PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
June 1974 Vol. 20 No. 2
Taxonomy, and Thor Charles B. Heiser, Jr. 22
J. Fuller, An Appreciation Oswald Tippo 26
Aid to Indochina 27
Bridge Cooke 28
K. Mitrakos and W. Shropshire, Jr. (eds.) (James
A. McArthur) 29
of Plants. Laboratory Exercises. H. Dean (Richard
C. Keating) 30
Analysis of Plant Growth. G. Clifford Evans (Helmut
crispus. M. J. Harvey, and J McLa.chlon (eds.) (Clinton
J. Dawes) 31
of Pennsylvania, the Atlantic States and the Lake
States. Li Hui-Lin. (Wayne L. Handles) 31
II Phytochemistry - Organic Metabolites. Lawrence
P. Miller (ed.) (Jerry W. McClure) 31
Totoras, Taxonomy, and Thor
B. Heiser, Jr.1
who has read Thor Heyerdahl's books, browsed through National Geographic Magazine,
or visited Lake Titicaca is probably familiar with the reed raft or balsa.
Although the area in which such boats are now found is rather limited, in
the past they had a very extensive distribution in nearly all of the extreme
western part of the Americas. At one time they were common in California where
the tule, Scirpus acutus (24), was widely used for their construction, although
both cattails (Typha) and other species of bulrushes (Scirpus) were used as
well (27). The Seri Indians of the Gulf of California made their water craft
from the Carrizal reed (Phragmites communis) (6). In South America balsas
of reeds were used both on lakes and on the Pacific. They still survive in
a few places in highland Ecuador and coastal Peru, as well as on Lake Titicaca.
Although in 1930 Knoche (26) stated that the cabellitos de totora were disappearing
in Ecuador, I observed their use at Lago de San Pablo in 1969. The principal
plant employed for them in South America is the totora reed, the identity
of which will be subject to further discussion. In the Old World, too, reed
vessels had a fairly wide distribution (23). Papyrus (Cyperus) was the plant
most often used in their construction. The Ra expedition across the Atlantic
by Heyerdahl was made in a boat of papyrus.
his American Indians in the Pacific Heyerdahl (16) pointed out that the reed
craft of Easter Island was strikingly similar to that of Peru. In Aku-Aku
(17), a popular account of his visit to Easter Island, he describes the great
number of ways in which the reeds are used. He also tells of making pollen
cores in one of the freshwater crater lakes where the totora grew and that
these were to be submitted to Prof Olof Selling for analysis. The scientific
results of his expedition were published in two large volumes, and in Volume
1 (22) we find considerable more detail on the totora which is identified
as Scirpus riparius Presl. It seems fairly evident from archaeological material
that the totora was on the island long before the first contacts with Europeans.
Heyerdahl (22) writes "The plant was observed on the island by the earliest
European visitors, and properly identified by them as the totora they knew
from the irrigated swamps on the desert coast of Peru (Herve', 1770, p. 23;
Agiiera, 1770, p. 102)." Herve' (15) states, "There were other small plantain
gardens [on Easter Island], and several plantations and fields of sugar-cane,
sweet potatoes, taro, yams, white gourds, and plants like those whose leaves
are employed at Callao [Peru] for making mats." All that Agiiera says is that
the more polished and powerful persons on the island inhabit small huts covered
with totora reeds. Ferdon (22), who states these reeds were originally planted
on Easter Island, quotes Herve' and interprets his passage to mean that they
were grown as a "garden crop."
his discussion in this work (22), Heyerdahl proceeds to tell more about the
totora, stating that this species was once used for constructing boats all
along coastal Peru, "where it was cultivated through irrigation by all the
coastal cultures including the Nazca, Paracas, and Chimu." He adds that this
was the same totora that was used at Lake Titicaca. This is followed by a
discussion of Polygonum acuminatum which grows with the totora on Easter Island
and which, according to him, was used medicinally by the people of the Lake
Titicaca region as it was by the aboriginal population of Easter Island.
ago when the Editor of the PSli asked hie for a contribution I had nothing
to offer. Later when I had occasion to show some slides of Ecuador I found
that I had forgotten the scientific name of the totora. As I was looking it
up, I recalled Heyerdahl's statement in Aku-Aku that totora of Easter Island
was the same as that of Peru. At that time I had read the book I had wondered
if this were true, and I had meant to look into it. 1 finally did so and the
present article is a condensed version of the result. I would like to thank
Ian E. Effort, Douglas Ellson, Barbara Pickersgill and Louisa R. Stark for
information they supplied to me.
Heyerdahl (22) writes, "Admitting that the plant [the totora] could have been
intentionally introduced by prehistoric voyagers from Peru, Skottsberg ( . .
. , p. 412) adds: `A direct transport of seeds across the ocean without
man's assistance is difficult to imagine, and it is futile to speculate in land
connections.' " Previous to the statement quoted, Skottsberg (35) after stating
that Scirpus riparius and Polygonum acuminatum are American, writes, "Their
mode of occurence and ecology oblige us to regard them as truly indigenous,
unless they have been intentionally introduced in prehistoric time during one
of the mythical cruises which, according to Heyerdahl, put Easter Island in
contact with Peru." This is the only "ad-mission" that Skottsberg makes in so
far as I can determine. Further along Heyerdahl states that Skottsberg2 "finds
that an aboriginal human introduction of at least two South American species
is likely and will, greatly ease the difficult problem of transportation in
similar accounts of the totora are found in Heyerdahl's subsequent papers
(18, 19,20). In one (19) we learn that the pollen cores studied by Dr. Selling
"reveal that the Polygonum pollen suddenly began to deposit in the crater
lakes [on Easter Island] during the earliest human settlement period." In
another one (20), he, giving the same references as before states that Skottsberg
showed that the totora must have been carried from South America and planted
as root stocks in the Easter Island lakes and that Skottsberg found that the
totora of Easter Island "was identical with the species cultivated through
irrigation on the desert coast of Peru."
his recent book about the Ra voyages, Heyerdahl (21) in reminiscing about
Easter Island and the totora reed, states: The uppermost layers of mud in
the lake were yellow with pollen from the totora, mixed with remnants of the
stalks. The pollen of only one other water plant, Polygonum acuminatum, was
present down through the layers to the ash that indicated the coming of man.
Before man arrived, pollen from fresh water plants was absent. He then points
out that both species must have been brought by man to the island; they could
not have been carried by wind, the ocean, or birds, for they "generate only
by new shoots from their suckers." He again repeats that the totora was cultivated
by coastal Peruvians in irrigated swamps and they had used it in much the
same way as it was used on Easter Island.
