Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1963 v9 No 4 WinterActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.


The Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden


Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

Situated near the base of the San Gabriel Mountains about 35 miles east of Los Angeles, the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden is one of the few botanic gardens devoted to the plants of a single area. On its 8o acres can be found growing approximately one-fourth of the species known to occur in California, and it is possible for visiting botanists and students to see and study, within a relatively small area, many plants which they could otherwise see only by driving great distances. Included in the plantings are numerous endemics, some of them rare today and seldom seen or collected.

Established more than 36 years ago, this garden fits the concept of a functional botanical garden as defined by Frits Went in the Plant Science Bulletin for June, 1962. There he distinguished between the university-connected botanic garden as a repository of plant species, and the functional botanic garden which combines the aspects of a park with the botanical aspects of collections of living plants, research facilities, and research projects connected with horticulturally important materials as well as appropriate educational programs. As he pointed out, although most functional botanic gardens are created independently of universities, most of them have ties with institutions of higher learning. Both of these conditions hold for the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. The garden is an autonomous institution but the members of its scientific staff also hold faculty appointments in the Claremont Graduate School and cooperate with the members of the Botany Department of Pomona College and with the Claremont Graduate School appointee in botany, in presenting a unified graduate pro-gram leading to the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees.

Although research is conducted in various areas it might be said to be basically oriented around the broad fields of systematic botany and floristics and it includes in addition to systematics, studies in evolution, cytology, population genetics, anatomy, morphology, palynology, mycology and plant breeding. The garden's journal Aliso, now in its fifth volume, contains the results of much of the research carried on at the garden by both staff and students.

The concept of a botanic garden to he devoted entirely to the plants of California was formulated in 1926 by Susanna Bixby Bryant as a memorial to her father, John W. Bixby, a prominent pioneer rancher in southern California. The name was taken from that of the historic Bixby ranch where the garden was to be located. Rancho Santa Ana is part of an original Mexican Land Grant and is located about 6o miles southeast of Los Angeles. The botanic gar-den is governed by a board of five trustees and is supported by its own endowment supplemented by limited private contributions and research grants made to staff members. At a time when many research organizations are strongly backed by governmental grants it might be noted that in 1962 less than 3% of the garden's operating income came from outside sources and this mostly in the form of National Science Foundation grants made to staff members.

From the original site of the botanic garden high above the Santa Ana River, there was a commanding view of the Santa Ana Mountains and the valley with its hillsides covered with citrus groves and grazing land. In the distance was the Pacific Ocean. There the garden remained until 1951 when it was moved to its present site. The decision to re-locate was made only after careful study and consideration. One of the reasons for the move was that, as pointed out by William Steere in the Plant Science Bulletin for May, 1961, a botanic garden or arboretum without teaching and research interests is only a park.

At the original site the members of the garden staff were able to formulate and pursue independent research pro-grams; indeed, in the dedication of the garden foundation it is stated that the garden was to be an institution primarily devoted to scientific research. But day to day educational contacts were impossible. With the removal of the garden to Claremont and its affiliation with the Claremont Colleges, such contacts with their catalyzing effects were possible.

The present site, just north of U.S. Highway 66, includes a portion of Indian Hill Mesa along with a lower area composed of sandy and gravelly soils, part of the outwash from San Antonio Canyon. From the present location field work can be conducted in many different habitats since beach, desert and high mountains are all less than a two hour drive from the garden. A large steel and concrete building constructed in 1951 provides space for offices and laboratories as well as for the library and herbaria, preparation room, etc. A wing added in 1959 provides a student cytology laboratory, a large lecture room, and additional herbarium space as well as individual office-studies for graduate students and visiting investigators. The botanic garden her-barium with over 16o,000 specimens is housed in modern steel cabinets on the second floor. The Pomona College herbarium containing more than 350,000 sheets is housed on the third floor. The garden herbarium, especially rich



Smithsonian Institution
Washington 25, D. C.


HARLAN P. BANKS    Cornell University

NORMAN H. BOKE   University of Oklahoma

SYDNEY S. GREENFIELD    Rutgers University

ELSIE QUARTERMAN    Vanderbilt University

ERICH STEINER    University of Michigan



CHANGES OF ADDRESS: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr. Charles Heimsch, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

SUBSCRIPTIONS for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $2.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Business Manager, Dr. Lawrence J. Crockett, Department of Biology, The City College, Convent Avenue and 139th Street, New York 31, New York.

MATERIAL SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION should be typewritten, double-spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

in California plants, has collections from other parts of western North America as well as representative collections from other areas of the world. Other significant collections are the pollen slide collection, a large collection of wood samples, and a collection of seedlings of California plants preserved in liquid.

The creation of a botanical and horticultural library was one of the first projects to be undertaken after the establishment of the garden and some of the rarest books now owned by the library were purchased by Mrs. Bryant her-self. The development of the library has been an interest shared by all administrations and as a result it is now one of the largest and finest in its field to be found on the West Coast. It is especially rich in world floras and research journals as well as in the older works basic to research in systematic botany. At the present time the library receives about aoo journals and serial publications. In addition to the garden's holdings, some books and periodicals belonging to Pomona College are also deposited at the garden, thus bringing together most of the botanic literature avail-able in Claremont.

The garden plantings are divided into three major groupings. The mesa portion of the grounds has been laid out to create an attractive park-like effect for the enjoyment of the public as well as for study by botanists and students. With the exception of the conifers, no attempt has been made to group plants according to families or geographic areas. Also on the mesa are the pool and streamside plantings, as well as an experimental area of about 3 acres. Along the edge of the mesa are some very large live oaks (Quercus agrifolia) which with the native sycamore (Platanus racemosa) were the only trees native to the area when the gar-den moved to Claremont.

