public. Among these is a very fine specimen of a cannonball tree, Couroupita guianensis, and several mature specimens of baobabs, Adansonia digitata. The Bailey palm, Copernicia baileyana, is represented by a grove, presumably the only such collection of this palm outside of its native Cuba (discounting. those the garden distributed to members.) The garden also has the mangrove palm, Nypa fruticans, in several of its lakes. Another group of specialty items in the garden is the gingerbread palms, various species of Hyphaene. A current project attempts to grow tropical representatives of primitive Magnoliales.
The garden's records were rather sketchy at first, but they have been brought into good order by several persons and now are presided over by a full time records clerk. They were considered complete enough to be included as one of the pilot studies by the American Horticulture
Society Plant Records Center in Pennsylvania where copies of all of the records have been microfilmed and computerized. Included among these records are the name of each plant, its origin, accession number, and whether or not a herbarium specimen has been made of it.
It is remarkable, in a garden of this size, how many of the necessary activities are fulfilled. The lack of substantial endowment, however, has forced a number of peculiar situations. For example, the garden relies very heavily upon volunteer help to carry out many of its endeavors. All specimens in the herbarium are mounted by volunteers. Many of the nursery chores, such as potting and transplanting, are also carried out by volunteer workers. Without the work of the volunteers, the garden's budget would have to be expanded several times to continue its present level of activities.
An unusual event takes place the first week in December every year. One of the largest rummage sales in the Southeastern United States is held at the garden under the name, "The Fairchild Ramble."
It is unusual for a botanical garden to raise money by selling such things as old and new books, used clothing, antique furniture, boats, chinaware and other assorted odds and ends which have been donated by local residents, but the amount of money that is made during this time, a necessary addition to the garden's budget, cannot be ignored. Interestingly, this has become a major social event in Dade County which attracts persons from all over South Florida.
The garden's botanical illustrator, Miss Priscilla Fawcett, has created a number of water color paintings of flowers and fruits with scientific realism combined with true artistry. Most of these adorn the walls of the William J. Robbins Plant Science Building, but she also prepares illustrations, including dissections of flowers and other plant materials, for research articles by members of the staff.
The garden has also sponsored a number of plant explorations for members of the staff, especially in the West Indies and in Central America. Over the years, the name of the garden has been associated with plant collecting trips throughout the tropics.
Each year there is a distribution of three different plants per person to members of the garden. These usually include outstanding plants which are growing in the garden or which have recently been introduced and
generally are not available at local nurseries. In fact, many local nurserymen have obtained stock plants of interesting new species at the distribution. Seedlings of palms, cycads, large trees, smaller trees, and shrubs are always available.
A number of names in botanical history have been associated with the growth of the garden including Liberty Hyde Bailey, Elmer D. Merrill and Walter T. Swingle. The current staff of the research center consists of director, Dr. John Popenoe; physiologist, Dr. Stanley Burg; taxonomist, Dr. William Gillis; and illustrator, Priscilla Fawcett. Other personnel include graduate students in physiology and taxonomy, visiting staff on leave from their institutions, a post-doctoral fellow, technicians, a secretary-receptionist, and the nursery and maintenance staff. Visiting personnel are welcome to work at the laboratory on a short or long term basis when space is available. A bench fee for extended work is negotiated through the director's office. A single apartment attached to the laboratory building is available for long-term visitors. Other guest facilities may be worked out on an individual basis.
Montgomery probably did not realize the far-reaching influence and activities that his garden would have in a mere 30 years. He would not have dreamed that this gar-den would be so well-known in the scientific world as it is. Fairchild permitted his name to be used for the garden only after much persuasion. He said that one should not name an institution after a living person for one could not know if he would still be worthy of the honor in future years. Montgomery chose wisely and well.
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Material submitted for publication should be type-written double-spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South Florida, 4202 Fowler Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33620. Second class postage paid at Tampa, Florida.
Rare Plant Study
Center in Texas
The Rare Plant Study Center at the University of Texas, Austin, was established in 1971 with funds donated for the purpose by public-spirited Texans. The Center studies methods to prevent the extinction of rare and endangered species of native plants and to promote, generally, the survival of uncommon and desirable species of native trees, shrubs, wildflowers and grasses. As of the beginning of 1971 about 100 species of native plants, a third of them endemic to Texas, were considered rare and endangered. The number is likely to increase year by year. Some species are already presumed to be extinct.
The Center not only intends to call attention to uncommon plants, to produce a significant effort to locate important plant communities, to encourage their survival as native habitats, but to see them respected in private and public planning and land management. The Center is also engaged in a three-stage program on a continuing basis: (1.) to collect seeds, cuttings and specimens of unusual native plants, (2.) to propagate materials and record their development under sound horticultural practices at the Rare Plant Propagation Laboratory in Austin, and (3.) finally, to distribute specimens where they will be assured of reasonable care, for example in parks and gardens, public grounds, highways, institutional areas in general and especially botanical gardens and arboreta.