Skottsberg. Paskon. Gotehorgs Handels-och Sjofarts-Tidning. Oct. 1957. I
have not seen this.
account of the totora raises several questions. Are any of the totoras of
Peru really the same as the totora of Easter Island? Was the totora actually
cultivated in prehistoric times on the Peruvian coast? Must the totora owe
its introduction onto Easter Island to man'?
uses the names S. riparius or S. Tatora for the Easter Island plant in his
various accounts, Skottsberg collected the plant on Easter Island, and his
specimen was described by Kiikenthal (28), an authority on sedges, as S. riparius
Presl. var. paschalis. Skoitsberg (:35), however, later concluded himself
that Kiikenthal's variety was not worthy of recognition, which is Heyerdahl's
basis for considering the Easter Island and the Peruvian plant the same.
is still disagreement as to the number of taxa covered by the common name,
totora, and as to the rank to he given to these taxa, but all recent workers
are in ac-cord that the name S. riparius Presl. can not be used because of
the earlier use of this name by Sprengle for a different species. In 1941
Beetle recognized the totora of the South American highlands as a species
calling it S. Tatora Kunth. He gives its distribution as the Lake Titicaca
area, including both Cuzco and La Paz, although he lists some species described
from Chile in its synonymy. Beetle (7) transferred the Easter Island plant,
var. paschalis, from S. riparius to S. californicus, the typical element of
which ranges from the United States to Chile and is also found in the Hawaiian
Islands. Barros (4) disagreed somewhat with Beetle's treatment. He did not
recognize S. Tatora as a distinct species and reduced it to a variety, S.
californicus var. Tatora. However, he does not give the distribution of this
variety nor does he mention the plant of Easter Island. In the most recent
detailed study of the group, Koyama (25) distinguishes two subspecies of S.
californicus, ssp. californicus and ssp. Tatora. The distribution of the latter
subspecies agrees with that given by Beetle for S. Tatora but with the addition
of a site from lowland Chile. Under ssp. californicus, he recognizes three
varieties, one of which is var. paschalis, whose distribution he gives as
Chile and the southwestern Pacific Islands around Easter Island.
the foregoing it is evident that the weight of taxonomic opinion indicates
that the Scirpus of Easter Island (S. californicus var. paschalis or S. californicus
ssp. californicus var. paschalis) is distinct from the highland Peruvian totora
(S. Tatora, S. californicus var. Tatora, or S. californicus suhsp. Tatora)
as well as from the other race of Scirpus californicus known from Peru, also
from the highlands (5, 25). The variety paschalis, however occurs in both
Chile and Easter Island, according to Koyama. Chile then might be the source
of the Easter Island plant, unless of course, one were to assume that the
movement was in the other direction. It is conceivaHe, of course, that some
other variety of S. californicus was originally carried to Easter Island and
there developed into var. paschalis and that this variety subsequently somehow
reached Chile. One might even conceive of parallel mutations giving rise to
the same variety in two ecologically similar areas. While the last word oil
the taxonomy of the totora is perhaps yet to be written, certainly on the
basis of our present knowledge there is no support for Heyerdahl's contention.
a totora actually cultivated under irrigation in coastal Peru as Heyerdahl
has maintained'? So far as I can determine he has not documented this statement,
nor do I find any evidence for such a claim, although it is clear that reed
boats, mats, and other items made of reeds were used in coastal Peru. Towle
(38) in her detailed treatment of the archaeological plant record of Peru
points out that much confusion surrounds the identity of the plants used for
such purposes. The cattail (Typha), also sometimes known under the name of
totora; the Carrizal reed (Phragmites); certain species of Cyperus; and a
species of Scirpus apparently all were used. The coastal Scirpus is probably
not the same as the highland totora, although it is possible that reeds or
products made from them at times were brought to the coast. I think it is
unlikely that the highland totora would thrive in coastal lowlands, just as
most of the other highland crops, white potatoes, oca, quinoa and so on, fail
to do so.
the totora been cultivated on the coast, the chroniclers might be expected
to be a source of in-formation. Acosta (1), Cobo (11), and Garcilasco (14)
all had observed balsas of reeds in Peru and tell of such being used in the
sea. Acosta tells of the "reedes, which the Indians call totora, which serves
them to a thousand Vses" and gives an account of the Urus, who to this day
make balsas on Lake Titicaca. He also includes the totora among the edible
root plants of the region. Cobo gives a particularly good description of the
mats made from reeds in Lima and Lambayeque, and further tells us that there
are many different kinds of reeds in Peru; the totora in particular is used
for making boats for the crossing of rivers and fishing in the ocean. But
if any of them observed it in cultivation, he failed to record it.
I have found no clear-cut evidence of the cultivation of' a totora on the
coast in early times, one is cultivated there today and used for making mats
and boats. Mishkin (31) mentions this without giving any detail; but Edwards
(1:3), after telling that the various kinds of reeds used to build boats are
common in the swampy areas of coastal Peru, goes on to describe the cultivation
of one in rectangular pits at Huanchaco. Cuttings from the root crowns are
used to start the plantings. According to his informants, this cultivation
has been practiced since 1930 and before this time the totora was obtained
from the irrigated area around Chan Chan, an important archaeological site.
Since a Scirpus could grow naturally in irrigated fields, I do not take the
last: statement to mean that the plants were deliberately cultivated at Chan
Chan, but it does not rule out such an
Edwards has stated that the totora grown at Huanchaco is a Scirpus; it would
be interesting to know the species.'
mode of reproduction in the totora requires some discussion in connection
with how it was introduced into Easter Island. Unfortunately, but not surprisingly,
little seems to have been written on reproduction in the tot ora. Heyerdahl
has claimed that the plant was introduced by vegetative means. Presumably
this would be by portions of rhizomes; and, indeed, if this were true, then
I would agree that man is the likely agent for its introduction to Easter
Island, but not necessarily the only possibility. I have found nothing, however,
that would indicate that achenes are not produced. Beetle (6) has stated the
culms of the totora of Lake Titicaca are largely sterile, but he (5) gives
measurements for its achenes in his description. Koyama (25) presents a photograph
of the achenes of the totora of Easter Island. Thus, in view of any evidence
to the contrary, I assume that the totora reproduces by seed as well as vegetatively.
If so, the possibilities of dispersal by air flotation, oceanic drift., or
by birds immediately come to mind. Heyerdahl (18, 22) points out that Easter
Island is inhabited only by sea birds4, none of which are seed eaters, but
the seeds could well have been carried in mud on a bird's foot. Carlquist
(10) has so admirably discussed the subject of long distance dispersal by
birds that there is no need to go into detail here. He estimates that over
70% of the seed plants were introduced into Easter Island by birds, and
the remainder by air flotation or drift. He also considers that the Scirpus
species on Hawaii were brought in by birds, and in his book (9) he
writing the above, I have been able to learn more about the cultivation of
the totora in coastal Peru. Dr. Miguel Hulle has called my attention to the
work of A. Sagastegui A., Manuel de las Malezas de la Costa Norperuana (univ.