To the east of the mesa and at a slightly lower elevation are several of the special plantings such as the rock garden, cactus and succulent collection, and the coastal sand dune and desert sand dune gardens. About 50 acres located north and west of the mesa are devoted to natural plant communities as they are found in California. Here, for example, in the chaparral area are those species which grow together in the chaparral, in the yellow pine forest area those species which normally occur together in that forest. This planting is necessarily restricted to those communities whose plants can be grown in southern California. The plant community area is of special interest to visiting classes in botany and to ecologists.

The garden is also vitally interested in species threatened with extinction and those which have become very rare in their native habitats, and every effort is made to insure their survival, at least in cultivation.

A phase of public service that the garden provides includes all educational programs at levels below university graduate work. During the spring months large numbers of classes from nearby schools and colleges visit the garden. Whenever possible these groups have been given the services of a guide, but as the numbers have increased so greatly in recent years, fewer guided tours are possible and the garden is planning for more self-guided tours through installation of additional signs, labels, and information plaques. The garden is also active in the introduction of new ornamental plants into the horticultural trade. These may be either selected forms of native species, natural hybrids, or hybrids produced under the plant breeding pro-gram. Recently a home demonstration garden has been constructed in order to show home owners how California plants can be used in general landscaping. A brochure ex-plains the garden and identifies the plants.

In helping to preserve the unique flora of California the role of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden will be of increasing importance in the years to come as more natural areas are destroyed or changed through man's activities. The garden is open every day of the year with the exception of four major holidays and visitors are welcome. There is no admission charge.

Minutes of the Business Meeting
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst, Massachusetts


August 26, I963

  1. The meeting was called to order by President Alexopoulos at r:oo p.m. in the Morrill Science Center Auditorium. Approximately Too members were present, this constituting a quorum.

  2. As instructed by the Council, the Secretary presented the names of those on the second nominating ballot who stood in the top three places as a result of the balloting in which more than 'Goo votes had been received. These


names, listed in order, highest in each category, were as follows :








Paul J. Kramsr

John N. Couch

Theodore Delevoryas

Aaron J. Sharp

Marcus M. Rhoades

Anton Lang

David D. Keck

Arthur W. Galston

Warren H. Wagner

A motion was made, seconded, and carried unanimously that the candidates with the highest number of votes in each category be elected. The officers for 1964, therefore, are:

President:   Paul J. Kramer

Vice President:   John N. Couch

Editorial Committee:   Theodore Delevoryas

The Secretary also reported that the proposed By-Law amendments had the overwhelming support of the Society, as indicated by the ballots received in his office (1299 to 48; 1294 to 42). A motion was made to amend the By-Laws as indicated below:

"Article III. Officers

5. In addition to the officers listed in 1., the Society shall elect a Program Director for a term of three years. The duties of the Program Director shall be to (a) act as Chairman of a committee consisting of the Secretaries of the Sections to organize and coordinate the annual meeting of the Society; (b) function as the coordinator of the program of the Society with other societies at the annual meeting; (c) aid Sections in any way possible; and (d) serve as a member of the Executive Committee. To amend:

Article IV. The Council

3. The President, the Treasurer, the Secretary and the Program Director shall act as an Executive Commit-tee between meetings."

This motion was seconded and passed unanimously.

  1. President Alexopoulos reported that the Botanical Society of America would meet with the American Institute of Biological Sciences in Boulder during 1964.

  2. It was also announced that the Society in the future would publish an inclusive program with the abstracts (to be published in July as a supplemental issue to the Journal). This program will be sent to all members of the Society.

  3. Dr. Stebbins, Chairman of the Committee for Corresponding Members, presented the names of two candidates for Corresponding Membership, Dr. Hitoshi Kahara, cytogeneticist (Japan) and Dr. A. L. Kursanov, physiologist (Russia). After appropriate motions, both workers were elected unanimously.

  4. A question of policy was raised regarding the recipients of Awards made by the Society. It was decided, for the present, to restrict such awards to North American workers.

  5. In view of the curtailment of activities by the American Institute of Biological Sciences' Committee on Translations, the President reported that the Council had decided to set up a Committee to explore the needs of translation services and to make appropriate recommendations for support or nonsupport of a similar program within the

Botanical Society of America.

  1. It was reported that recipients for the several awards made by the Society had been selected. Awards were later presented at the Annual Dinner for All Botanists.

  2. Dr. H. C. Bold, in the absence of the Society's representative, reported on the activities of the American Institute of Biological Sciences' Governing Board. Following a brief discussion, the President announced that the Council had gone on record as approving the Constitution and By-Laws of the American Institute of Biological Sciences as amended.

Io. The President reported that the Council had entertained a proposal from Dr. J. Stannard of Yale University to the effect that a new section be established in the Society. The Program Director, Dr. Jensen, on instruction from the Council read the following:

"Be it resolved that the Program Director of the Botanical Society of America (William A. Jensen, University of California, Berkeley) form a committee which will investigate the possibility and advisability of establishing a new section—of the Botanical Society of America—on the history of botany. If this committee deems it advisable to form such a section, it is empowered to draft a set of tentative By-Laws to be presented for a discussion and approval to the Council of the Botanical Society at its annual meeting. The commit-tee will also have the power to issue a call for papers on the history of botany for the next meeting and to organize a program. In addition, the committee is charged to investigate the advisability of the Botanical Society of America sponsoring the new journal to be published this year on the history of botany."

