Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1964 v10 No 1 SpringActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.


The Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden

CONSTANCE E. HARTr AND W. W. G. Most Hawaiian Botanical Gardens Foundation, Inc.'

On Wednesday evening, August 19, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson took five pens in hand and signed into law Senate Bill 1991, granting a national charter to and incorporating the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. This act is now Public Law 88-449.

The corporation created by this law is now being organized. The incorporators, who comprise the initial Board of Trustees of the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, are as follows: Henry Francis duPont, Winterthur, Delaware; Deane Waldo Malott, Ithaca, New York; Horace Marden Albright; Los Angeles, California; Robert Allerton, Kauai, Hawaii; and Paul Bigelow Sears, New Haven, Connecticut. The law states that the incorporators may select additional persons to serve as members of the Board of Trustees, and that the total number of trustees shall not exceed fifteen. The Board of Trustees is the managing body of the corporation. The Board will adopt bylaws, elect officers, appoint committees, and get started on all the general work necessary for the establishment of the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, including selection of the location.

The organization which sponsored S. 1991, and which has worked for years toward the goal of establishing a comprehensive tropical garden on United States soil, is the Hawaiian Botanical Gardens Foundation, Inc. This Foundation is a non-profit organization incorporated in Hawaii on June 29, 1959, after several years of study and planning. Purposes of the Foundation include helping the development of botanical gardens of all kinds throughout the State, encouraging research and instruction in tropical botany and horticulture, and studying the possibility of a national' Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii. This Foundation was not planned to build and run the Garden but to instigate its establishment. From now on the Foundation will function chiefly as a "Friends of the Garden"-type organization.

The need for additional facilities for research and education in tropical botany was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences in its 196o Fairchild Report. This report emphasized the growing importance of tropical botany from the standpoint of improving the economy and human welfare in underdeveloped regions (which are largely tropical), of aiding the development of basic

'Secretary and President, respectively; 1527 Kceaumoku Street, Honolulu, Hawaii.

'The word "national" was changed to "Pacific" in Public Law 88-449. biological concepts, of helping conservation, and of enriching the education of students and research experience of scholars, and for other reasons.

The dream of a comprehensive tropical garden on United States soil in a location free from frost, drought, and hurricanes; under a stable government; and which would be available not only to scientists, but to government, the military, diplomatic personnel, and Peace Corps; won considerable support both locally and nationally. The desire for such a broadly conceived botanical garden in Hawaii extends back over a hundred years. In the 185o's, Dr. William Hillebrand, a physician, visualized such a garden in the lands of the Kahana Valley and was instrumental in introducing many exotics into the islands. His home-stead in Honolulu, around which he planted many of his choicest introductions, now forms the basis for Foster Botanical Garden. Dr. Harold L. Lyon of the Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Experiment Station and later Director of the Foster Garden, collaborated with the famous plant explorer Joseph Rock to bring to Hawaii the plant wealth of the world's tropics. Dr. Lyon visualized combining many botanical units in Honolulu to form a single, integrated botanic garden and for years expounded his ideas and hopes in print and verbally whenever the opportunity arose. Mrs. A. Lestern Marks urged the formation of a tropical botanic garden in Hawaii in a paper she presented to the Garden Club of America. However, no concerted action was taken to form such a garden until September 1957 when Dr. Lyon planned an initial meeting for this purpose during the Second World Orchid Conference which was held in Honolulu that year. Unfortunately, Dr. Lyon passed away six months before the conference and the responsibility passed to the second author to carry out the project of establishing a garden.

A number of organizations adopted resolutions favoring the project. One of the first to help was the Botanical Society of America. On June 21, 196r, in Davis, California, the Pacific Section of the Botanical Society of America adopted a resolution endorsing the establishment of a tropical botanic garden in the State of Hawaii. A similar resolution was adopted by the Botanical Society of America as a whole on August 28, 1961 in Lafayette, Indiana, and this resolution included the statement that the Society, "will be glad to cooperate in any studies in relation to its establishment."



Smithsonian Institution
Washington 25, D. C.


HARLAN P. BANKS    Cornell University

NORMAN H. BOKE   University of Oklahoma

SYDNEY S. GREENFIELD    Rutgers University

ELSIE QUARTERMAN    Vanderbilt University

ERICH STEINER    University of Michigan



CHANGES OF ADDRESS: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr. Harlan P. Banks, Department of Botany, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

SUBSCRIPTIONS for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America arc obtainable at the rate of $2.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.