Nat:. de'llrujillo, Peru), in which he stales (p. 117) that the totora (S.
califor'eicus ssp. Idiom) is used in certain places on the coast of Peru,
"Huanchaco, Puerto Chicama, etc." I have also received specimens of the totora
cultivated at Huanchaco from Terry Hamrick of the United States Peace Corps.
Using Koyama's- key (25) I have identified these specimens as S. californicus
ssp. californicte.s var. californicus. I have also found an article by Michael
E. Moseley and Carol J. Mackey (Chan Chan, Peru's Ancient City of Kings, Nat.
Geog. Mag., March, 1973) in which they mention the finding of ancient sunken
gardens on the coast near Chan Chan, "where fisherman probably harvested the
reeds used to make their fragile boats." This finding again raises the question
as to whether reeds were actually cultivated in prehistoric times. It seems
more likely, however, that the gardens would have been used for growing food
plants and that sedges would have invaded them as weeds, which then could
have been used by man.
the vegetation was largely destroyed by man, if this is indeed what has happened,
birds may have been more common on the island. Several of the early visitors,
however, have remarked on the scarcity of birds. Captain Cook in his visit
of 1774 observed that "land-birds, there were hardly any, and sea birds very
few; these were man-of-war, tropic, and egg'birds, noddies, tern, etc." Laperouse
in 1786 remarked that "the only birds which we met on the island we saw at
the bottom of the crater; there were terns." Two of the crater lakes with
the totoras are within one kilometer of the ocean. The passages quoted above
are both reprinted in Dos Passos' account (12) of Easter Island. gives a drawing
of a frigate bird nesting in a marsh and states that sedges of the sort illustrated
may have reached Easter Island in mud on the bird's feet. I have not gone
into the distribution of other species of Scirpus, but I note that Koyama
(25) in his treatment of section Pterolepis has two other species with extensive
ranges, including Pacific Islands. The distribution of Scirpus americanus
ssp. monophyllus is given as western America from British Columbia to Chile,
then west to Tasmania, New Zealand, and Australia. The wide distribution of
these other species of Scirpus likely results from birds being the agents
problem of the introduction of Polygonum acuminatum, which Heyerdahl assumes
was also introduced from Peru by man through vegetative parts, is much the
same as that for the totora. I have not investigated this species in any detail,
but I have found that some authors (2, 36, 37, 39) have described its achenes,
so I assume that it also reproduces by seed. Skottsberg (35) gives its distribution
as West Indies, Central and South America, tropical and South Africa, and
the Orient, although others (2, 36, 39) confine its distribution to tropical
America and the West Indies. McBride (30) does not list it for Peru. It, like
the totora, as others (33) have
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Robert W. Long, Editor
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Elwood B. Ehrle, Mankato State College
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Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution
Richard M. Klein, University of Vermont
June 1974 Volume Tewnty Number
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out, could have been introduced by birds, and it could have come from any
of a number of places, but probably not from Peru.
indeed, the totora and P. acuminatum made their appearance on Easter Island
at the same time as man, there would be stronger reasons to support an introduction
by man. As we have seen, Heyerdahl has stated that Polygonum did so but has
not unequivocally said as much for the totora. Since no details regarding
the fossil pollen record on Easter Island have been published it is impossible
to evaluate Heyerdahl's statements. My letter (.Jan. 2, 1974) to O. H. Selling,
requesting information on this subject, has not yet elicited a reply.
addition to using the totora and P. acuminatum, Heyerdahl (16, 18, 19, 22)
also calls upon domesticated plants to support his thesis that American Indians
visited the Pacific area in prehistoric times. His arguments for several of
the cultivated plants have been dealt with in some detail by Pickersgill and
Bunting (3:3) who conclude that the evidence does not support his view. The
sweet potato, however, is one plant that many botanists have been willing
to admit was introduced into the Pacific region in prehistoric times by man,
although recently some people have suggested that its introduction may have
been by means of drift (34) or birds (32). Even the possibility that its introduction
was post-Columbian has been raised (8). The sweet potato was on Easter Island
when it was first visited by Europeans in 1722; and Heyerdahl (22) implies
that it came there directly from America, although he admits the possibility
of an introduction from the Marquesas Islands.
do not think that we can rule out entirely the possibility that the totora
and P. acuminatum were introduced to Easter Island by man, but if so, I do
not think it very likely that they came from Peru. I feel, however, that it
is far more likely that both species were introduced by birds, and that man
on Easter Island came to use them through previous knowledge of their use
from elsewhere, or equally likely, through "independent invention." The fact
that neither the wild nor the domesticated plants lend support to Heyerdahl's
thesis that Easter Island was originally settled from Peru in prehistoric
times considerably weakens his case, particularly so, because he places so
much emphasis on the plant evidence. On the other hand, it does not entirely
destroy his case, for Easter Island could have originally been settled by
Peruvians, who brought no plants with them, or, if they did so, those plants
failed to survive.
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Vol. 1. The Hakluyt Society, London. (originally published in 1590).
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during the voyage of the frigate Santa Rosalia ..., in the voyage of Captain
Don Felipe Gonzalez to Easter Island, 1770-1. The Hakluyt Society, Cambridge.
Manuel. 1942. Notas cipero'logicas II. Darwiniana 6: 122-126.
Alan A. 1941. Studies in the genus Scirpus L. III. The American species
of the section Lacustres Clarke. Amer. dour. Bot. 28: 691-700.
1945. Sedge boats in the Andes. Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 46: 1-4.
1949, Annotated list of original descriptions in Scirpus. Amer. Midl. Nat.
Donald D. 1971. The sweet potato: an exercise in methodology, p. :343-365,
in Man across the sea, edited by Carroll L. Riley et al, Univ. of Texas
Press, Austin and London.
Sherwin. 1965. Island life. Natural History Press, Garden City, N. Y.
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P. Bernabe'. 1890. Historia del Nuevo Mundo. Sevilla. (originally completed
Passos, John. 1971. Easter Island, Island of Enigmas. Doubleday, Garden
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Clinton R. 1965. Aboriginal watercraft on the Pacific coast of South America.
de la Vega, The Ynca. 1869. The royal commentaries of the Yncas. The Hakluyt
Society, London. (originally published in 1609).
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Don Manuel de Amat ..., in The voyage of Captain Don Felipe Gonzalez to
Easter Island, 1770-1. The Hakluyt Society, Cambridge.
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1958. Aku-Aku. Rand McNally, Chicago, New York, San Francisco.
1963. Prehistoric voyages as agencies for Melanesian and South American plant
and animal dispersal to Polynesia, p. 2:3-35, in Plants and the Migrations
of Pacific people, J. Barrau (ed.). Bishop Museum Press, Hawaii.