This resolution, following appropriate motions, was adopt-

ed unanimously.

II. It was reported that the Council again went on record as favoring the establishment of a National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii. The Secretary was instructed to send an appropriate resolution (as was done in 1961) urging passage of the new Bill, S-1991, now before Congress.

  1. Dr. Reed Rollins introduced Dr. F. A. Stafleu of Utrecht, Netherlands, to the assembled. In connection with his visit, Dr. Rollins suggested that the Society might wish to explore the possibility of joint sponsorship (with appropriate institutions) of the next International Botanical Congress (1969). Dr. Rollins thought that a proposal from this country would be welcomed by the Committee(s) concerned. After appropriate discussion, the President was authorized to appoint a Committee to study the feasibility of such a proposal.

  2. The President reported that he had established a Committee, with Dr. R. E. Cleland as Chairman, to explore the possibility of obtaining travel funds from the National Science Foundation for the purpose of defraying, in part, the travel expenses of botanists wishing to attend the International Botanical Congress, which is to be held in Scotland during 1964. Any announcements stemming


from the Committee's activity will be given sufficient ad. vane publicity so that the botanical fraternity, in general, might know of the actions taken.

  1. The President reported that he had suggested to the Council that a new membership category be established within the Society, this being that of Sustaining Member-ship. It was explained that such membership would be available to commercial companies. Several other societies have adopted this membership category, apparently with considerable success. To establish such a membership, the By-Laws would have to be amended. The Secretary was instructed to circulate the necessary ballots for this purpose during the spring of 1964. In the meantime, the President appointed a Committee, with the Business Manager, Dr. L. J. Crockett, as Chairman, to study the proposal and to make appropriate recommendations to the Council, providing the proposed By-Law changes are adopted.

  2. The only new business brought before the meeting was that of the formal sponsorship by the Society of group flights to the Botanical Congress in Scotland. During the discussion that followed, it was pointed out that such arrangements could be made informally by interested parties and that the Society need make no formal proposal to respective airlines for this purpose.

  3. There being no additional new business before the Society, the meeting was adjourned until Tuesday after-noon (August 27), at which time the various financial re-ports of the Society were to be considered.


(1:oo p.m., August 27, 1963)

  1. Meeting called to order by President Alexopoulos.

  2. The Interim reports and proposed budgets of both the Treasurer and the Business Manager were approved by the membership present (representing a quorum).

  3. Dr. Richard Goodwin, the Society's representative to the American Institute of Biological Sciences' Governing Board, introduced Dr. P. J. Kramer (the President-elect for both the Botanical Society of America and the American Institute of Biological Sciences) who spoke for the continued support of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. After much vigorous discussion, a motion was made to the effect that the Botanical Society support not only the newly conceived policy of the American Institute of Biological Sciences but that, in addition, an active campaign be established so that botanists in general might stand behind the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Several persons spoke to the question and after a brief discussion, the motion was duly seconded, and carried by a large majority. As a demonstration of the confidence and vigorous support of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Society agreed to contribute to the American Institute of Biological Sciences for the coming year, $r.00 for each active member of the Society as has been the custom in previous years.

  4. The Editor of the American Journal of Botany, Dr. H. C. Bold, presented a brief report on the status of the

Journal. In particular, he noted that the Journal had been increased to rib pages per issue and that a better quality paper for halftones had been achieved by changing engravers. Dr. Crockett suggested that the subscription price to the Journal by libraries and institutions be increased to off-set the increased publishing costs. Such action was referred to the Editorial Committee and the Business Manager.

In connection with publication costs, it was announced that the Council had recommended that the cost of production of the Plant Science Bulletin be reduced (for example, through publication by photo-offset methods) and that some considerable re-evaluations be made as to the type of material to be published in the Bulletin. Appropriate suggestions from persons interested in the Bulletin were solicited; in particular, ideas that might engender a greater interest in this publication as a source of news and views.

  1. The meeting stood adjourned at 2:0o p.m.

Respectfully submitted,


Report of the
Committee on Education
of the Botanical Society of America'

r. Teaching Charts and Models. Dr. Harriet Creighton has followed this project and reports that the Nystrom Company has three models, the monocot stem, the dicot stem, and the leaf, now in production, together with appropriate booklets. She is working with this company on a stem tip model at the present time. A remodeled root and some acceptable plant mitosis and meiosis models are projected. The latter are to be in transparent "cells," but with-out, it is hoped, certain objectionable features that characterize presently-available models.

2. Summer Institutes. In view of the fact that the Tenth International Botanical Congress is scheduled for the summer of 1964 in Edinburgh, it was thought best not to at-tempt to run a summer institute for college teachers of botany during that summer. Many potential staff members would likely wish to spend some time in Europe prior to this Congress, and hence it would be difficult to obtain the distinguished constellation of instructors that has characterized past institutes of this series. With these considerations in mind the committee agreed that a "conference" near the east coast just prior to the Congress might be our best plan for 1964; participants from inland and western areas who wished to attend the Congress would then be in a good location for proceeding across the Atlantic, and possibly could take advantage of the several charter arrangements that are likely to be available. I am happy to report that Dr. Victor A. Greulach of the University of North Carolina has agreed to submit a proposal with co-

'Report prepared by Adolph Hecht, Chairman. Other members appointed to this committee were: Lewis E. Anderson, R. B. Channel!, Harriet B. Creighton, Robert M. Page, S. N. Postlethwait, and A. S. Rouffa.


sponsorship of the Botanical Conference for this 1964 conference.