MATERIAL SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION should be typewritten, double-spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

A bill, sponsored by this Foundation, was introduced in the 86th Congress to provide for a study of the feasibility and desirability of establishing a permanent National Tropical Botanic Garden in the State of Hawaii. Owing to the efforts of Senators Fong and Long, the bill passed the Senate but no House action was taken. A similar bill was introduced in the 87th Congress. The resolutions adopted by the Botanical Society of America and by its Pacific Section urged passage of this bill, as did similar resolutions adopted by the First Legislature of the State of Hawaii, the Hawaiian Botanical Society, the Garden Club of Honolulu, the Hawaiian Academy of Science, and the Garden Club of America. The Tenth Pacific Science Congress adopted a resolution recognizing the need and value and endorsing the establishment of the proposed Garden, and recommended to both Federal and State authorities that they do all in their power to establish the Garden. This bill reached the floor of the House through the efforts of Congressman Inouye, but failed to pass and never came out of the Senate committee.

At this stage it became apparent that the Foundation needed advice on the best procedures for establishing a comprehensive tropical garden, estimating the probable costs, determining whether the garden should be sup-ported by private or government funds, possible locations for the garden, types of work to be undertaken, and on many other problems. It was thought that a tropical botanical garden with a national charter, that is, a Congressional mandate, would assure that the facilities would be available for the entire country and for the scientific community at large. Therefore, the Foundation asked President G. Ledyard Stebbins of the Botanical Society of America if the Society would undertake a complete survey instead of just cooperating in it. From then on we had great success. President Stebbins asked Dr. William C. Stecre, Director of the New York Botanical Garden, to appoint a committee to visit Hawaii at the expense of the Foundation and conduct the survey. Dr. Steere appointed the following committee: Pierre Dansereau (Assistant Di-rector, New York Botanical Garden) Chairman; William S. Stewart (Director, Los Angeles County Department of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens, Arcadia) ; and Frits Went (then Director, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis). After working in Honolulu from August 15 to 21, 1962, Dr. Dansereau's committee prepared a report which was approved by the Executive Committee of the Council of the Botanical Society of America and which was sent to the Foundation by Dr. B. L. Turner, Secretary. This valuable report has not yet been published in toto. Quoting from the report:

at this time, there is probably no first rate tropical botanical garden anywhere, since Buitenzorg [Bogor, Indonesia] has lost some of its traditional strength.

"The Hawaiian Islands have an oceanic tropical climate, which, on account of its moderation, will allow the cultivation of virtually any species from the moist tropics and also of quite a few from the warm-temperate and even cool-temperate areas.

"Facilities of communication with the U. S. mainland insure the frequency of visits from botanists and horticulturists as well as interest on the part of a varied public. It is quite possible that no other tropical area is as well situated geographically and as stable politically for the purposes ascribed above to a botanical garden . . .

"A site on Oahu containing 200—300 acres is considered optimum by the Committee.

"It seems unlikely, however, that the yearly operation would amount to less than $300,000.


There is a real urgency to establish not just a Tropical Botanical Garden, but one which is well-staffed and well equipped with botanical facilities in the tropics.


I. The Botanical Society of America recommends very strongly that a major tropical botanical garden be developed on U. S. territory as soon as possible.

2. The Botanical Society of America endorses the efforts of the Hawaiian Botanical Gardens Foundation towards this objective."

The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, undertook a study of the feasibility of establishing a tropical botanic garden in Hawaii, at the request of the Secretary of Agriculture, Orville L. Free-man, on invitation of Senators Fong and Inouye, former Senator Long, and this Foundation. The committee consisted of Henry T. Skinner (Director, National Arboretum), Chairman; John L. Creech (Assistant Chief, New Crops Research Branch) ; and Francis de Vos (Assistant Director, National Arboretum). Their study was made in Honolulu between September 15 and 23, 1962. In March 1963, their report, "Needs for a Tropical Botanic Garden In Hawaii," was sent to this Foundation by F. P. Cullinan, Associate Director of the Crops Research Division.

According to Dr. Skinner's report, in spite of all existing facilities, there remains a vast deficiency in tropical botanical and biological research. Some of the oldest and best known botanical gardens in the tropics have been adversely affected by political changes. "Research facilities are particularly needed in the lands bordering the Pacific Ocean


and within this area, it is doubtful whether any location for a botanical garden research and training center would have greater advantages than the Hawaiian Islands."

"With adequate financing, staffing, and facilities, a comprehensive tropical botanic garden situated in Hawaii could serve as an institution for basic botanical research, for applied research on important tropical crop plants, for the introduction of new plants for agricultural and horticultural use, and as a major training and educational center."