1968. Plant evidence for American contacts (originally published in 1964)
p. 51-74, in Sea Routes to Polynesia. Rand McNally, Chicago, New York, San
1968. An introduction to discussions of trans-oceanic contacts, p. 67-68,
in Actas y Memorias, XXXVII Congreso International de Americanistas, Vol.
4, Buenos Aires.
1971. The Ra expeditions. Doubleday, Garden City, N. Y.
and E. N. Ferdon, Jr. (editors). 1961. Archaeology of Easter Island. Vol.
1. The School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico. No. 24, part
1. Santa Fe, N.M.
Hornell, James. 1970. Water transport: origins and early evolution. David
& Charles, Newton Abbot (reprint of 1946 edition).
Willis L. 192:3-25. A manual of the flowering plants of California. Associated
Students Store, University of California, Berkeley.
Tetsuo. 1963. The genus Scirpus Linn., critical species of the section
Pterolepis. Canad. Jour. Bot. 41: 1107-1131.
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Mishkin, Bernard. 1946. The contemporary Quechua, p. 411-470 in Handbook of
South American Indians, Vol. 2. Smithsonian Institution, Bur. Amer. Ethno.
O'Brien, Patricia J. 1972. The sweet potato: its origin
and dispersal. Amer. Anthropologist 74::342-365.
Barbara and A. H. Bunting. 1969. Cultivated plants and the Kon-Tiki theory.
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Stanford University Press, California.
Harry J. Fuller, An Appreciation
J. Fuller, who died on August 24, 1973, after fifteen years of incapacitating
illness, was born on October 8, 1907, in St. Louis where he attended the lower
schools as well as high school. He then went on to Washington University,
St. Louis, for his bachelors (1929), masters (1930), and Ph.D. degrees (19:32).
As an undergraduate he majored in Botany and he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.
He did his graduate work at the renowned Shaw School of Botany — then
in its heyday — where he came under the influence of such stalwarts
as Professors George T. Moore, Jesse M. Greenman, Carroll W. Dodge, Robert
Woodson, David Linder, and Edgar Anderson. In later years Fuller often regaled
his colleagues with accounts of peccadilloes involving such fellow students
as George Goodman, Leo Hitchcock, F. Lyle Wynd, Caroline Allen, Mildred Mathias,
and botanical editor Nell Horner. His doctoral thesis was in Plant Physiology.
first teaching appointment was at the University of Illinois where he remained
the rest of his academic life, except for three war years he spent in South
America in government rubber development activities. At Illinois he progressed
through the ranks of instructor (young Ph.D.'s in those days were expected
to season at this level), associate (a special Illinois rank, since abandoned,
designed we always supposed to slow down too rapid
of the academic hierarchy), assistant professor, associate professor, and
professor in 1949.
the early years at Illinois, Harry Fuller taught General Botany, a course
he soon took over and fashioned as his own creative production, and Plant
Taxonomy. Even though his specialty was Plant Physiology, he was an unusually
able taxonomist and field botanist. Later he taught Biology for Teachers,
an advanced course on growth and development, and another in Economic Botany
which attracted droves of students.
all else Harry Fuller was a teacher, a lecturer of unusual skill and virtuosity.
His style was deceptively simple and casual, yet the overall effect was to
command the absolute attention of the students who were fascinated by his
humor, his wit, his light touch, his warmth, even his erudition. All who came
in contact with him (luring these active years will agree that he was a person
who loved to teach and was enormously successful at it. I recall that in the
1940's, when we shared the lectures in General Botany, we had three, sometimes
four, large lecture sections, and on any given day Fuller would deliver three
or four lectures in this course and then top it off with a discussion section
or two, or perhaps a seminar. The concept of a "teaching load" was unheard
of in those halcyon days. He loved to lecture, and with him the lecture became
a special art form which never ceased to challenge his best forensic talents.
He would have agreed with Eramus in "his conviction that language is still
the best medium for the transmission of thought, language not merely read,
hut heard with cadence and rhythm as well as clarity and precision."
he appeared to be relaxed, congenial, even easy-going in his teaching, he
expected high standards of performance from his students. He was not one to
wallow in details (life histories were anathema to him) but he
strove to present the larger view to his classes. He constantly sought to
develop historical perspective and he ever stressed the importance of the
impact of plants on man and on civilization.
he incorporated his General Botany lectures and his pedagogical ideas in two
textbooks, The Plant World, first published in 1941 and now in its fifth edition,
and College Botany, first printed in 1949 and revised in 1954.
who knew him will cherish the memory of his puckish humor, his keen wit, and
his love of practical jokes, nor will they forget that he was a devotee of
the pun. One of his favorites emerged in the days of Constantine Alexopoulos
who was then a graduate student in the Illinois department. One day he remarked
to Fuller that he had had to go to the Treasurer's office to obtain an advance
on his meager assistant's salary. Quick as a flash came the response —
"I see, ode to a grecian urn".
to lecturing and other teaching came his love for travel. Although he visited
other regions of the world, his favorites were the Caribbean, South America,
and the American West. He spent most of his summers on these trips which included
extensive color photography, yielding each season a new and rich collection
of 2 x 2 slides as well as movies. These were then used in his fall and win-ter
extra-mural lectures for he was a much sought-after speaker both on the campus
and in the local community as well as the state.
his early teaching years he became increasingly convinced that the methods
and philosophies of schools of education were largely responsible for the
poor training displayed by incoming college freshmen. His well-known essay
"The Emperor's New Clothes" was delivered as a Phi Beta Kappa address in 1950
and later published in the Scientific American and elsewhere. There followed
in succeeding years many another salvo whose impact in education circles always
contributions to the Botanical Society of America were several and noteworthy.
He was the founding editor of the Plant Science Bulletin, and in this capacity
he labored to attract and publish general articles on teaching and those incorporating
the larger perspectives of Botany. Later he served as Treasurer of the Society.
During his last long illness he was elected to the presidency of the Botanical
Society but because he was incapacitated, the annual meeting of the Society
bestowed on him the special title of Honorary President (1958). He was elected
chair-man of the Botanical Section and Vice President of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science in 1957.
wife Mary Ledgerwood, whom he married in 1931, preceded him in death (in 1967)
but he is survived by his daughter Pamela Rawles of Libertyville, Illinois,
and three grandchildren. His life has inspired a play The Spark of His Fire
by Evelyn Swedlund (Vantage Press, New York, 1973 — the book also includes
two of his essays and an excellent photograph of HJF).