Plans are also underway for a 1965 summer institute. Dr. Jack C. Elliott of Michigan State University is now in the process of preparing the proposal.

  1. Certificates for Science Fair Winners with Botanical Projects. The lack of an appropriate Botanical Society seal has delayed this project. It seems that sketches once claimed to have been prepared were lost, and the person who made them subsequently became busy with other work (?). A suggestion, approved by members of the committee, is that we initiate a "contest" among all Botanical Society members toward obtaining an appropriate design. We plan, with Council approval, to announce this project in a forthcoming issue of the Plant Science Bulletin, and offer a prize of one year's membership for the design selected as best among those submitted. We are now awaiting the necessary approvals.'

  2. A Botanical Special Issue of the American Biology Teacher. Attempts thus far to obtain the necessary funds for financing this work have been unsuccessful. Two companies were approached as possible donors: the first declined, and second neglected to reply!

Awards, 1963


HARRY ALFRED BORTHwICK, for his research on the effects of light on plants and the enrichment of our understanding of the photoperiodic response, and for his role in the discovery of the red far-red system with its many ramifications in the life and form of plants.

VERNON IRWIN CHEADLE, for his deep and abiding interest in science, his service to biology through untiring efforts to promote scholarly teaching and research, and for his major contribution to the interpretation of the evolution of vascular tissues in the monocotyledons and of the structure of phloem in the dicotyledons.

JOHN CHARLES WALKER, for his sustained and perceptive research on the physiology and genetics of the host-parasite relationship in plants, and for his signal success in the development of disease resistant varieties of vegetable crops.


Presented for outstanding contributions in the interpretation of botany to the general public to DR. RICHARD Goon-WIN of the University of Connecticut.


Presented for outstanding contributions to the fundamental aspects of botany to DR. RICHARD K. BENJAMIN of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, California.

2It has since been suggested that the business seal of the Botanical Society of America be used. Adoption of this suggestion would eliminate the need for a contest.


To the author of an outstanding paper in the field of Botany, preferably in the areas of systematics, ecology or phytogeography—presented to DR. JosĒ CUATRECASAS of the Smithsonian Institution for his paper, "A taxonomic re-vision of the Humiriaceae."


Presented for meritorious work in the study of algae to DR. E. YALE DAWSON of the Beaudette Foundation for Biological Research, Santa Ynez, California.


The George R. Cooley Award for the best paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in August went to the authors of three papers: to WILLARD W. PAYNE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for his research, "A re-evaluation of the genus Ambrosia (Compositae)"; to HENRY J. THOMPSON, University of California, Los Angeles, and WALLACE R. ERNST, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for their paper, "Contrasting patterns of variation in Eucnide and Sympetaleia (Loasaceae) "; to DALE M. SMITH and DONALD A. LEVIN, University of Illinois, Urbana, for their work, "A chromatographic study of reticulate evolution in the Appalachian Asplenium complex."

The Cooley Award for meritorious work published on the flora of the Southeastern United States was made to two authors. PRESTON ADAMS, DePauw University, Green-castle, Indiana, was presented $500 for his 1962 paper, "Studies in the Guttiferae. I. A Synopsis of Hypericum sect. Myriandra." JAMES A. DUKE, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, was awarded $500 for his 1961 paper, "The psammophytes of the Carolina fall-line sandhills."

Confession of a Molecular Botanist

Botanical Society of America, Annual Dinner,
August 28, 1963

I am the very pattern of a botanist molecular

I've information chemical and infra-organellular

I know the structure ultra-fine of phage and coli chromosomes

I've cracked the code from DNA to RNA and ribosomes. I'm also well acquainted with reactions enzymatical I work out their kinetics using formulae quadratical From electronic resonance to physics of the solid state, And all the clever methods by which cells of microbes conjugate.

In all these matters chemical and infra-organellular I am the very pattern of a botanist molecular.


I also know a lot about that stuff you folks call botany I know that weeds and trees have leaves, and fungi haven't got any,

I'm sure that horsetails, lycopods, and ferns and so forth don't have seeds,

I heard today that 2-4 d is . . . rather good for killing weeds.

The latest dope about conduction vascular I'll tell you now,

I know that water flows up xylem fibres . . . but I don't care how.

And—ugh, Taxonomy!

That I can't use a key to species doesn't bother me at all. I just work out their matrices on my computer digital But yet in all things chemical and infra-organellular I am the very pattern of a botanist molecular.

Book Reviews

Regional Silviculture of the United States. JOHN W. BARRETT (Ed.) 610 pp. 1962. Ronald Press, New York. $rz.00.

Silviculture, ofttimes defined as the art of profitable forest management, is a broadly inclusive subject whose practitioners must integrate economics with biology. Their problem is compounded by the multifold hazards, biological, climatic and economic, that the forest must face over the years. Thus, the task of preparing a text on the silviculture of the forests of a continent is not one to be taken lightly. Clearly too comprehensive a subject for one author (or one reviewer) this book is a substantial contribution from ten authors, each a specialist of long experience on a particular region. The treatments have been skillfully combined by John Barrett, the editor.

Regional Silviculture was prepared for a senior course in silviculture, its avowed purpose being to provide back-ground and encourage the student to synthesize his knowledge and to develop ability in making silvicultural decisions. The book will serve well as a source-text and in the hands of a skillful teacher will assist the student to a clear under-standing of many silvicultural problems.