This attempt can succeed only if state agencies and other organizations, and concerned individuals, such as landowners and collectors, will help. Persons and organizations that may help or that require help in such efforts are encouraged to contact the Center. On request, the Center will send lists of names and regional distributions of rare and endangered plants as well as of other plants considered unusual enough for concern. Director: Marshall C. Johnston; field directors: Anders S. Saustrup, Stuart K. Strong; horticultural consultants: Lynn R. Lowrey, Lee G. Marsters, Jr.; botanical advisors: Donovan S. Correll, Robert A. Vines.
General Section Symposia
In an effort to function as a focus of common interest between the various specialist sections of the B.S.A., the General Section will participate more actively in the sponsorship of symposia at the meetings this year in Minneapolis. In addition to our usual breakfast business meeting and contributed paper sessions, the section has initiated, with the co-sponsorship of the Paleobotanical, Systematic, Developmental, and Physiological Sections, an all-day symposium on "The Evolution and Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons."
The morning session will be chaired by Arthur Conquist and will be devoted to problems of phylogeny and comparative morphology. It will include lectures by James Doyle on the fossil evidence of early origin and evolution of the monocotyledons; Harold Moore, Jr. and Natalie Uhl on the palms and the origin and evolution of monocotyledons; P. B. Tomlinson on branching in monocotyledons; and Donald Kaplan on the problem of leaf morphology and evolution in the monocotyledons.
The afternoon session will be concerned with problems of comparative biology of monocotyledons and will include presentations by Jack Fisher on the control of growth and development; David Benzing on the corn_ parative aspects of mineral nutrition among monocotyledonous epiphytes; Clanton Black on pathways of carbon metabolism related to net carbon dioxide assimilation; and Martin Zimmermann on transport problems in arborescent monocotyledons.
In addition to the monocot symposium, the General Section will co-sponsor a symposium on the biology of pollen, with the Developmental and Physiological Sections. Both programs will be of broad interest and appeal, and we hope that as many members of the B.S.A as possible will be able to attend what promises to be some very interesting sessions.
D. Kaplan University of California, Berkeley
THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN is seeking someone with a bachelor's or master's degree in botany who has an interest in plant taxonomy and some greenhouse experience, or a horticulture student with strong interest in botany, to take charge of their new research greenhouse. The position offers a chance to exercise great initiative and responsibility and requires some study and experimental work. Salary will be $9000 or more depending on the candidate's qualifications and experience. Applications, including a detailed summary of background and experience, a transcript of credits and two letters of recommendation, should be sent to John T. Mickel, chairman, Research Greenhouse Committee, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458.
FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY has openings in all fields of biology at all ranks appropriate to qualifications and experience. The Ph.D. is required with preference given to persons with teaching and research experience at a post-doctoral level and with competence bridging interdisciplinary fields. All facilities are new and opportunities for research and graduate training will be implemented on a planned schedule of growth and development. For additional information contact Dr. Abraham M. Stein, chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Tamiami Trail, Miami, Florida 33144.
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY has two openings for botanists at two regional campuses, one at Lima and one at Marion. The successful applicant will be appointed assistant professor, effective October 1, 1972, with a nine-month contract. His duties will include teaching general botany and general biology to freshman and sophomore level students. Applicants should submit complete curriculum and personal vitae, including transcripts of all university work and three letters of reference to Dr. John A. Schmitt, chairman, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210.
THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO is seeking a biological scholar of national renown to head the University's department of biology beginning this fall. They are interested in someone who will be concerned with seeking outside financial support for the department and will lead in strengthening the reputation of the department in research and education. Interested persons should con-tact Dr. William W. Johnson, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106.
THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE B.S.A. will be held in conjunction with the 1972 annual AIBS meeting August 27-September 1, on the campus of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Special symposia are being planned since this is the 25th anniversary of the founding of AIBS. Program Chairman Dr. Samuel Postlethwait is now preparing the program of events for the society. The call for papers has already gone out. The general chair-man for the meeting is Dean Richard S. Caldecott, College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101; the local representative for the B.S.A is Dr. John W. Hall, Department of Botany, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455.
THE INTERNATIONAL LILAC SOCIETY'S first conference will be held May 19 through May 21 in Rochester, New York, at the Flagship-Rochester Hotel. The purpose of the new society is to sponsor lilac research, exhibits, and flower shows, and to supply useful information on lilac cultivation. Further information on the conference may be obtained from Robert B. Clark, Department of Parks, 375 Westfall Road, Rochester, New York, 14620. For information on the society, interested persons should contact Dennis Brown, Director of Horticulture, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458.