Harry Fuller's death, American Botany has lost one of its most colorful figures;
his University, a gifted teacher; his students, a beloved mentor; and his
friends, a delightful, lively colleague whose like will not be seen for many
University of Massachusetts
Aid To Indochina
the world over acknowledge a common bond that transcends national boundaries
and ideological or political differences. This international mentality, together
with the traditional American predisposition for extending aid to wartorn
lands form the rationale on which a committee for Scientific Aid to Indochina
(SAI) has recently been established. Formally a task force under the aegis
of the Scientists' Institute for Public Information (SIPI), SAI will seek
from the peoples of Indochina themselves, what scientific and technological
help they need to restore war-inflicted damage;
U.S. scientists and foundations of these needs; and
the resources, financial, material, and personnel, of the scientific community
to meet them.
the United States Agency for International Development has already set up
agricultural and technical aid throughout South Vietnam, SAI feels that the
American public generally and the scientific community specifically will want
to share in a private effort to extend such aid to other parts of Indochina
as well. A start has been made. In response to an invitation from the government
of the Democratic Republic of (North) Vietnam, SIPI/SAI sent Zoologist E.
W. Pfeiffer and Botanist A. H. Westing to visit that country from 28 July
till 16 August 1973. Logic dictated such a beginning as conditions in Laos
and Cambodia are still ton unsettled to allow similar visits. Pfeiffer and
Westing were received with interest, appreciation, and cooperation. In' formal
meetings with the State Committee for Science and Technique, informal discussions
with scientists in institutes and universities, and a thorough investigative
tour of the countryside, including areas under the control of the Provisional
Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, they asked "how best can the U.S.
scientific community aid in rehabilitating Indochina?".
balancing their pressing needs against the options available for meeting them,
the State Committee offered a plan, which has been relayed by Pfeiffer and
Westing to SIPI/SAI and subsequently adopted as SAI's initial project. Indochina
with its agriculturally based economy has been most particularly crippled
by the devastation of farm land. Productive use of the land could be far more
effectively restored with the guidance of a modern research institute of agricultural
botany. The State Committee has proposed to provide a building in which SAI
will set up laboratories of plant physiology, phytochemistry, and plant genetics.
SAI will provide equipment, chemicals, and seeds. Prof. A. W. Galston, a Yale
University plant physiologist, has been invited to travel to the DRVN in the
spring to direct establishment of the institute and give technical instruction.
The institute will be the sole property and province of the DRVN's State Committee
for Science and Technique with no restrictions whatever.
committee has also submitted a request for certain books and journal subscriptions
and indicated a strong interest in establishing direct information exchange
between DRVN and U.S. scientists.
addition, Pfeiffer and Westing learned of an emergency need for metal detectors.
In farm lands everywhere they traveled, unexploded ordnance lies buried, a
major hazard that must be removed before the fields can be restored to use.
An SAI subcommittee is checking the specifications and safety measures for
such detectors, preparatory to shipping of them to the DRVN.
in scope, these projects are nonetheless certain to be beneficial. SIPI/SAI
welcomes the inquiries and invites the support of scientists and institutions
interested in becoming a part of this effort.
Aid to Indochina, A task force of Scientists' Institute for Public Information,
38 East Sixty-eighth Street, New York, N.Y. 10021, (212 + 249-3200)
writer is one of the 900 charter members of the American Academy of Microbiology.
It may be assumed that that is the reason for this commentary following the
publication of "Who is a Botanist" in a recent number of the Plant Science
Bulletin. One might say that I have a problem in sematics. I received my doctorate
in a Botany Department (thus I am a botanist) in which I carried out a project
in the ecology (thus I am an ecologist) of fungi (thus I am a mycologist).
As a mycologist I obtained a position in the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering
Center and later the American Academy of Microbiology came into existence.
Before charter membership privileges ran out I became eligible and since my
supervisor was on the board (he was a bacteriologist) I thus became a char-ter
member. The framed certificate looked pretty and theoretically added status.
I never applied for certification in mycology since I did not consider myself
a clinical mycologist, never approached the field in that way, and was encouraged
not to become involved. I never tried to get certification in the program
of the Society for Industrial Microbiology of which I am still a member.
played a somatic trick on mycologists, protozoologists, algologists and even
other bacteriologists, by blanketing all disciplines under one label, then
using "microbiology" to mean largely "bacteriology". In microbiology there
is a need on the part of laboratory personnel from the lowest dishwasher to
the highest specialist to become certified. On the other hand, pure botany
departments with no entangling alliances with zoologists or bacteriologists
do not have these problems of status. At administrative levels where one or
the other may dominate the botanists, there may be a need for clear-cut roles,
but this is usually understood by all concerned. A person trained to do a
job likes to get credit for doing a good job, not to let that credit become
attached to the M.D. authorized to sign the report. There are all sorts of
intermediate types of credit-grabbing which it is thought certification will
cancel out, but that is merely the idea. Apparently the program caught the
eye of other professions. Soil Science Society of America has considered it
and may have gone into a program. Now the Horticulturists and maybe others
will follow suit.
assume that a certified horticulturalist is one who will have earned his credentials
in an accredited college totally through graduate programs or through apprenticeships
with reputable firms. There will probably be a variety of ways of attaining
the prized certificate. The company composed of certificated personnel or
having such personnel on the payroll, will have a superior advantage over
a company without such personnel. Of course, the possession of a certificate
will restrict the activity of the holder to the province of the certificate.
Have you ever met a situation in which your neighbors, casual acquaintances,
or even trades people, because you are known to be a botanist, thought that
you had the key to any and all problems of botany, horticulture, biology,
local and national politics, and even moon-exploration? This will hopefully
get you "off the hook", but you will not have time to produce the documentation
necessary to prove it before your interrogator's face falls to the floor in-credulous
of this communication gap. Also, what IBY questionnaire even hinted that a
certificate would be required? With the horticulturalists I can see some reason
to have such a program of certification since professionals who got that way
"legitimately" through schooling and labor are in a position to be pushed
out by others who in their own way "legitimately" by labor and an innate uncanny
ability to handle plants have risen to relatively high positions in the profession.
cannot see any reason for botanists to be concerned with such a certification
program. Of course, I have not been in any position to discuss the matter
with anyone or hear anyone discuss it. I would think that a prospective employer
would want to see transcripts and recommendations and other vitae in addition
to any certificate which should only indicate adeptness in one or more administrative
manipulation which could or could not be regarded as demonstrating a technique
for killing time!
hope botanists have more productive matters to discuss than any proposed "certification
requirements" for being called a botanist!
1135 Willshire Court
Cincinnati, Ohio 45230
CORNELL UNIVERSITY BIOLOGIST, Richard Korf, has designed a special transfer
sheet called BIOPLATE, which he believes meets 909/ of biologists' requirements
in preparing plates for publication or slides for lectures. The letter and
number frequencies are specifically designed with these uses in mind (how
often have you run out of B's or zeros on a standard lettering sheet?). Letters
and numbers appear in several sizes and typefaces, and even Greek letter (many
micron marks) are provided, along with an assortment of symbols useful in
making graphs and distributional maps.
use of transfer letters and symbols in preparing drawings, graphs, and photographic
plates for publication has nearly completely replaced hand-lettering and lettering
devices. One major problem is that the symbols and letters that a biologist
needs are usually scattered on many different sheets of transfer letters,
requiring his to have a large stock of such sheets on hand. This, BIOPLATE
is manufactured by Prestype, Inc., and is available only from Mycotaxon, P.