After enumerating various types of work that should be undertaken, the U. S. D. A. committee considered that the acreage needed would total somewhat over 2850 acres, and that the work could not be done on a budget of much less than $r,000,000 annually. The committee concurred entirely with the viewpoint that the Garden should be located on Oahu, with supplementary sites in various habitats on other islands.

Having ascertained that both the Botanical Society of America and the U. S. D. A., Crops Research Division, considered a comprehensive tropical garden to be highly desirable, and Hawaii a fine logical place for it, this Foundation, with the aid of Senators Fong and Inouye and Congressman Matsunaga of Hawaii, assisted by the Washington, D. C. law firm of Chapman, Friedman, Shea, Clubb and Duff, drew up the bill which passed Congress and be-came Public Law 88-449. Brochures were mailed to many organizations and individuals, including many members of the Botanical Society of America. Dr. Paul J. Kramer (President, Botanical Society of America and American Institute of Biological Sciences), Dr. John N. Couch (representing the American Association for the Advancement of Science) and Dr. A. C. Smith (Research Director, University of Hawaii and a Trustee of this Foundation) testified before members of a subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee. Many people sent letters and telegrams urging the passage of the bill. To all who helped, we express our sincere thanks, particularly to Mrs. A. Lester Marks, First Vice President, who was in charge of mailing the brochures.

This Foundation has inaugurated a Newsletter, three issues of which have already been printed. All dues and contributions to the Foundation are tax-deductible according to law. The Foundation is ready to accept gifts in any amount to be used for endowing the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Information concerning dues may be obtained by writing to the Secretary of this Foundation.

As this manuscript was in preparation, the exciting news was received indicating that Mr. Robert Allerton (Mr. Allerton is now in his 91st year) of Chicago and Kauai, Hawaii, had given the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden $r,000,000 in securities. The generosity of Mr. Allerton is well-known, and in 1946 he gave the University of Illinois 1500 acres of park land on which is situated his magnificent European style home. His gifts to the Hawaiian Academy of Arts and to the Foster Botanical Garden in Honolulu have also been numerous.

The Harold L. Lyon Arboretum,
University of Hawaii

GEORGE W. GILLETT University of Hawaii

The Harold L. Lyon Arboretum is unique in American botany, for it is the only tropical arboretum in the United States dedicated to research and teaching. This facility comprises 124 acres of land that were developed by the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Association and later presented to the University of Hawaii with the provision, "that the University of Hawaii does maintain and preserve the granted property as an arboretum and botanical garden only." It is located in the upper Manoa Valley, Oahu, approximately 5 miles from the main campus of the University.

When Harold L. Lyon arrived at the Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Association Experiment Station in 1907, grazing cattle had all but completed their conquest over broad areas of upland watersheds vital to the sugar industry in Hawaii. By 1918 the Experiment Station had acquired the Arboretum property, established a Department of Botany and Forestry under the direction of Dr. Lyon, and charged this department to demonstrate the restoration of rain forest vegetation in denuded watershed areas. Dr. Lyon outlined a broad-gauged program that abundantly fulfilled this responsibility and concurrently determined the reforestation values of a very large number of tree species. Included were plants of unknown economic potential as well as such commercially valuable plants as cacao, clove, allspice, cinnamon, camphor, teak, and other exotic species. He developed efficient propagating facilities at Foster Garden, and to it came seed from gardens at Peradeniya, Ceylon; Bogor, Indonesia; Singapore, Malaysia; and Trinidad. Valuable field collections were supplied by the explorations of many loyal collaborators based in Hawaii. Foremost among these was J. F. Rock, who supplied many collections from southeast Asia. Experiment Station entomologists C. E. Pemberton and F. X. Williams supplied a large number of species from the Philippines, Malaya, New Guinea, New Britain, and Australia. Many collections were obtained by Dr. Lyon himself on visits to the Old and New World tropics. Like most botanists, Dr. Lyon had preferences for certain genera and families. Chief among these was Ficus, and of a total of 174 introductions of this genus, only 63 species in 71 collections, have been determined to date. There are over 200 collections of Palmae, with more than 70 genera represented. The palms are being extended currently and a recent acquisition is an interesting Carpentaria from northern Australia. The legendary upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria Lesch., Moraceae) of upland Java rain forests was successfully introduced to the Arboretum in 1929. Original introductions of this species are now over 40 feet tall, exceed 12 inches in diameter, and are producing seedlings. The upas tree is notable for its production of


glycoside arrow poisons, the active ingredients being related to the cardiac glycosides of Digitalis.