A SYMPOSIUM ON CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS IN CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, organized by Dr. Nicholas Maravolo, Lawrence University, will be held August 26, one day before the opening of the AIBS meeting. Beginning at 8:30 a.m. Dr. Lawrence Bogorad will speak on "Chloroplast Development"; Dr. Harvard Lyman on "Chloroplast Evolution"; Dr. Govindjee on "Light Energy and Photosynthesis"; and Dr. Mar-tin Gibbs on "Carbon Fixation." Further information will be presented in the June issue of the Bulletin.
THE FRIDAY HARBOR LABORATORIES MARINE BOTANY COURSES for summer, 1972, offered by the University of Washington, will include marine algology and marine mycology. Marine algology will be offered from June 17 to July 22. This course will consist of field and laboratory study of marine algae. Observation, identification, collection, cultivation, and the use of marine algae as experimental organisms will be among the topics included in the course. The faculty this year are Dr. J. Robert Waaland, University of Washington, and Dr. John West, University of California. Marine mycology will be offered from July 24 to August 26. This course will consist of study of the taxonomy and morphology of aquatic fungi with emphasis on marine forms, collection, and culture methods. The faculty of the marine mycology course will be Dr. Frederick Sparrow, University of Michigan, and Dr. Howard Whisler, University of Washington. Financial support for both of these courses will be available to qualified applicants. Further information and application forms are available upon request from the director of the Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195. Applications for admission should be made to the director at once.
THE CANADIAN BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION'S annual meeting will be held at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia June 19-22. Those desiring information regarding the program of events can write to Dr. J. E. Cruise, Secretary, Canadian Botanical Association,
Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto 181, Ontario.
THE MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION, University of Virginia, announces that eight graduate courses emphasizing environmental biology will be offered this summer. They are as follows: First Term, June 14-July 18: Aquatic Ecology, Dr. George M. Simmons, Jr.; Algology, Dr. Francis R. Trainor; Herpetology, Dr. H. G. M. Jopson; Invertebrate Zoology, Dr. Fred Diehl. Second Term, July 19-August 22: Ecological genetics, Dr. David West; Pteridology, Dr. Warren H. Wagner; Taxonomy of Seed Plants, Dr. Carl S. Keener; Mammalogy, Dr. Charles O. Handley. The Ivey F. Lewis Fellowship, an annual award of $150, is made by the Phipps and Bird Company of Richmond to a student undertaking research or graduate training at the station. Fellowships of $150 for one student in each term have been made available by the North Carolina Botanical Garden. This fellowship may not be held concurrently with any other stipend from the station. The recipients of these awards are chosen by the Research and Awards Committee of the Department of Biology. Application for awards should be sent to the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, University of Virginia, Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903.
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY is now accepting applications for the Edward W. Browning Award for outstanding contribution to the improvement of food sources. Members of the B.S.A. are eligible for this award. The award consists of $5000 and a bronze medal. Five Browning awards are given out each year for: Conserving the environment, improvement of food sources, prevention of disease, alleviation of addiction and spreading of the Christian gospel. Nominations must be received by June 1. They should be sent to Matthias Stelley, executive vice president of the American Society of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, Wisconsin 53711.
THE 22ND ANNUAL SPRING WILDFLOWER PILGRIMAGE will be held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee,and surrounding territory May 4, 5, and 6. It is sponsored by the Botany Department of the University of Tennessee, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and the Gatlinburg Garden Club. Motorcades and trail hikes under expert leadership travel to areas where spring wild-flowers grow in quantity and variety. Early morning bird walks are a feature of each day's activities, as are birding hikes. Special programs are arranged for photographers, including a photography clinic, and there is an opportunity to show one's own slides. Each evening there are illustrated lectures on features of the natural history of the Appalachians and a plant identification clinic. Detailed descriptions of each pilgrimage activity are furnished at the time of registration, and programs are available upon request. For further information, write Department W. P., Gatlinburg Chamber of Commerce, Box 527, Gatlinburg, Tennessee 37738, or Dr. Edward E. C. Clebsch, Graduate Program in Ecology, 408 10th Street, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37916.
A EUROPEAN HORTICULTURAL EXPLORATION TOUR for members of the American Horticultural Society will be taking off for London May 4. The 22-day tour will cover the British Isles and Holland taking in the major horticultural shows in Europe this year. First is Floriade in Amsterdam, a world horticultural exhibition held only once every ten years. The other is the Chelsea Show in London. The tour will be coonducted by Harold Epstein, a horticulturist and traveler, assisted by a
professional British courier leader. Members of the society may contact Flora and Travel Ltd., 5 Forest Court, Larchmont, New York 10538 for more information.