O. Box 264, Ithaca, N.Y. 14850 in either black or white, at $3.00 per sheet,
postpaid to any address in the world.
JOHN'S COLLEGE, NIGERIA has made a special plea to members of the Botanical
Society for help in obtaining standard botany textbooks or general biology
text-books by American authors. Any help would be most appreciated. Textbooks
should be sent to Mr. Francis Enebeli, St. John's College, Fugar via Agenebode
Mid-west, Nigeria, West Africa.
BIOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ASSOCIATION 44th ANNUAL MEETING will be held August
26-29, 1974 at the New York Hilton Hotel with the theme "New Dimensions in
Biophotography". Those desiring further information should write to Antol
Herskovitz, General Chairman, Health Science Center, SUNY at Stoney Brook,
Stoney Brook, N.Y. 11790.
SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STRATIGRAPHIC PALYNOLOGISTS
INC., will be held iii Calgary, Alberta, Canada from October 15th to 19th,
1974. The Calgary Meeting Committee hopes that members of your organization
or society will be able to attend and/or con-tribute to our program. We hope
also that you will give notice of the meeting in your journal or newsletter.
Our meeting will begin with a scenic-geologic trip to the Banff region (Rocky
Mountains). Two days of technical sessions follow, and the meeting will conclude
October 19th with a field excursion to Drumheller, Alberta, site of the famous
dinosaur/badlands region. Our technical program will feature contributed papers
on Arctic Palynology, the Palynology of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary,
a variety of other contributed and invited papers. Invited papers will include
these topics: Background Geology of the Canadian Arctic; Devonian Arctic Palynolog_y;
and Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungal Spores and the Application to Stratigraphic
is accessible by air from various American and Canadian connecting points.
Situated near the Rockies and being the centre of the Canadian Oil Exploration
Industry, makes the city an ideal site for the meeting. The Calgary Committee
invites inquiries from interested persons. Please contact either Dr. W. W.
Brideaux, I.S.P.G., 3303 - 33rd Street N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2L 2A7, Canada,
or Dr. L. V. Hills, Department of Geology, University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta T2N OZ7, Canada, for further details.
FROM THE ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, KEW," will open Monday, April 1, in Carnegie-Mellon
University's Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation.
show — on the penthouse floor of the Hunt Library — will be open
to the public without charge from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mondays through Fridays
until September 20 inclusive.
168 pieces of botanical art and illustrations to be displayed represent the
work of 39 artists, many of them primarily botanists and typical of those
who have drawn plants at Kew and whose work is in the immense Kew collection.
1974 GREENMAN AWARD was presented to Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, University of Baghdad,
for the publication "The biosystematics of the genus Thelypodium (Cruciferae)"
(Contr. Gray Herb. 204::3-148. 1973.)
Award of $250 is presented each year by the Alumni Association of the Missouri
Botanical Garden. It recognizes the best paper in plant systematics based
on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. Papers published
in 1974 are now being considered for the 1975 award.
Thomas E. Lockwood has joined the Botany Department faculty at the University
of Illinois at Urvana, not at Indiana University as indicated in the December
Plant Science Bulletin.
Karl J. Niklas, will be joining the staff of' the New York Botanical Garden;
he will be a Fulbright Fellow to England prior to arriving at the NYBG.
Arthur W. Galston has been designated Eaton Professor of Botany at Yale. This
is one of the oldest endowed chairs at Yale, having originated in 1864. It
is named for Daniel Cady Eaton, formerly Professor of Botany at Yale. Eaton,
the first incumbent, held the chair from 1864 to 1895.
AND NOMINATIONS are sought for the position of Department Head, Department
of Plant Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
The Department of Plant Sciences is charged with the responsibility of teaching,
research and extension in the disciplines of Genetics, Plant Pathology, and
Plant Physiology. The Department has a strong program in Ex-
Plant Pathology. Qualifications of the applicant should include evidence of
scholarship in teaching and research and a thorough understanding of the application
of basic Plant Science to Agriculture. The applicant must be progressive in
his attitude towards the three disciplines and overall responsibilities of
experience would be an obvious asset, but consideration will be based primarily
on the ability of the applicant to direct and coordinate such diverse activities
as teaching, research, and extension in the three disciplines of the Department
of Plant Sciences. An interest in students cannot be overstressed.
September 1, 1974, nominations or ap-
for this position should be sent to: Dr. Richard A. Frederiksen Chairman,
Search Committee Department of Plant Sciences Texas A&M University
Station, Texas 77843
DEPARTMENT OF CELLULAR AND COMPARITIVE BIOLOGY, Division of Biological Sciences,
State University of New York at Stony Brook, expects to make an appointment
at the Assistant Professor level in the area of higher plant developmental
biology-physiology. Although the exact subdiscipline is not critical, each
successful candidate will be expected to show exceptional aptitude for and
commitment to teaching and promise of a level of achievement in original research
that will place him or her among the leaders in the field. Botanists who are
active in research on higher eukaryotic systems are encouraged to apply for
University is an equal opportunity employer; women and members of minority
groups are encouraged to apply. Please advise potential candidates to send
a copy of their curriculum vitae, letters from three professionals and reprints
or copies of any papers they have published to A. D. Krikorian, Search Committee,
Department of Cellular and Comparative Biology, State University of New York
at Stony Brook, 11790.
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL, POPULATION, AND ORGANISMIC
BIOLOGY will have an opening (substitute for a faculty member who is on leave)
for an assistant professor interested in tracheophytes and in teaching in
a large General Biology course. Employment is for the two-year period from
fall 1974 but may become permanent. Please send vitae and three letters of
recommendation to Dr. John Marr, Dept. of EPO Biology, Univ. of Colo., Boulder,
K. and W. SHROPSHIRE, JR. (eds.). Phytochrome. Academic Press, London and
New York. 1972.
volume contains twenty-three manuscripts presented by lecturers at a Symposium
held in Eretria, Greece, September 1971, under the sponsorship of NATO and
the University of Athens. Most of the papers cover several aspects of a given
topic (average length, 27 pages) so that the volume more resembles a compendium
than a symposium. There are Author, Subject, and Biological Materials indices.