Early plantings in the Lyon Arboretum now provide a nearly continuous forest cover over approximately two-thirds of the area, with the ridges and drainage lines providing easily recognized, permanent boundaries for the planting sections. The collections were planted in rows laid out on the contours, so that the planting arrangement provides an excellent reference system. There are approximately 400 genera and Soo species of trees and shrubs.

The upland rain forest habitat of the Lyon Arboretum is relatively cool, the yearly temperature range being approximately between 65° and 85° F. It does not have a "dry" season, so that irrigation is not necessary and planting can be accomplished at any season. Yearly rain-fall ranges from a minimum of about 90 inches to a maximum of well over 200, with a 25-year average of about 165 inches. In terms of climate, the Arboretum is similar to the montane tropical rain forest habitats of such restricted and critical genera as Alfaroa (Juglandaceae), Trigonobalanus (Fagaceae), Scyphostegia (Scyphostegiaceae), many genera of the woody Ranales, and other genera whose apparent destiny may well be extinction under present conditions of shifting agriculture and unprecedented population pressure.

In 1953 the property was formally presented to the University of Hawaii by the Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Association. Upon his death in 1957, Dr. Lyon willed most of the income from his estate to the University, stipulating that it be used for the maintenance of the Arboretum.

The Harold L. Lyon Arboretum is an unrivaled facility for university courses in plant morphology, anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, and horticulture, presenting instructional materials far exceeding those available at most institutions in the world. The author is directly responsible for the operation of the Arboretum in his capacity as Director. Overall supervision is vested in the Office of Research Administration, University of Hawaii, under Dr. A. C. Smith, Director of Research.

A note from the Editor

Sometime last year, while I was 9,000 miles away from home in the Philippines, I received a most unnerving bit of communication from a colleague back home: Plant Science Bulletin was on the verge of being scotched, or at best it would be emasculated. Pressure was being put on the powers that be in the Society to introduce drastic economies which might decrease its stature, reduce it to the category of a hand-out, or even eliminate it entirely!

From that distance, everything seems worse than it actually is; anyway, your editor saw bloody red and immediately dashed off a scathing letter saying in effect: Dont touch P. S. B.; I knew it when it was a fledgling; it should not be cheaply printed; its founders were friends and mentors of mine; I knew why it was begun; it has served a great and noble purpose; it is not a chit-chat sheet; etc. Letters came back saying cool off old boy; the situation is in hand; we will wait until you return; no one is going to junk P. S. B. summarily and without a chance for a hearing. In short, President Alexopoulous wisely appointed a committee to examine P. S. B. and "to study the whole matter . . . and to make ... recommendations . . . to the Council at its Boulder meeting in 1964," and to give special attention to how "the cost of production ... [might] be reduced" and to "a general re-evaluation of the Bulletin." The "sober" chairman of this deliberative committee was Dr. William C. Steere, and his equally "sober" cohorts were Drs. Lawrence Crockett, Sydney Greenfield, Charles Heimsch, and Richard Klein—as sound a group of Society-goers as ever pondered a problem. Other Society members were canvassed by mail for their opinions.

At this point, a bit of history might place the following discourse in better perspective. The first issue of the Bulletin appeared in January 1955 under the facile editor-ship of Dr. Harry J. Fuller of the University of Illinois. It was only four pages in size. The Editorial Board then comprised such Society stalwarts as George S. Avery, Harlan P. Banks, Harriet Creighton, Sydney S. Greenfield, and Paul B. Sears. Briefly, the editorial platform of the Bulletin, as outlined in that issue, was: 1) to provide a unifying function among plant scientists, 2) to carry brief personal advertisements for Botanical Society members, 3) to include a feature article of general interest to plant scientists on some plant science subject, 4) to include a section devoted to personalia, 5) to carry occasional articles of "recent advances," 6) to print articles on non-academic careers available to professional botanists, 7) to serve as a clearing house for research requests, 8) to publish papers on botanical teaching methods, and 1o) [sic! We made mistakes even then.] to print notices of fellow-ships and assistantships of special note, exchange teaching opportunities, and so on. Over the past ro years, the Bulletin has kept fairly well within the pattern of subject material envisioned by Harry Fuller and his Board, and I believe it has succeeded in unifying the wide-spread membership of our Society, its most important function as I see it.