A FIELD BIOLOGY COURSE ON NANTUCKET ISLAND will be offered by the Biology Department of the University of Massachusetts at Boston from July 24 through August 26, 1972. This course, Biology 350, is designed for advanced undergraduates and offers six credits. Each student is required to conceive, carry out and write an original research project in field biology. A number of habitats allowing study of both plants and animals is available at or near the field station. These include salt marsh and estuarine areas, shallow coastal waters, sand dunes, moorland and upland scrub. Limited living facilities are available at modest cost. Students desiring more detailed information concerning admission and conduct of the course should contact Wesley N. Tiffney Jr., Biology Department, University of Massachusetts, 100 Arlington St., Boston, Mass. 02116.
Dr. Howard J. Arnott has been appointed chairman of the Department of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa. He expects to assume his new post on June 1. Presently, he is a professor of botany at the University of Texas, Austin.
Dr. Guenther Stotzky has been appointed Head of the All-University Department of Biology at New York University. Formerly he was a professor of botany in the same department.
Dr. Erik K. Bonde, University of Colorado, will be at the National Center for Scientific Research in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, during the spring semester to study hormonal and environmental effects on plants, especially concerning the growth and development of flowering plants.
Albert E. Dimond
Dr. Albert E. Dimond, chief of the Department of Plant Pathology and Botany at The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station since 1950, died February 4 at his home in Madison. He was appointed vice director of the station January 1, but illness forced his resignation from that post a few weeks later. Born in Spokane, Washington, Dimond was a graduate of the University of Wisconsin where he earned the doctorate in plant pathology. For two years he was a research fellow at the Connecticut station. He then spent 3 years in teaching and research at the University of Nebraska. Returning to Connecticut in 1945, Dimond began his research on the chemotherapy of plant diseases. He became best known for his work on how wilt diseases damage plants, particularly Dutch elm disease.
Widely recognized for his scientific research, his writings, and his counsel, he was a former president of the American Phytopathological Society and a fellow of that society. During the early 60's he was a consultant on the regulatory biology panel of the National Science Foundation. He served on the executive and national committees and was chairman of the finance committee of the XI International Botanical Congress. Dimond was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Botanical Society of America and the American Society of Plant Physiologists, and a lecturer in the Yale Forestry School.
Minutes of the Business Meeting
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
President: Charles Heimsch, Miami University
Vice-President: Warren H. Wagner, Jr., University of Michigan Member of the Editorial Board: David W. Bierhorst, University of Massachusetts
The Secretary, Treasurer, and Program Chairman all continue in their respective offices for 1972.
"Article II. Membership dues. Section 1, e. Retired members. All active members of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., who have been members of the Society and of the Botanical Society (uninc.) for a total of 25 years, are eligible for retired membership upon retirement from professional activities."
President Starr reported that the Council had authorized a committee to review the By-laws, not with the purpose of revising them, but with the view to ,amoving ambiguities, inconsistencies, etc. which have gradually arisen over the years as a result of an amendment here and an amendment there.
The new edition of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany, which will incorporate many Canadian universities in addition to those in the U. S., is also about ready for the printer and should be available in the fall.
The supply of career booklets is getting low and the Council has charged the Education Committee to prepare a new one. There has been great demand for them, but the information is getting somewhat out-of-date and the cost of reprinting the present edition has become too high.
He also presented the final financial report for 1970, which will be published in the next Yearbook, the projected report for 1971, which includes a few uncertain expenses such as printing costs for Yearbook and Guide, and the proposed budget for 1972. He reported that some funds have been transferred to a time savings account at a higher rate of interest. The Society appears to be in satisfactory financial condition and Dr. Delevoryas said that he saw no need for change in dues for next year. Approval of the reports and budget was moved, seconded and passed.
Regular - $10
Family - $12
Student - $6
Retired subscribing - $5
Life - $250
Dr. Drew inquired about subscriptions from Communist countries and whetherwe could anticipate increased subscriptions with
relaxation of restrictions on exchange with Communist China. Dr. Crockett replied that while there had originally been many subscriptions, particularly in Russia, there is now essentially one subscription per country. He suspects that this one copy is being duplicated and circulated widely, but we have no control over this. The same might well occur with China.
He presented meeting places and dates for the next two years. The Society will meet with AIBS at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, August 27 — September 1 in 1972 and at Arizona State University in Tempe, June 3 — 8 in 1973. Several comments and complaints were raised about the earliness of the latter dates. These will be passed on to AIBS.
Dr. Postlethwait also reported on two Council decisions relative to the meetings. 1) Forms on which abstracts should be typed will be mailed with the Call for Papers in an attempt to increase consistency of format and eliminate much of the retyping which has been required in the past before the abstracts can be published in the Journal. 2) The number of contributed papers is to be limited to three per person, whether as senior or junior author.