The dust cover suggests that the book provides a "comprehensive appraisal of the biological, physical and economic qualities of the nation's continental forest regions. . . ." However in some cases the economic aspects seem more effectively covered than are the biological ones. This is in part a reflection of current knowledge of the ecology of forest communities. It seems unfortunate also that the coverage was not extended slightly to include Canada as well as the United States. Forest types and silvicultural solutions are generally similar.

The book begins with a thoughtful introductory chapter on the Forests of the United States (by David Smith). Eleven chapters follow, each covering a forest region. The regions were chosen for effectiveness in grouping of forest management problems, some defined on the basis of forest types, others on political and economic lines, and one on site characteristics. The regions and their authors are: the Northeast, John W. Barrett; the Lake States, Henry L. Hanson; the Central Region, Daniel DenUyl; the Appalachian Highland, Clarence F. Koristian; the Coastal Plain Southern Pine, Laurence C. Walker; the Southern Bottom-land Hardwood, John F. Hosner; the Middle and South-ern Rocky Mountains, T. W. Daniel; the Northern Rocky Mountains, Merrill E. Deters; California, F. S. Baker; the Pacific Northwest, David R. M. Scott; and Alaska, also by Scott.

Each region is covered in the same pattern beginning with a geographic description. Importance of the forests is discussed under several headings, land area statistics, character of land ownership, forest inventory data, forest industries, and other benefits as water, recreation, range and wildlife. A section on the physical environment covers the physiography, geology, soils, and climate of the region. This is followed by a brief discussion of the major forest type groups, a section on the history of forest use including agriculture, logging and fire and finally a capsule picture of the forests of today. The meat of the book lies in the discussions of the silviculture of the type groups. Each group of related forest types is described as to "typical" site, place in ecological succession, growth rates, rotation age and size, cultural practices and susceptibility to damage. A discussion of reforestation and a bibliography conclude each chapter.

The regional treatments are variable both in length (most from 40 to 6o pages), illustration and emphasis. The briefest coverage, only 20 pages, is devoted to Alaska, a reflection of the available knowledge rather than the importance and complexity of the forests. Tables are used generally to present land statistics, yield or economic data. However, several chapters contain tables providing comparisons of management methods, of species tolerance ratings, etc.; these capsule comparisons help the reader to organize the information and could have been used more extensively.

Each chapter includes a map providing geographical, physiographic and political orientation. Maps of forest vegetation are presented for some regions but omitted for others; this detracts from the value of the book as a reference.

One point which may bother botanists is the liberal use of forestry terminology (poor site, type, overmature, etc.) without adequate definition. The ecologist may well take exception to some of the statements concerning "climax" and to some of the type breakdowns. Tighter control of verbiage would have helped some chapters.

Following the custom of texts some half-truths are perpetuated and some complex situations are overly simplified. In most cases the emphasis is up-to-date although current progress in some non-traditional areas (upland hardwood management in the south for example) appears to be slighted. Exhortations against the errors pictured may be found in some figure legends and seem out of place in a volume written to provide background for decision making.


It is refreshing to note intelligent criticism of the traditional site index concept, for example, and pleasing to see concern for maintenance of the deciduous pioneer species.

For botanists the book is recommended as a handy general reference. The authors have assembled and organized a tremendous and varied collection of information, much of it not in our normal reading range. The ecologist will find helpful background for unfamiliar regions. The economic botanist will reap a mine of information and the taxonomist may find, in the histories of land use, information pertinent to some aberrant distribution pattern. The bibliographies will aid the inquiring student and scholar to a more detailed examination of a region. Regional Silviculture should not grace every botanist's bookshelf but it will find a permanent place on many.—FoREsr STEARNS, U. S. Lake States Forest Experiment Station.

Laboratory Outlines in Biology. PETER ABRAMOFF and ROBERT G. THOMSON. i—X + 249 pp. & I24 ills. 1962. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. `ā3.75

The scope of this paper-covered laboratory manual is quite broad. Encompassed within its 32 exercises are a variety of subjects ranging from the use and care of the microscope to the ecological adaptations of the vertebrates. Various topics such as the physical and chemical aspects of life, and plant and animal diversity and physiology are also examined. Within the exercises there are charts to be completed, diagrams to be labeled and questions to be answered. This reviewer feels, however, that the instructor is not granted adequate opportunity to appraise the student's ability to observe and interpret, as relatively few original drawings are required.

The authors have a tendency to verbosity, and their approach in some areas is almost textual, giving more information than is desirable. A laboratory manual should ask questions, stimulate thought and not give all the answers. For example, instead of explaining the function of the vertebrate skeleton, it would be more beneficial if the student could arrive at a conclusion based on his own observations.