All parts are in English.
the very least it is still the case that the phytochrome pigment absorbs red
light at low intensities and changes to a molecular form which will absorb
far-red light or initiate a physiological response (Butler,
Many physiological characteristics of the pigment system were delimited by
doing action spectra of red induced far-red reversible environmental responses
of plants (Borthwick, Shropshire). Some of the "red far-red" low intensity
("phytochrome") responses have been explained using metabolic models (Borthwick,
Yamamoto and Tezuka, H. Smith, Metrakos), others by gene action (Schropfer),
some by membrane models (Borthwick, Haupt), and still others by changes in
hormone systems (Fredericq and DeGreef, Black and Vlitos). The fact that phytochrome
regulated processes such as chlorophyll biosynthesis (Virgin), flowering (Vince),
seed germination (Rollin), and circadian rhythms (Queiroz) are not subject
to explanation with these simple models leads to summary statements such as
"a photoperiodic response requires control by phytochrome operating eventually
at different metabolic points" (Queiroz), or more elegantly "one might think
of phytochrome as a master control which keeps the plant in tune with its
surroundings through interplay with some of the various other regulatory systems"
the most important developments explored in depth at the symposium were the
interaction of phytochrome with membrane control systems, and the problems
involved in the complete purification of phytochrome. In situ phytochrome
has been shown to react rapidly (seconds) with physiologically significant
membrane systems in several cases (Borthwick, Haupt), and has also been shown
to be localized on membrane surfaces by immunological techniques (Pratt in
Borthwick). Purification techniques have assumed extra-ordinary importance
for antibody preparation and for future studies of phytochrome primary reactions
in reconstituted cell-free systems (Rudiger; Briggs, Gardner, and Hopkins).
Phytochrome systems observed using in vivo spectrophotometry are also discussed
the editing is outstanding; however, a few errors are worth noting. A. Apostolakis,
listed as a lecturer, makes no presentation; J. A. DeGreef is unfortunately
deleted from the Contents; and W. L. Butler (U.C.S.D.; La Jolla, Calif.) is
listed with a temporary Netherlands address. An addition which would have
added greatly to the volume would have been printing excerpts of the question-and-answer
period. All in all, this is an outstanding volume (even though some U.S.A.
laboratories are not represented, and the volume suffers), well worth the
A. McArthur Fla. Intl. Univ.
in parentheses are those of symposium lecturers presenting topic mentioned.
H. L. Biology of Plant. Laboratory exercises. Third ed. Wm. C. Brown. Dubuque,
Iowa. 1973. xiv + 278 pp. Spiral. $4.95.
and Botany Departments still fortunate enough to be offering general botany
will definitely want to consider Dean's laboratory manual. As the latest in
a series of laboratory manuals, Dean's book is a challenging one and so is
more suitable for a major course than one designed for non-major science students.
The manual contains 45 exercises: 26 on structure and function, 16 on the
plant kingdon, one on ecology and two on genetics. Instructors will find the
appendices useful and complete. They include lists of supplies, chemicals
and their recipes, suppliers, a list of prepared slides needed, and a guide
for growing plants. The latter appendix includes planting instructions, time
in days to reach various developmental stages, and special treatments required
for certain plants.
laboratory exercises are well written and are followed by questions and an
assortment of comprehensive references. The references include major reference
works, guides, some reviewed papers and include publications through 1972.
the preface, Dean states that, since beginning students will spend an inordinate
amount of time making acceptable drawings, it is preferable that they refer
to prepared drawings so as to allow more time for concentrated study and analysis
of the material. The drawings accordingly provided with the exercises are
of high quality and will certainly provide a good standard for students who
wish to attempt. their own illustrations.
to the concepts of the exercise topics are minimal and will require a brief
supplementary introduction by the laboratory instructor if the subject has
not been previously discussed in the lecture section.
Dean has produced a manual which deserves to be widely used.
C. Keating Southern Illinois University (Edwardsville)
G. CLIFFORD. Quantitative analysis of plant growth. Univ. of California Press,
Berkeley. 1972. 260 pp. $22.00.
sometimes reflect the personality of an author. This may be especially true
for books that cover a specific topic where the author spent a significant
portion of his life to make original contributions to improve the effectiveness
of a philosophic or experimental approach.
sometimes reflect the atmosphere of the place surrounding the author. This
may be especially the case for a place like Cambridge University, where most
professors work from distinguished halls of medieval colleges, out of halls
with gothic forms and dimensions that create an atmosphere of wholistic accuracy
to be presented in beauty and minute detail.
book by Clifford Evans on the quantitative analysis of plant growth will conceptually
be much better understood and appreciated by the young reader if he keeps
these introductory statements in mind.
thorough treatment of the subject matter is guaranteed by the size of the
book. All possible important facts and problems of plant growth analysis are
treated in 734 pages.
book is divided into five parts: Introduction, Experimental Techniques, Analysis
of Data, Problems posed by the growing plant, Appendices. The first 4 parts
are subdivided into 32 chapters, each one dealing in depth with one specific
topic or problem. In the core parts of the book, Experimental Techniques and
Data Analysis, all major aspects are treated in a clear and pleasant form.
If, in a future edition the hook could be condensed, it probably could be
cut down to these two parts only.
most important part for the American student is the presentation of data analysis
for which the British plant scientists of the F. F. Blackman and V. H. Black-man
schools are so well known. Although the computer age has revolutionized the
analytical techniques in America (and probably in Europe as well), much of
the important literature uses the analytical methods and philosophies compiled
by Dr. Evans. While the American teacher will probably abstain from presenting
all these details to his class, the American student will gainfully read the
many details and variations possible in plant growth data interpretation.
Especially useful will be the "brown section" within the appendices of the
book that contain among other useful information the symbols and termini used
in the plant growth analysis literature.
book is one of the best examples of cross reference organization I know. The
author has done his best to guide the reader from one part of the book to
the pertinent portions in other sections. The bibliography is as
as the books of American authors are American. In this respect is the book
a welcome supplement to our standard reading.
price of the book is prohibitive for its use as graduate text in advanced
ecology or plant physiology. The book invites, however, to some extent, a
self study of the subject matter. Much of the presentation, especially the
investment analogies, are probably taken from the class lectures of the author.
Since the normal academic lecturer will use similar approaches himself, he
will find these portions superfluous in a supporting text book.
book should find a place in the libraries of all botany departments. It will
certainly be used in the future as key reference for plant growth analysis
Lieth University of North Carolina
M. J. and J. McLACHLON (eds.). Chondrus crispus. Nova Scotia Inst. of Science,
Halifax. 1973. Paperback $6.00, Bound, $9.00. 155 pp.
book resulted from a day-long panel discussion held on June 20, 1972 during
the annual program of the Canadian Botanical Association and Canadian Society
of Plant Physiologists. It is a small book in which five chapters are primarily
reviews of published research on the biology, cytology, ecology, physiology,
biochemistry, and ultrastructure-histochemistry of Chrondrus crispus. A sixth
chapter deals with a review of the chemistry of the phycocolloid carrageenan
extracted from Chondrus.
with many edited books, the individual chapters are uneven with regard to
depth of review. The chapters dealing with cytology and genetics, by L. A.