Two problems about this year's program were raised from the floor. 1) Why were papers allowed to be listed as "Topic to be announced"? Dr. Postlethwait responded that this had occurred primarily in symposium programs and had been aggravated by the earlier date of the meetings. 2) This year there had been a great many "no shows" and there was discussion of what might be done to alleviate this type of disruption of programs. Several suggestions were made. a) When a Section Secretary notifies a contributor of the time and place for his paper, the Secretary should indicate that if for any reason he cannot attend, he should send his paper to the Session Chairman or, at the very least, notify the Chairman that he will not be present. b) A record should be kept of the "no-shows" and the people involved should 1) not he allowed to submit a paper next year; 2) have their names published in the Plant Science Bulletin; :3) be written a let-ter by the Section Secretary deploring the fact that they had not been able to attend and regretting that they had been unable to inform the Section of their enforced absence. No final conclusion of the best way to handle this problem was reached.
Dr. Greenfield commented that he would like to see the Botanical Society be aggressive in taking the lead insofar as botany is concerned and that we should have regular and active consultation with other plant science societies.
Dr. Long replied that the Council intended to explore the possibility of the 1974 meetings being a joint meeting of all botanical societies.
The Botanical Society wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative officers of the University of Alberta, of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, and of the Canadian Botanical Associationll'Association Botanique du Canada, and in particular to Dr. Wilson Stewart who acted as General Chairman, for their work in planning the excellent arrangements and facilities provided for the 1971 meeting." The esolution was seconded and passed unanimously.
The meeting was adjourned at 5:35 p.m.
Barbara F. Palser, Secretary
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, INC.
PRESIDENT: „Charles Heimsch Department of Botany Miami University
Oxford, Ohio 45056
VICE-PRESIDENT: *Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
SECRETARY: *Barbara F. Palser (1970-1974)
Department of Botany Rutgers University
New Jersey 0890:3
TREASURER: "Theodore Delevoryas (1968-1972)
Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
PROGRAM DIRECTOR: "Samuel N. Postlethwait 0970-1972)
Department of Biological Sciences
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Harlan P. Banks (1970-1972)
Division of Biological Sciences
214 Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850
Ernest A. Ball
Dept. of Developmental and Cell Biology
University of California Irvine, California 92664
David W. Bierhorst Department of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
EDITOR, *Norman H. Boke
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Department of Botany and Microbiology
770 Van Vleet Oval University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
EDITOR: "`Robert W. Long
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN: (1971-1975)
Department of Biology University of South Florida Tampa, Florida :3:3620
BUSINESS MANAGER, "Lawrence J. Crockett
AMERICAN City College
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: University of the City of New York
Convent Avenue and
New York New York 10031
SECTIONAL OFFICERS AND COUNCIL MEMBERS FOR 1972
PAST PRESIDENT, 1971: *Richard C. Starr Department of Botany Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
PAST PRESIDENT, 1970: `Lincoln Constance Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720
PAST PRESIDENT, 1969: *Harlan P. Banks Division of Biological Sciences
214 Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850 DEVELOPMENTAL SECTION:
Chairman (1968-1972): Ian M. Sussex Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Vice-Chairman (1968-1972): Richard M. Klein Department of Botany University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05401
Secretary (1971-1973): Donald E. Fosket. Dept. of Developmental and Cell Biology
University of California
Irvine, California 92664
Representative to AJB Knot. J. Norstog
Editorial Board (1971-1973): Department of
Biological Sciences Northern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115
Chairman (1972): Donald R. Kaplan Fairchild Tropical Garden Research Center
11935 Old Cutler Road Miami, Florida :33156
Vice-Chairman (1972): E. Mark Engleman Departmento de Botanica E.N.A.