The above was duly considered by Dr. Steere's committee, I am sure. The cogitations of that group resulted in a seven page report outlining the "problem" of the Bulletin, tracing its history, successes and failures, and producing a body of recommendations for consideration by the Council, Editor, and Society. At the 1964 Council meetings in Boulder, Dr. Steere presented his report and it was accepted by those concerned. In short, the recommendations of Dr. Steere's committee are as follows:

1. That publication of the Plant Science Bulletin be continued and that the Bulletin be made a more effective means of communication in the Society.

2, That the cost of publication of the Bulletin be reduced as much as possible by adoption of a more economical means of reproduction, provided the quality is not sacrificed.

3. That the number of issues per year be an absolute minimum of two, but preferably to continue the minimum of four as in the past, to be geared closely to specific communication needs of the Society, especially an issue preceding the Annual Meeting to emphasize pending Society business and special events; and a post-


meeting issue to be devoted primarily to the presidential address when appropriate, reports, minutes, financial statements, results of elections and other Annual Meeting business. The number of pages in any issue should not be limited arbitrarily.

  1. That greater emphasis be given in the Bulletin to news, so that newsletters now issued by separate sections of the Society can be discontinued, and that active means of soliciting news be instituted. Regular channels of communication should be established between the Editor and the appropriate officers of the sections of the Society.

  2. That the term of office of the Editor of the Plant Science Bulk-tin be three years, and that there be no limit on the number of terms served, if mutually agreeable to Editor and Council of the Society.

  3. That the Botanical Society depend on the good judgment of the Editor of the Bulletin and give him sufficient freedom of action within the guidelines suggested to retain his creative interest, and to strive constantly for a higher professional level for the Bulletin.

  4. That because of the importance of the Plant Science Bulletin as a means of effective communication between members of the Botanical Society of America, between the Society and its members, and between the Society and the scientific public at large, the Editor of the Bulletin be made a member of the Council of the Society.

  5. That the nominal assignment of the business affairs of the Bulletin to the Business Manager of the American Journal of Botany be terminated, since in fact the Editor of the Bulletin works directly with the Treasurer of the Society.

In order to effect the recommendations above, a period of transition is necessary. To leap foolhardily into changing format, typography, or printing methods, might lead to ill-conceived and hard-to-retract decisions. Therefore, I am seeking first to reduce the cost of publishing the Bulletin without sacrificing its high quality typography and general format. To do this would certainly reflect adversely on the Society. I am actively cooperating in this venture with Dr. Lawrence Crockett, Business Manager of the Journal, in an attempt to introduce economies into the operation of P. S. B. If economies can be brought to bear, the Bulletin may be able to include more copy thereby enabling the inclusion of sectional newsletter-type of information. In any event, economies will benefit the financial structure of the Society in general.

I hope that within the next year it will be possible to carry out most of the recommendations of Dr. Steere's committee. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Steere and his committee for their thoughtful report and to encourage any Society members with practical ideas on improving the Bulletin to write to me outlining their plans. Incidentally, good copy is always needed.

Minutes of the Business Meeting University of Colorado, Boulder

Session I
August 24, 1964

r. The meeting was called to order by President Kramer at i :oo p.m. Approximately 5o members were present, this constituting a quorum.

2. As instructed by the Council, the Secretary reported the three candidates for each office who had received the highest number of votes on the second nominating ballot (names arranged in order of the highest number of votes received in each category):




Aaron J. Sharp
John N. Couch
Lincoln Constance

Harold C. Bold
Harlan P. Banks
Warren H. Wagner, Jr.





Richard C. Starr

Harlan Lewis

Charles B. Heiser

Anton Lang

C. Ritchie Bell

Norman H. Boke

A motion was made, seconded, and carried unanimously that the candidates with the highest number of votes in each category be elected.

  1. The President reported that a Section on the History of Botany, to be referred to as the Historical Section, had been established by the Council. The Council also appointed the following officers to head this section for 1965:


Chairman:   Edmund W. Sinnott

Vice-Chairman:   Conway Zirkle

Secretary-Treasurer:   Jerry Stannard

  1. The president reported that the Council had instructed him to select a Committee to consider possible new procedures and make appropriate recommendations for the election of Society officers.

  2. The Council established a standing Membership Committee with the Secretary of the Society as Chairman and the Representatives to the Council from the Geographical Sections as Subcommittee Chairmen. The previously established Membership Committee was relieved of any further activities.

  3. It was reported that no new nominations had been presented by the Committee on Corresponding Members.

  4. The Secretary reported that winners of the various awards made by the Society would be announced at the Dinner for All Botanists.