There are errors and omissions in the manual about which this reviewer must comment. Concerning the use of the microscope, mention is made of the iris diaphragm controlling the amount of light entering the instrument but no reference is made to the Abbe condenser and its importance in the focusing of light waves. The authors state that the concave surface of the mirror is used under ordinary conditions because it gives a more intense light. What is meant by "ordinary conditions"? It is my understanding that the concave surface is used when the microscope does not have a substage condenser, but if the microscope is so equipped, then the plane surface of the mirror is employed. During the discussion of mitosis in Allium, no mention is made of the nucleolus, although it is a fairly obvious structure in the cell during interphase and disappears during prophase to reappear at telophase. On page J9 the statement is made that "the humerus is attached to the pectoral girdle by means of a socket, the glenoid fossa, which is made up of a junction of three bones." The humerus is attached to the pectoral girdle at the glenoid fossa by means of ligaments; it is not attached by the glenoid fossa. One could desire more consistency in the use of units of measurements, i.e. on page 94, in the same paragraph, mention is made of a 2-inch piece of capillary tubing and also a small piece of tube % cm. The statement is made in exercise rr that in higher animals coordination is maintained through the development of special tissues. What do the authors mean by higher animals? A definitely formed nervous system first appears in the Platyhelminthes and in the Coelenterata there is the somewhat debatable presence of a nerve net. These forms are not considered to be higher animals. In the section concerned with Genetics, sexual differentiation of Drosophila by means of abdominal characteristics and the presence of sex combs on the prothoracic legs of the male is described, but the differences in genitalia are not cited. Difficulties may be encountered with abdominal color characteristics when the flies are newly emerged and pigmentation is not definite. Also in ebony bodied flies the dark banding of the male abdomen will not be evident. Furthermore the work with Drosophila merely involves the identification of various mutant phenotypes and the sex of the fly. There is no determination of ratios or any illustration of Mendelian principles although later in the exercise this omission is covered in the work on corn. One could also question the statement on page 131 that says, "Remove the seed coat to expose the embryo, which separates easily into fleshy halves—the cotyledons." The embryo does not separate into two cotyledons but is surrounded by them. This sentence is confusing and should be rewritten to indicate the true relationship of the seed parts. The discussion of Physalia mentions the phenomenon of polymorphism but gives the impression that it means the division of labor. The idea that this is a colony of members of the same species that are morphologically and functionally different is not brought out. In the same exercise the generic name of the Scyphozoan jellyfish is misspelled Aurellia, instead of Aurelia. The clam is de-scribed in chapter 28 as having two mantles. Actually only one is present which extends down over both sides of the body from the dorsal surface. A questionable statement is made on page 235 concerning the Chordates, in which the authors say that this phylum consists of the most highly developed organisms in the animal kingdom. In some respects the Arthropods are as highly developed functionally and morphologically as the Chordates. An-other debatable comment is made on page 240 when the writers state that "most of the specialized structural characteristics of mammals are related either directly or in-directly to their high rate of living." What is meant by "high rate of living"? Isn't specialization the same type of adaptive response as is found in any other biological system? Another statement to be questioned on the same page is the one that says "in mammals the pelvic girdle has been replaced by a single larger and stronger pelvic bone." The pelvic girdle in mammals as in other vertebrates still


consists of three bones, the ischium, ilium, and pubis which have become fused; there is no replacement by a new structure.

The manual is richly endowed with some 120 black and white illustrations which for the most part are well done and attractive. However, several of the drawings have in-accuracies that bear commenting. On page 115 the diagram tracing meiosis in Ascaris indicates the tetrads to be centrally placed in the primary oocyte. In the laboratory one sees that this figure is eccentrically placed. The phylogenetic chart on page 184 has the pseudocoelomate Nemathelminthes erroneously placed. Instead of being below the Platyhelminthes, the Nemathelminthes should be above them, on the left branch labeled "complete gut, pseudocoelomate." This reviewer feels that this chart should be given serious consideration and the discrepancy corrected. On pages 28 and 134 the same diagram of a longitudinal section of the Coleus stem tip appears with identical labeling. Referring the student back to page 28 would have allowed the authors to illustrate their point yet saved space.

There is a brief bibliography at the end of each chapter. It would be more beneficial if references to General Biology texts were removed from this list and replaced by references to original papers and more advanced texts. It does not harm a student in an elementary course to delve into some of the more technical works.

In summation, I feel that this manual is adequate but not outstanding. There are some good parts, such as the exercises that deal with various physiological phenomena. It is my feeling that the errors cited above could have been eliminated by more rigorous editing.—N. L. LEVIN, Brooklyn College.

The Plant World. A Text in College Botany. Fourth Edition. HARRY J. FULLER and ZANE B. CAROTHERS. i-Viii + 564 pp. 1963. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York. $7.50.

This edition is intended, like the previous ones, princcipally for college students in one semester introductory botany courses. The arrangement of topics is the familiar one: gross structure of seed plants, cells and tissues, root, stern, leaf anatomy, physiology, metabolism, flowers and fruits, genetics, chapters on the plant groups, evolution and ecology. New material has been added on photosynthesis, respiration, growth substances, ultrastructure, and chemical basis of inheritance. Chapters are followed by suggested readings and questions for study. A glossary is provided at the end of the text.

The new material is more in the nature of additions than incorporations. These additions are too brief. For ex-ample, genetics, origin and evolution of plants, and the relationships between photosynthesis, food chains, populations and resources are inadequately covered. Little of the excitement and dynamics of processes and mechanisms of plants and their communities is here. To many students the text would convey, as their last formal contact with botany, the impression that botanists are still preoccupied only with names and structures. Imaginative use of illustrations is lacking, and the book design and topography are uninspired.

The problems of writing a relatively short introductory text have always been many and the information explosion we find ourselves in makes them increasingly difficult. The Plant World is a traditionally oriented text which is fairly adequate for a survey course in botany. Unfortunately, if one is looking for a text which reflects the continuing revolution in botany, he must look elsewhere.—ALAN S. HEILMAN, University of Tennessee.

John Clayton, Pioneer of American Botany. EDMUND BERKELEY and DOROTHY SMITH BERKELEY. 264 pp. 1963. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. $6.00.

This attractive book should be widely enjoyed and read. It is pleasant to look at since it is appropriately illustrated with drawings of some of the plants that were named by or for contemporaries of John Clayton. It presents an ac-count of a man who made available to European students of botany, busy during the eighteenth century naming plants of the Western Hemisphere, a most useful and well-catalogued collection of plants of Virginia.