Hanic, ecology (by A. C. Mathieson and J. S. Prince) and with the physiology
and biochemistry of Chondrus crispus (R. G. Buggelin and J. S. Craigie) present
a most thorough review. In all cases, the editors have included an itemized
summary of each chapter so that the reader can easily sum up the chapter.
the quality of printing is adequate, many of the photographs especially the
light and electron micrographs suffer. This is too had because some of the
electron micrographs of E. M. Gordon and E. L. McCandless showing cell fine
structure appear to be quite good. The histochemical localizations of carrageenan
by the same authors also is difficult to determine because of fuzzy light
micrographs. However, it is most interesting that Gordon and McCandless found
k carrageenan mainly in the intercellular wall regions while k carrageenan
occurs in the immediate cell walls.
small book is modestly priced (in paperback) and does present the interested
researcher a good review of research progress of an economically important
J. Dawes University of South Florida
LI. Trees of Pennsylvania, the Atlantic States and the Lake States. University
of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1972. $17.50.
scientific book with the artistic touches that this one contains is a rare
commodity. The photographs of sycamore bark on the end papers and the high
contrast print of the photograph of a gray birch stand used as the frontispiece
and dust jacket are quite striking. It is unfortunate that the book does not
maintain the high quality of the first eye-catching introduction.
text describes in good detail 118 species of native and naturalized trees
to be found in Pennsylvania. In addition, the generic descriptions contain
references to and brief descriptions of many commonly planted introduced species.
The omission of detailed description of such wide-spread species as the apple
and pear weakens this book somewhat. The text includes the following categories
for each of the 118 major species; habit, bark, stem, winter buds, leaves,
flowers, fruit, distribution, habitat, and cultivation notes. The descriptions
of flowers and fruits in the conifers may be disconcerting to some botanists
and is misleading to those laymen who have little or no botanical training.
Li consistently uses the term "prefers" to describe the habitat where each
species is most likely to be found. Such anthropomorphism in a scientific
book seems unnecessary.
author's wife, C. Y. Hsi Li, has prepared beautiful line drawings for each
of the species illustrating a leafy branch, winter buds, flowers, and fruits.
The line drawings are all consistently well-executed and generally agree with
the text descriptions. The major exception is that of the size of the branch
with winter buds. These drawings are usually designed X'h or XI but more often,
in terms of the text, should have been Xl or X2. In general, an exact magnification
is not given for flowers and this could cause considerable trouble for people
unacquainted with the plants because so many tree flowers are minute and inconspicuous.
In a few instances the drawings do not include some critical feature noted
in the text or keys which would be of value to the user of the book. For instance,
the following are not shown: the prominent stipules on Salix nigra, the chambered
pith and the notched leaf scar of Juglans nigra, and conspicuous stipules
on Plantanus occidentalis. The following in-consistencies between text and
drawings should be noted: Salix lucida is said to possess five stamens per
bract but only four are shown, Betula lenta and B. nigra are described as
possessing catkins in clusters of three but the illustrations show one, two
or three catkins, Ulmus americana is said to have seven-eight stamens per
flower but the illustration shows only six, and Gymnocladus dioicus is described
as even pinnate but is illustrated as off pinnate. In some cases these discrepancies
are probably due to natural variation which might have been given greater
glossary is generally good and is very inclusive but has a few weak definitions
such as those for digitate, involucre, leaf base, leaf scar, -merous, pungent,
punctate, receptacle, stipule scar, stoma, tripinnate, and umbo. Another viewpoint
would have led to very different definitions for centimeter, cone, disk, meter,
are a few typographical errors but the most serious one is found on page 84
where Betula populifolia is referred to as B. populiferra.
the line drawings and most of the text are generally well clone, the poor
quality of a significant percentage of the photographs and the internal in-consistencies
among text, illustrations, and keys are too numerous to allow an over-all
good rating by this reviewer. Lastly, the size and price of this book preclude
its use in the field.
L. Handles Rutgers University (Newark)
LAWRENCE P. (ed.) Volume II Phytochemistry - Organic Metabolites. Van Nostrand
Reinhold, New York, 1973. 399 pages plus indices (45 pages), 77 figs. $24.50.
authors, in ten chapters, provide good to excellent reviews of a wide assortment
of plant constituents as known in the early part of the 1970's. Especially
useful are the separate indices to authors, plant and animal names: Amino
Acids (L. Fowden) 29 pp; Flowering Plant Proteins (D. Boulter) :30 pp; Purines
and Pyrimidines (D. Wang) 56 pp; Alkaloids (D. W. Hughes and K. Genest) 52
Steroids (E. Heftman) 55 pp; Lipids (R. C. Jack) 26 pp; Terpenes (H. J. Nicholas)
55 pp; Rubber, Gutta Percha and Chicle (B. L. Archer and B. G. Audley) 33
Ph; Flavonoids (J. B. Harborne) 36 pp; and Miscellaneous Volatile Plant Products
(H. J. Nicholas) 19 pp. References are of various types ranging from complete
citation (4 chapters) to a listing of only journal, volume and first page
(6 chapters). Many of these authors are leading authorities in their fields
and the others have done uniformly impressive jobs of organizing, digesting
and summarizing the enormous literature. There are extensive structural formulae
and it seems quite free from errors.
the editors preface he states that: "Advances in plant chemistry are progressing
at such a rapid pace that it is impossible for a worker in one phase of the
subject to keep up with discoveries being made in fields other than his own."
This, of course, is quite true and speaks for rapid publication of review
books of this sort. However, a couple of hours spent with the lists of references
at the end of the chapters shows that rapid publication was not realized.
Over 2,100 authors are cited in these ten chapters yet there are no references
to any paper appearing in 1973, a single reference (a hook) for 1972, and
only 15 with dates of 1971 (and eight of these are in an addendum to one chapter).
Only 60 papers are cited with publication dates in 1970 and 22 of these are
in the addendum to one chapter. In fact, two chapters have no references in
the 1970's at all and one has no paper cited more recent than 1968!
the dates of the cited literature this volume should have appeared early in
1971 rather than in May 1973. A clue to this problem appears in the preface
where it says: "In a work of this magnitude [the three volume series], with
many authors (38) involved, there have naturally been some unavoidable delays
in completing the manuscript for submission to the publisher". Considering
the quality of the chapters, the reviewer is more inclined to congratulate
Miller for his task of coordinating the spasmodic submission of the :38 authors
than to fault him for their delays.
is an excellent volume, authoratively written, well indexed and late in publication.
The price seems to be in line with todays market and this volume should be
in institutional libraries and in the office of the serious phytochemist interested
in organic metabolites.
W. McClure Miami University (Ohio)
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,