  5. A summary report from the Committee on Travel Grants to the International Botanical Congress (1964) was presented by Doctors Ralph E. Cleland and Charles Heimsch. Funds totaling $59,800 had been made available by the National Science Foundation and the Atomic Energy Commission. A total of 337 completed applications were received by the Committee; 188 awards were made in amounts ranging from $200 to $600, the average being slightly in excess of $300. On behalf of the Society, a vote of thanks was moved in appreciation of the out-standing work of the Committee, and in particular to Doctors Cleland and Heimsch for the efficiency with which they handled the stipulations outlined in the two grants.

  6. The Editorial Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. R. A. Emerson, reported that Dr. Charles Heimsch had been selected as the new Editor-in-Chief of the Journal, replacing Dr. H. C. Bold who resigned his office after serving the Society for six years.' The Society, in the form of a motion, expressed its deepest thanks to the retiring Editor for his dedication to that office and for the excellent service which he rendered the Society.

'Dr. Harlan P. Banks was appointed Treasurer by the Council to fulfill the unexpired portion of Dr. Heimsch's term vacated by his acceptance of the editorship of the Journal.


10. The President reported that the International Botanical Congress, meeting in Edinburgh, had accepted the Society's invitation for that body to hold its next Congress (1969) in Seattle, Washington.

11. The Secretary reported that he had received reports from the sectional secretaries and from various representatives to other societies.

12. Old Business—The President reported that:

  1. The Council had directed the Secretary to publish a new Yearbook for the years, 1965-1966; the Treasurer was instructed to budget money for this purpose.

  2. The Committee on Education had arranged with Michigan State University to prepare a proposal for National Science Foundation support to hold a Summer Institute for Botany at that University in 1965.

  3. The Secretary of the Hawaiian Botanical Gardens Foundation had written to the effect that Bill S. 1991 establishing a "Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden" had been passed by both houses of Congress and signed by the President.

13. There being no further old business, the meeting was adjourned until tomorrow's session.


August 25, 1964

14. Dr. H. C. Bold presented his annual report and this was approved. He noted that the Council had voted to establish a committee to study the method for the election of officers and he felt that the manner of selection of the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal might also be re-evaluated.

15. The Business Manager of the Journal presented his annual report and proposed budget for 1965; after appropriate discussion, these were approved.

16. The Treasurer presented his annual report and pro-posed budget for 1965. It was called to the attention of the Society that, with present operational expenditures, his office has and would continue to operate in the red. This indicated that an increase in dues might be necessary. Considerable discussion followed the suggestion that a raise in dues might be in order. It was pointed out that only the Regular Members support the Treasurer's budget since dues for the other categories of membership fail to meet even the production costs of the Journal. In view of the relatively healthy condition of the Business Manager's report, it was announced that the Council had approved a reduced contribution from the Treasurer's Office to the Business Manager so that the Treasurer's budgetary problems might be solved, at least for 1965. The Treasurer noted that continued deficit operation might make necessary an increase in dues in 1966, but it was hoped that enough new members could be brought into the Society so that such a raise would not be necessary. There being no further discussion, the proposed budget of the Treasurer was approved.

17. Dr. Richard Goodwin, representing the Society on the A. I. B. S. Board of Governors, reported that the

Bureau of Internal Revenue was making a critical re-appraisal of the tax exempt status of non-profit organizations; this included some of the scientific societies affiliated with the A. I. B. S. In particular, he noted that the present Bylaws of the Society contained certain passages which might not meet the approval of the Bureau. Following advice of legal counsel, Dr. Goodwin recommended that the following two articles be added to the present Bylaws:


Notwithstanding any provision of the Constitution or Bylaws which might be susceptible to a contrary construction:

  1. the Society shall be organized exclusively for scientific and educational purposes;

  2. the Society shall be operated exclusively for scientific and educational purposes;

  3. no part of the net earnings of the Society shall or may under any circumstance inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual;

  4. no substantial part of the activities of the Society shall consist of carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation;

  5. the Society shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office;

  6. the Society shall not be organized or operated for profit;

  7. the Society shall not:

(I) lend any part of its income or corpus without the receipt of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest to;

  1. pay any compensation, in excess of a reasonable allowance for salaries or other compensation for personal services actually rendered, to;

  2. make any part of its services available on a preferential basis, to;

  3. make any purchase of securities or any other property, for more than adequate consideration in money or money's worth from;

  4. sell any securities or other property for less than adequate consideration in money or money's worth to; or

  5. engage in any other transactions which result in a substantial diversion of its income or corpus to;

any officer, member of the Council, or substantial contributor to the Society.