John Clayton was born in England in the autumn of 1694. He was a Virginian in the sense that he lived in that colony from at least 1720 until his death in 1773. How much of his life had been spent in England and just when he arrived in Virginia are questioned by the biographers. A quotation from Thomas Jefferson, who admired Clay-ton, is shown to be in error on the place of his birth; Jefferson thought Clayton a native of Virginia. The con-fusion is greater because there were several John Claytons in the family. Two John Claytons, both clergymen, be-came members of the British Royal Society. John Clayton, the father of the botanist, arrived in Virginia in 1705. He became Attorney General of the colony in 1713, having been appointed by Governor Spotswood. The botanist John Clayton, the subject of this book, and commemorated in our delightful spring flower known as Spring Beauty, was named clerk of the court of Gloucester county in Virginia. He held this position for 53 years.

It is a matter of question whether John Clayton's love for plant study began in England or after he reached Virginia. His letters are few but some of the most active European botanists knew John Clayton or received favors of him. Well-known names such as Peter Collinson, Linnaeus, Lawrence and John Gronovius of Holland, and John Bartram of Philadelphia were all correspondents. The surviving collections of John Clayton are presently housed in the Herbarium of the British Museum. As a taxonomist, John Clayton started out using the methods of John Ray, famous member of the British Royal Society. Later he changed over to the new system of Linnaeus. An appendix to this book gives the full list of the plants named according to the Linnaean system by Clayton. It may very well have been the intention of John Clayton to have published a larger and more complete list of the plants of Virginia. His herbarium, however, was lost in an incendiary fire that destroyed the county house of Gloucester county


where it had been stored. This misfortune takes some-thing of the credit from John Clayton's work. It negates establishing his fatherhood of American botany, for his works by which we now know him were published in Leiden under the Gronovius name.

The authors of this life of Clayton must be very pleased with the result; it is a credit both to them and to the press of the University of North Carolina. The delicate line-drawings of plants commemorative of the circle of botanic enthusiasts contemporary with Clayton are gracefully appropriate to a delightful doxography. One small warning: if Pioneer of American Botany is construed to mean that Clayton is the first to make an acceptable collection of American plants then the title is indeed misleading, for Hans Sloane some forty years earlier had accompanied the Duke of Albemarle to Jamaica, also a British Colony, expressly to collect plants.—AnoLPH WALLER, Ohio State University.

Woody Flora of Taiwan. HuI-LIN LI. x + 974 pp. 371 figs. 1963. Published jointly by the Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia and the Livingston Publishing Co., Narbeth, Pennsylvania. $18.75.

It is a noteworthy event when a comprehensive botanical work dealing with eastern Asia and of the calibre of this one is publish;d. The well-known and highly qualified author has produced a work primarily designed to effect identification of the more than r000 woody species of this strategically located and botanically important area between China, the Philippines, and the Ryukyu Chain leading to Japan. There are excellent keys to all groups. The nomenclature, with appropriate synonyms, is up-to-date and is accompanied by literature citations primarily concerned with critical botanical considerations. Each species is care-fully described in a clear format. At least one species of each genus is illustrated with an excellent line drawing, but unfortunately without adequate captions identifying and giving the scale of the details pictured.' The over-all distribution of each species and its preferred habitat is given after each description, followed by citations of selected specimens, thus documenting the author's identifications and indicating the range of the species in the area. Critical botanical notes often follow, suggesting the exhaustive literature on which this work is based. However, this is not a compilation from the literature, for it rests on the numerous revisions Dr. Li has prepared over a long period of years covering most of the taxonomic groups here rep-resented. In their preparation he has examined innumerable specimens from the major collections from Taiwan deposited in a dozen widely scattered herbaria on three continents. Seven new species or varieties are described and 22 nomenclatural changes are made, these duly listed just before the index.

In the introduction the author describes the physical features and conditions in Taiwan, especially those which

Illlustrations of most of the other species may be found in a two-volume work published in Taiwan (1960-1962) by Liu, Tang-Shui: Illustrations of Native and Introduced Ligneous Plants of Taiwan. The brief descriptions are in Chinese. affect "the vegetation and floristic composition"; these are extensively summarized and give one some idea of the composition of the flora in comparison with that of surrounding areas. The selected bibliography of four pages lists many critical taxonomic references. If these references had been scattered through the text, adjacent to the corresponding treatments, they would be more readily found by users seeking other sources to supplement the author's treatment of a group.

The herbaceous flora of Taiwan, a treatment of which the author is now preparing, comprises nearly three times as many species as does the woody flora here treated. Our knowledge of this great flora will be much improved when this second work is completed. It is unfortunate that the needed support for an over-all treatment of the whole flora was not available when the author began this work. No previous work on this area has been prepared by an author with so thorough a knowledge of the mainland Chinese flora, from which the Taiwan flora cannot properly be dissociated, and of the Philippine and Ryukyu floras, as has Dr. Li, who went to Taiwan from the mainland following World War II, then in 1950 came to the United States.

This book is excellently printed and bound and has few typographical errors. One misses the vernacular names which usually accompany such treatments. However, this omission is readily understandable in view of the complex problem of printing Chinese and Japanese names in the U. S. and the complications which have arisen in this field of vernacular names by the post-war change in Taiwan from the previously official Japanese language to Chinese. As for the Japanese names, when needed, they can be found in a work by R. Kanehira: Formosan Trees (rev. ed. 1936), which this new work admirably replaces for practical purposes. — ECBERT H. WALKER, Takoma Park, Maryland.