Chapingo, Edo de Mexico Mexico
Secretary-Treasurer Albert S. Rouffa
(1971-197:3): Department of Biological Sciences University of Illinois
at Chicago Circle
Chicago, Illinois 60680
Representative to AJB William F. Millington
Editorial Board (1972-1974): Department of Biology Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin 5323:3
Chairman (1971-1972): Emanuel D. Rudolph Department of Botany 17:35 Neil Avenue
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 4:3210
Vice-Chairman (1971-1972): Jerry W. Stannard Department of History University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
Secretary (1971-1973): 'Ronald L. Stuckey Department of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 4:3210 MICROBIOLOGICAL SECTION:
Chairman (1972): George C. Carroll Biology Department University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 9740:3
Vice-Chairman (1972): Jerome M. Aronson Department of Botany and Microbiology
Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 85281
Secretary (1972-1974): Charles E. Bracker Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Representative to the Council *Annette Hervey
(1970-1972): New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Representative to AJB Clark T. Rogerson
Editorial Board (1970-1972): New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458 PALEOBOTANICAL SECTION:
Chairman (1970): John W. Hall
Department of Botany University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414
Secretary-Treasurer "Thomas N. Taylor
(1972-1974): Department of Biological Sciences
University of Illinois
at, Chicago Circle
Chicago, Illinois 60680
Representative to AJB J. William Schopf
Editorial Board (indefinite): Department of Geology University of California Los Angeles, California 90024
Chairman (1972-197:3): "Michael J. Wynne Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
Secretary (1972-1974): Paul J. Nebel Department of Biology Dickinson College
Carlisle, Pennsylvania 1710:3
Representative to AJB George F. Papenfuss
Editorial Board (1970-1972): Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720
Chairman (1971-1973): "Graeme P. Berlyn School of Forestry Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut
Representative to AJB Arthur W. Galston
Editorial Board (indefinite): Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Chairman (1972): 'Irwin P. Ting Department of Biology University of California Riverside, California 92502
Vice-Chairman (1972): John E. Averett University of Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri 63121
Secretary (1971-1972): Richard L. Mansell Department of Biology
University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33610
Representative to AJB Tod F. Stuessy
Editorial Board (1971-1973): Academic Faculty of Botany Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Chairman (1972): David W. Bierhorst Department of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
SecretaryTreasure• Edward J. Klekowski
(1972-1974): Department of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
Representative to AJB Rolla Tryon
Editorial Board (1971-197:3): Gray Herbarium
22 Divinity Avenue Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
Chairman (1972-1973): 'Carroll E. Wood, Jr. Arnold Arboretum Harvard University 22 Divinity Avenue Cambridge, Massachusetts 021:38
Secretary (1972-1974): Duncan M. Porter Missouri Botanical Garden 2:315 Tower Grove Avenue
St. Louis, Missouri (3:3110
Representative to AJB Donald A. Levin
Editorial Board (1970-1972): Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Chairman (1972): O. J. Eigsti
Department of Biology Chicago State College 6800 South Stewart Chicago, Illinois 60621
Vice-Chairman (1972): Sanford S. Tepfer Department of Biolo), University of Oregon Eugene. Oregon 97403
Secretary (1971-1973): *Elwood B. Ehrle School of Arts and Sciences
Mankato Stale College Mankato, Minnesota 56001
Representative to AJB Robert W. Hoshaw
Editorial Board (1969-1973): Botanical Laboratories Agricultural Sciences Building University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
Chairman (1972): Name not Available
Secretary-Treasurer 'Mildred E. Faust
(1972-1974): 121(i Westcott Street Syracuse, New York 13210 PACIFIC SECTION:
Chairman (1972): W. M. Lactsch Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720
Vice-Chairman (1972): George C. Carroll Department of Biology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
Secretary-Treasurer *Joseph Arditti
(1971-1973): Dept. of Developmental and Cell Biology University of California
Irvine, California 926(34
AAAS Council Leo F. Jones
Representative Botany Department
Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331
Chairman (1971-1973): Ray Noggle
Department of Botany North Carolina State Univeristy
Ralugh, North Carolina 27607
Secretary Secretary-Treasurer *Dana Griffin III (1971-1974): Department of Botany
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida :32601
Chairman of Activities John M. Herr, Jr.
Committee (1968-1972): Univerisity of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina 29208
HIFRHORST, DAVID W. Morphology of Vascular Plants. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1971. 560 pp. $14.95.
It is said that one picture is worth a thousand words. Perhaps so. At any rate, well-chosen words supplemented by good photographs or drawings make a forceful combination. Professor Bierhorst's Morphology of Vascular Plants is undoubtedly the most extensively illustrated book of its kind yet to appear. The dust cover states that there are more than 2,000 illustrations, of which 70';; are original, and I believe it. although I have not counted them personally. Of course, textbooks with numerous illustrations are quite commonplace. Publishers, taking their cue from the "glossy" school of journalism, have found that spectacular photographs sell books. Often-times it turns out that the "cake is all frosting" and what one sees bears little relation to what one reads. Bierhorst's illustrations, on the contrary, are "working" illustrations. They are obviously chosen for scientific rather than artistic merit. Many are good frombothstandpoints; some are lacking in technical polish but are nevertheless clear and helpful. A few (fortunately rare) ought to be replaced. For instance, a strobilus of Cycas is so washed out that only one who knows what to look for would recognize it.
The reader who is looking for a free-wheeling interpretation of Tracheophyte evolution will be disappointed. The author makes a determined effort to avoid the broad generalization and the unifying theory. The homologous and antithetic theories, implications of apogamy and apospory, and telome theory are not at all emphasized. The latter in particular receives short shrift and is dismissed with a wry comment to the effect that one "can-not underestimate the influence that the telome theory has had and is having on morphological thought." Still, the author does a good job at marshalling his evidence in such a way that a student is led to an inescapable conclusion, as for example the implication of the enations and microphylls in the Zosterophyllophy'tes and I,ycopodiopsida.