The prohibitions contained in this subsection (g) do not mean to imply that the Society may make such loans, payments, sales or purchases to anyone else, unless such authority be given or implied by other provisions of the Constitution or Bylaws.


Upon dissolution of the Society, the Council shall distribute the assets and accrued income to one or more organizations as determined by the Council, but which organization or organizations shall meet the limitations prescribed in subsections (a)—(g) inclusive, of ARTICLE X, immediately preceding.

After appropriate discussion, the Secretary was instructed to modify the Bylaws accordingly. It was noted that formal amendment must await a preliminary canvass of the membership and subsequent action.

  1. The President announced that the A. I. B. S. had entered into a program which would permit members of adherent societies to participate in low cost term insurance plans, etc. In this connection, he inquired of the membership whether the Society should become associated with such a plan. After vigorous discussion, both for and against, the Society, by formal motions, agreed to join with the A. I. B. S. in this venture.

  2. There being no further business before the Society, the meeting was adjourned at 1:45 p.m.

Respectfully submitted, B. L. Turner, Secretary


Awards, 1964

At the annual banquet of the Botanical Society of America, held this year on the campus of the University of Colorado, Boulder, the following testimonials were awarded:


RALPH EMERSON for his unparalleled success in integrating research and teaching; a superb teacher and accomplished investigator, indefatigable in his efforts to inspire students to learn by discovery.

STERLING HENDRICKS for his pioneering work on responses of organisms to their environment and for setting an ex-ample of the use of highly refined basic science for the solution of problems in applied disciplines.

IRA WIGGINS, intrepid botanical explorer, architect of floras of the Sonoran Desert and the Arctic slope of Alaska; we salute him as a botanical citizen of high purpose, persistent effort and rich production in systematic botany.


Presented for outstanding contributions to the fundamental aspects of Botany to DR. WILLIAM A. JENSEN of the University of California, Berkeley:

Outstanding for his work in the development of histochemical techniques and methodologies for application to plant materials and for many significant contributions relating to the biochemical aspects of plant growth and differentiation.


To the author of an outstanding paper in the field of botany, preferably in the areas of systematics, ecology or phytogeography—presented to DR. IRA WIGGINS for his floras of Alaska and the Sonoran Desert.


Presented for meritorious work in the study of algae to DR. ROBERT F. SCAGEL of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.


The George R. Cooley Award for the best paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists at the University of Colorado went to the authors of the paper, "Flavonoid components of Baptisia species," JACQUES KAGAN, R. E. ALSroN, T. J. MABRY, and H. ROSLER, all of the University of Texas, Austin.

Notes from the Business Manager
American Journal of Botany


The American Journal of Botany has accepted advertising for five years, but our advertising program has not really been successful. Each year approximately $1,500 is derived from this source; however, this is considerably lower than it should be. Such a program should realize about $5,000 a year.

Of course, our small circulation makes a poor impression on potential advertising customers. We do have, however, one feature which should be attractive, i. e., every reader is a purchaser or an influencer of purchases. Every member is responsible at one time or another for the ordering of research materials, books, classroom and laboratory equipment.

If every Botanical Society member, each and every time he orders or chats with a salesperson, points out the value to the company of advertising in the Journal, income de-rived from advertising should increase. The idea that advertising in the Journal will help the company is what we would like to get across. By no means should any kind of pressure be considered.

Furthermore, if a member is personally acquainted with an official of a company whose products could be considered for advertising in our pages, a letter to him suggesting the Journal as an outlet for his advertising could do wonders.

If any member has any ideas on increasing advertising, communication with Dr. Lawrence Crockett, Business Manager, American Journal of Botany, Department of Biology, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031, would be very much appreciated.


Dr. Constantine J. Alexopoulos, President (1963) of the Society, suggested to the Council that the category of Sustaining Member be created. Dr. Alexopoulos pointed out that the Mycological Society has such a membership category, and it is an attractive one. The Council appointed Dr. Lawrence Crockett, Business Manager, to make preliminary investigations of the idea as chairman of a committee.

For $250 a company or organization will be given sustaining membership, a subscription to the Journal, and a 10 per cent discount on advertising in the Journal. Initial investigations have resulted in acceptance by three companies: Stechert-Hafner, Publishers; The Johnson Reprint Corporation; and Triarch, George Conant, Ripon, Wisconsin.

A large committee will shortly be appointed. Members from every section of the country will be asked to join. Companies will be approached sectionally in hopes this may have more appeal. It is hoped that this category of membership may eventually be attractive to a large number of companies.