Carl Skottsberg, Professor Emeritus in the Marine Botanical Institute, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, died on June 14. Dr. Skottsberg was a corresponding member of the Botanical Society of America. Other recent deaths include:


Associate Professor Emeritus Margaret Kemp of the Department of Botany, Smith College, died on August 4, 1963, in Boston, at the age of 6o. Dr. Kemp received the A.B. degree from Smith College in 1922, the degree of A.M. from Radcliffe College the following year, and her Ph.D. from the University of California (Berkeley) in 194r. After teaching at Mount Holyoke College, she came to Smith in 1927 and continued as an active member of the Botany Department (from 1946 with the rank of Associate Professor) until 1961.

Miss Kemp's special area of research was the morphology of gymnosperms, but her wide botanical interests included the evolution of plants and economic botany. She was an outstanding teacher of both advanced and introductory


courses. In the latter field she was co-organizer and co-director of an interdepartmental course in biology. Miss Kemp took a deep interest in college and departmental affairs. She was for some years Chairman of the Department and for many years a member of the Committee on Graduate Study and the Student Advisers Committee. She continued effectively her research and teaching through many years of ill health, and courageous and energetic to the last, planned further research and was still available to her colleagues for advice after her retirement in 1962.

A personal collection of kodachrome slides, taken in her travels in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, was used in class lectures and also in frequent lectures to women's clubs and other groups on plant distribution in climatic zones of North America. Among her hobbies were the history of the Smith College Botanic Garden and a collection of stamps illustrating flora and fauna of different regions.—SARA BACHE-WIIG, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts.


Agnes Chase, "Dean of Agrostologists," died September 24 at the age of 94, after a brief illness. Following her official retirement as Senior Botanist in charge of systematic agrostology in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Mrs. Chase worked for 24 years as Research Associate at the Smithsonian Institution, inspiring the unqualified admiration of her younger colleagues by her industrious devotion to the taxonomy of grasses. Until shortly before her death she was at her desk five or six full days a week, and she published a three-volume index of grass species only last December.

Mrs. Chase was born in 1869 in Iroquois County, Illinois, and attended public and private schools in Chicago. From the position of Assistant in Botany at the Field Museum of Natural History, she went to the Department of Agriculture, where she was associated for almost zo years with Professor A. S. Hitchcock, becoming Senior Botanist after Hitchcock's death. At 89, Mrs. Chase received from the University of Illinois an honorary degree of Doctor of Science, her only college degree. She was one of 50 out-standing botanists to receive a Certificate of Merit on the fiftieth anniversary of the Botanical Society of America and one of the few persons ever to be made an Honorary Fellow of the Smithsonian Institution. (For a biographical sketch and bibliography, see Taxon 8: 145-151. 1959.)

News and Notes

DR. FRITS W. WENT has resigned as Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden and will devote full-time efforts to his duties as professor of botany at Washington University. Other resignations from the Garden include DR. ROBERT GILLESPIE, who has joined the faculty of the Junior College District, St. Louis; DR. JAMES A. DUKE, now with U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland; and DR. ROBERT DRESSLER, who has taken a position with the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Dressler is a plant taxonomist at the Smithsonian's Canal Zone Biological Area.

The Department of Botany of Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts reported two promotions during 1963: DR. KENNETH E. WRIGHT to Full Professor and DR. C. JOHN BURK to Assistant Professor.

PROFESSOR ARTHUR H. WESTING of the the Department of Forestry and Conservation, Purdue University was awarded a Charles Bullard Fellowship for a year of advanced study and research at Harvard University on the growth and development of conifers.

DR. HUGH N. MozINGO of the Department of Biology, University of Nevada has received a National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant for the study of the effects of reduced atmospheric pressure on plants. The study is intended primarily to investigate the ultrastructure and cytochemical consequences of reduced pressure.

DR. WILLIAM W. SCOTT, a member of the Department of Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute since 1955, has been promoted to Professor of Botany.

DR. ALBERT C. SMITH, formerly Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, has joined the staff of the University of Hawaii as Director of Research and Professor of Botany. In his new position, undertaken in November 1963, Dr. Smith is responsible for the general administration of faculty research and for the University's seven organized research units.

DR. V. RAGHAVAN has accepted a position as Lecturer in Botany, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He will be responsible for teaching plant physiology, and for organizing a research group in this branch. Prior to this appointment, Dr. Raghavan worked at Princeton University with Dr. W. P. Jacobs and at Harvard University with Dr. J. G. Torrey.

MR. DAVID B. LELLINGER was recently appointed Associate Curator in the Division of Ferns, U. S. National Her-barium, Smithsonian Institution. Mr. Lellinger expects to submit his doctoral thesis, on the quantitative delimitation of genera in cheilanthoid (and gymnogrammeoid) ferns, to the University of Michigan.

Among recent appointments to the staff of the New York Botanical Garden are: DR. WILLARD SPENCE, from the University of California, now assistant curator of the Her-barium; DR. GHILLEAN T. PRANCE, from the Forest Her-barium at the University of Oxford, England, now research fellow in the Herbarium, working with the tropical collection; DR. TETsuo G. KOYAMA, from the Plant Institute of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, now research fellow in the Herbarium; DR. SHOICHI KAWANO, from the University of Wisconsin, now a research fellow in the Herbarium. DR. HITOSHI TAKESHITA, from the University of Western Ontario, is now research associate under an NIH grant for work in the chemistry of mold products in the Laboratory of the New York Botanical Garden; and DR. EARL. J. MCWIHORTER of the University of Massachusetts is now on sabbatical leave for work on the biochemical taxonomy of basidiomycetes in the Laboratory, under an NSF grant.

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