Probably the most interesting treatments are those given to the primitive vascular plants and the Psilotaceae. In his view, all vascular plants are readily traceable to the Zosterophyllales, an assemblage including plants with lateral sporangia, or to the Rhyneales. Psiloph-yton ornahn is included in the former. Psilophyton princips is considered as an erroneous creation composed of several
unrelated fossil organs.
A great deal of attention is paid to Psilotum and Tmesipteris which are placed in the Filicales near Stromatopteris. These plants are used to introduce and exemplify basic problems relative to the fundamental nature of organ systems. The aerial branches of Psilotum and Tmesipteris are here considered to be "fronds;" the "microphylls" to be pinnae. What does one say about leaf-stern relationships when the leaf appears to be a transformed axis? In fact, what does one say about sporophyte-gametophyte relationships when the vascularized gametophyte axis of Psilotum gives over to the sporophyte axis? Other cases of apogamy in Psilotum are also noted, and present a wonderful opportunity to discuss the homologous theory, as well as apogamy and apospory. Bierhorst, I think, is somewhat parsimonious with his words in this instance. He says, "There seems little doubt that from a morphological point of view the sporophyte is ultimately homologous with the gametophyte. The two generations are too similar in many taxa." He wisely refrains from speculating on the primitive gametophyte, pointing out that too little is known about the gametophytes of Rhynie plants, except to say that "sex went underground as early as Middle Silurian times." However, I would like to have seen more attention paid to alternation of generations and in particular to the work of Wetmore, DeMaggio, Steeves, Whit-tier, and others on apogamy, apospory, and gametophytesporophyte relationship.
The treatment of the ferns in this book is particularly good, I think, which is not surprising in light of the author's long-time interest and experience with this important group of plants. The Cladoxylales and Coenopteridales are placed in the classes, Cladoxylopsida and Coenopteridopsida in recognition of their enigmatic position with respect to the Pteropsids. Other fossil, fern-like plants such as Aneurophyton, Protopteridium, Eospermatopteris and Archeopteris are included in the Aneurophytopsida. Archeopteris is subsequently reintroduced as a protogymnosperm in the chapter on the Cordaitales.
Two chapters dealing with the Filicales discuss a number of significant families including the more primitive representatives, Os mundaceae, G1eicheniaceae, Cyatheaceae, and others, as well as more recently advanced groups. Sporangial morphology is dealt with at some length and a comprehensive list of primitive and advanced fern characteristics is compared in a table that will be especially useful to students and teachers.
A student may be forgiven if he is puzzled to learn that an organ (rhizophore) which originates like a stem, lacks a root cap, and sometimes develops into a leafy stem, is actually a root; and might not, I think, be entirely satisfied with the explanation that the term and arguments are of "historical interest only" being "rooted in a monophyletic concept of the root .. ." Here would have been a good place to refer the reader to the excellent presentation on the nature of plant organs given in a later chapter on the Psilotaceae.
But these are after all rather trivial faults; all in all it is a fine book. More important is the question of where it fits into the educational scheme of things. It is, in my opinion, first and foremost a valuable reference work, and no teacher of descriptive botany can afford to be without a copy. I think it will also prove to be a successful text-book for advanced classes in vascular plant morphology. Possibly undergraduate students in introductory morphology classes will find it difficult. Although there is no glossary, new terms are introduced with synonymy so that the student will acquire the necessary vocabulary as he goes along. About 450 references, mostly in English, are included at the back of the book and will serve to introduce the reader to the pertinent literature, should he desire additional information on a specific subject.
Northern Illinois University
INGOLD, C. T. Fungal Spores, their Liberation and Dispersal. Oxford University Press, London and New York. 1971.
In the preface of this book, Dr. Ingold states that in-stead of providing second editions to his two previous works, Dispersal in Fungi and Spore Liberation, he decided to combine the two into a single volume. Only the chapter discussing spore liberation in the Bryophytes that occurs in the latter of these two books was omitted from the revised single volume. This approach seems far more satisfactory than retaining the closely related phases of dispersal and liberation in separate volumes.
The book is divided into 16 chapters. The Introduction deals with the form and function of fungal spores and discusses some of the basic problems of dispersal in the fungi. The next chapter brings together information pertaining to the discharge of ascospores. Numerous aspects including the mechanisms involved in discharge, fruit body architecture, production of ascospores and the effects of various environmental factors on spore discharge are discussed. A great deal of new material has been added to that which was previously scattered in a number of places in the earlier books resulting in this being the largest of the 16 chapters.
A number of subjects now have been treated in separate chapters. These include: Discharge by Rounding-off of Turgid Cells; Discharge Connected with Drying; Water Supply and Spore Discharge; and Blow-off, Splash-off and Shake-off. In addition the various theories and questions involved in discharge of the ballistospore have been brought together in a single chapter.