If you are personally acquainted with someone in a scientific instrument company, book company (ads must match the dignity of the Journal) or laboratory furniture company, the committee would be delighted if you would help the Society. Any Society member who wishes to be a member of the committee has only to write to the Business Manager and he will be appointed; anyone with an idea will find it most welcome if he communicates it to the Business Manager. If two heads are better than


one, just imagine what 2500 heads will do for sustaining membership!


It may interest you as a member of the Botanical Society to know that you deny the Journal $Ii.00 in income every time you give your yearly issues of the Journal to a library as a "donation." Thus you pay the Society $ro.00 with one hand and take back (that is what it really amounts to) $f Lao with the other. The Journal could publish only three issues a year if it depended on the money which your membership fee grants to it. The remaining seven issues, plus overhead expenses, are paid for by the institutional subscriptions. Donations of the Journal to institutions contribute to the need for higher dues. The whole financial structure of the Society is damaged by each member who (charitably?) "donates" his Journal copies to an institution.


Some 85o colleges and universities in America subscribe to the Journal; however, Lovejoy lists well over 2000 educational institutions in his standard "College Guide." With modern college expansion, and with the tremendous in-crease in the number of biology majors, many institutions, heretofore not familiar with the journal (or which even find it quite unneccessary to have subscriptions) may now be ready to subscribe.

Dr. Paul Kramer, President (1964) of the Botanical Society appointed the writer to chair a committee whose purpose would be to investigate possibilities of increasing the number of institutional subscribers. Please note: Of the ten issues of the Journal each year, money from the Society pays for only three. The other seven issues, and the overhead expense of running the Journal are paid for by institutional subscribers.

Some 6o members were asked to join this committee. Well over 90 per cent said yes, and because of their work some 1700 librarians are presently receiving letters. The campaign was planned on a sectional basis; thus, a librarian in Oregon will very likely receive a letter from a botanist in Oregon or from nearby. It is hoped that this approach will have more appeal than "just another business letter from New York."

News and Notes


On September 23, 1964 the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS, in consequence of the tragic and unexpected death of its Director, G. Miles Conrad, on September 8, approved three changes of title for top administrative staff members of Biological Abstracts: Phyllis V. Parkins, Assistant Director for Editorial Affairs, became Director pro tern.; Robert R. Gulick, Assistant Director for Administrative and Business Affairs, became, also, Executive Officer; and Hazel Philson became Administrative Assistant to the Director. These changes acknowledge properly the sharing among present staff members of responsibilities formerly carried by Miles Conrad. They also pay tribute to his outstanding executive ability in selecting an administrative staff capable of carrying on the many activities of Biological Abstracts without interruption until the installation of a new Director.


investigation to elucidate the etiology of "Maple Decline" (a die-back disease of Acer saccharum). Correspondence is desired with all interested persons, particularly with those who have observed the disease in their locality and those engaged in research pertinent to the subject. Please contact Professor Arthur H. Westing, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003.

The NEw YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN is seeking a competent and energetic man or woman with a good general knowledge of botany and horticulture, and preferably with experience in a large university library to serve as Botanical Librarian. Duties include running an out-standing research library as well as information work. This is an exceptionally interesting and attractive post for a progressive and imaginative librarian. Botanists are urged to help by suggesting suitable people for this important position. Address correspondence to: Dr. W. C. Steere, Director, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458.


DR. JAMES E. CANRIGHT, formerly of the Department of Botany at Indiana University has been appointed Chairman of the Department of Botany at Arizona State University, Tempe. Dr. Canright assumed the position on September I, 1964.

DR. C. FRANCIS SHUrrs is now a member of the Department of Biology, Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin.

DR. ARTHUR WESTING, formerly Assistant Professor of Tree Physiology at Purdue University, has been appointed Associate Professor in the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Dr. Westing will serve as tree physiologist and direct a research program on the physiological diseases of maple. In the future, he hopes to develop an advanced course in tree physiology.

DR. T. T. KozLowsKl, Chairman of the Department of Forestry at the University of Wisconsin, has been named a Senior Fulbright Research Scholar to Oxford University, England where he will do research on physiology of woody plants during the 1964–1965 academic year.

DR. STEVE J. GRILLOS of the Department of Biological Sciences, California State College at Hayward, Hayward, California has been promoted to Professor effective September 1, 1964.

During the academic year 1964-1965, DR. LYMAN BENSON, head of the botany department at Pomona College, Claremont, California, will be on sabbatical leave. This opportunity will be taken to continue his studies on the Cactaceae of the United States and Canada.

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