The chapter entitled Spores in the Air is concerned primarily with the general population of spores in the atmosphere. It begins by discussing examples of the various types of spore traps used in sampling the air spora followed by such subjects as dispersal from the point of liberation, vertical profiles, movement in air masses over sea and land, viability and deposition of airborne spores.
Perhaps the most fascinating chapter in the book is that which deals with periodicity. Liberation of many fungal spores occurs in definite periodic patterns. Examples from many groups of fungi are cited to illustrate the various rhythms, such as circadian rhythms and the effects that various environmental factors have on these rhythms.
Several of the chapters, including the third dealing with spore liberation in the Mucorales, are essentially rewritten from chapters of the same or similar titles of the previous books. Others of which this may be said include the last four chapters discussing dispersal by in-sects and larger animals, seed-borne fungi and dispersal in aquatic fungi.
The arrangement of the book is excellent. I believe that the decision to combine the material of the two earlier books was a wise choice. The various sections have been brought up to date with the addition of a considerable amount of new material. Over 80 new illustrations are provided. It, of course, is presented in the usual fine writing style of Dr. Ingold. Anyone interested in the biology of the fungi will find it fascinating reading and a most useful addition to their library.
Charles L. Kramer Kansas State University
SMITH, WILLIAM H. Tree Pathology - a Short Introduction. Academic Press Inc., New York, 1970. :309 pp. $11.00.
The material covered in this book, in large part, is easily available to the members of the academe; however, the work is of great value in bringing together in a concise manner the old and new ideas and methods for the better maintenance of our forest resources. Two or three good books have been published in the last ten years dealing with various aspects of plant diseases, but there is still room for this one, which is quite distinctive in its character and style. This is not a book for the general reader or the one with insufficient knowledge of basic biological concepts, but it is ideal for students majoring in plant pathology and forestry. The presentation of subject mat-ter is such that it will be a handy reference source for those interested in silvicultural conservation practices.
The topics are categorized into four parts, namely, Abiotic Stress Agents, Biotic Stress Agents, Special Topics and Disease Control. The book presents a brief perspective of diseases of trees in the introductory chap-ter, and goes on to review the biotic and abiotic factors concerned with tree pathology, and finally discusses the impact of old and new patterns of prophylactic and curative plant pathological techniques. There is a total of fourteen chapters under Biotic Stress Agents, half of which are attributed to fungi as causal agents; other plant pathogenic organisms discussed are nematodes, viruses, bacteria and angiosperms. Seasonsal changes in life history, disease spread and distribution for all the above mentioned pathogenic agents are described in a systematic fashion. The four chapters under Disease Control (Exclusion, Eradication, Protection and Resistance) are especially well written. The biological aspects of parasitism are well discussed, and the work presents a thorough synthesis of current information on the influence of other disciplines such as physiology and biochemistry on the study of tree pathology. There is a short discourse on the effects of environmental extremes and air pollution on tree health. The biology of tree diseases that are of economic importance (e.g. Chestnut Blight) is described well, and fairly extensive data on disease resources in many parts of North America are summarized in succinct tables (e.g. Table XXVI—Calculation of rate of disease increase per unit
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620
per year for several important forest tree diseases). Bibliography at the end of each chapter is divided into 'References' and `General References,' and represents a painstaking and intelligent understanding by the author and meets well the needs of the reader.
In general, this book is a good addition to the fine list of books in the field of plant pathology, and the author deserves warm praise for his attempt. He modestly states in the Preface that ". . . it is not a comprehensive ac-count of the diseases of forest trees . ;" however, in addition to being a comprehensive book on many disease of the forest trees the book has three valuable features. Firstly, it points out precisely which basic phytopathological problems are of importance in silviculture. Secondly, it clearly sets out the underlying principles in maintaining disease free tree stands. And thirdly, it strikes an admirable balance between the needs of the teacher and the student.
S. K. Ballal Tennessee Technological University
CAILLIET, G.M., Y.Y. SETZER, and M.S. LOVE. Everyman 's Guide to Ecological Living. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1970. 119 Ph, $ .95
Although this little book aims to be of use to consumers and those interested in conserving natural resources, and in some respects it does succeed, it also contains many recommendations that are extreme and highly questionable. For example, it recommends designing a house so that the nonsewer effluent (sinks, drains, washers, etc.) he emptied into the garden area so as not to waste the water, ignoring the soil polluting effects of the detergents, soaps, bleaches and other contents of this effluent. Other recommendations tend to emphasize using only those materials essential to our existence and the ad-vice given in many instances would lead to very uncomfortable living, absurd harassment of vendors and some very silly actions. The authors had good intentions. It is unfortunate that a more sensible and scientifically valid implementation has not been achieved.
Sydney S. Greenfield Rutgers University, Newark
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620