The Botanical Society of America Merit Award is
the highest honor our Society can bestow. Each year, the Merit
Award Committee solicits nominations, evaluates candidates, and
selects those to receive an award. Awardees are chosen based on
their outstanding contributions to the mission of our scientific
Society. The committee identifies recipients who have demonstrated
excellence in basic research, education, public policy, or who
have provided exceptional service to the professional botanical
community, or who may have made contributions to a combination
of these categories.
The selection of awardees is driven by nominations
from the membership. Nominations should include: (1) a formal
letter of nomination including a clear statement of (a) the notable
accomplishments of the candidate; (b) disciplines that have been
significantly influenced by the contributions of the candidate;
(c) letters of support and evaluation regarding the nominee's
candidacy, with complete contact information (postal address,
phone and e-mail address); and (2) the curriculum vita of the
candidate being considered.
Dr. Charles Beck - 2013
Dr. Charles Beck is a distinguished paleontologist who has made remarkable discoveries in the history of land plants. He discovered that the fern-like leaves of the genus Archaeopteris were in fact borne on a tree (Callixylon) with the anatomy of a gymnosperm. This supported the viewpoint that seed plants were derived from free-sporing plants, and led to the identification of the progymnosperms, a group now included with gymnosperms and angiosperms in the larger clade, the lignophytes. One of the people who nominated Dr. Beck for the award quoted Henry Andrews in saying that this discovery “blazed a rough trail through a dark forest where no recognizable path existed before.” In addition, Dr. Beck is a skilled anatomist. After he “retired” from his position as Professor of Botany at the University of Michigan, he continued research. In addition, he wrote a textbook, An introduction to plant structure and development, now in its second edition. Dr. Beck has also served as Chair of his department, Director of the Museum of Paleontology, and as President of the International Organization of Paleobotany, and as Chair of the Paleobotanical Section of the BSA.
Dr. Pat Herendeen - 2013
By linking paleontology and neontology, Dr. Patrick Herendeen, Co-Director of the Division of Plant Science and Conservation at the Chicago Botanic Garden, has made significant contributions to our understanding of the evolutionary history of the angiosperms, particularly the Leguminosae. He has edited three symposium volumes on the family, in addition to producing a steady stream of careful publications on fossil and extant legumes. In addition to his steady productive research, Dr. Herendeen has developed a truly remarkable career of service to the field of botany. He has been chair of the Paleobotanical Section of BSA, Editor of the Bibliography of American Paleobotany, and chair of the BSA Publications Committee. For four years he was Managing Editor of Systematic Botany, and another four years as Editor-in-Chief. He took over the editorship at a time when the journal was facing considerable challenges; his efforts to steer the journal to calmer waters were largely behind the scenes but ultimately completely successful. Most recently he has become Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Plant Sciences. In addition, he is in his second term as Program Chair for the ASPT and Systematics Section of BSA, a group that constitutes nearly half the attendees at the annual botany conference each year; thus Pat’s efforts are seen every summer in the success of the annual meeting. As one of his nominators noted, “…there can be few active and well-respected plant scientists who have given as much service to the Botanical Society of America and to the broader botanical community…”
Dr. Lucinda McDade - 2013
Dr. Lucinda McDade is a scholar, teacher, and leader of scientific institutions. She is currently Director of Research at the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, where she has also recently been appointed Executive Director of the Institution. At RSA she also oversees the herbarium, a post that she previously held at the University of Arizona and at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. At all three institutions, her energy and dedication were effective in modernization and development of the collections. At the Academy of Natural Sciences, Dr. McDade was a major force in rehousing the herbarium, thereby securing the collections for generations to come. Dr .McDade has published on a wide range of topics but may be best known for her work on detecting hybridization in phylogenetic analysis, and for her career of studying the systematics of Acanthaceae. Her research is noted for its care and rigor. She has also had considerable impact as an educator. For seven years, she was Scientific Coordinator for the Organization for Tropical Studies and as such coordinated the educational programs in Costa Rica. In addition, she has taught extensively at the undergraduate and graduate level throughout her career. In her nomination letter, however, the role that appears again and again is her skill as a mentor to all her colleagues and students. She has provided encouragement and direction. One former student noted that “[i]t is Lucinda’s generosity that I am left with …” Finally, her service to the community has been extensive and varied, with too many contributions to list in this short space. To quote again from the letter of nomination, “what sets Lucinda apart …. Is her sense of community, and her tireless labor on project that benefit the greater good.”
Dr. Patricia Gensel - 2012
Dr. Gensel, University of North Carolina, is an international leader in the investigation of early land plant evolution. Her research, including rigorous field and laboratory work, has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant diversity at the time when major lineages of land plants were emerging. Through careful morphological and anatomical investigations she has brought “to life” extinct genera of early land plants and improved our understanding of the ecosystems in which these plants participated. She is active as Professor of Botany at the University of North Carolina, where she has taught since 1975 and has encouraged and collaborated with many students and colleagues internationally. Pat served as president of the Botanical Society of America in 2000-2001, during a time of great transition as the society began managing its annual Botany conferences independently of AIBS.
Dr. Walter Judd - 2012
Dr. Judd, University of Florida, Gainesville, is recognized worldwide for his contributions to plant systematics, taxonomy, and phylogenetics. Although he is very well known for his academic achievements, where he has focused on the systematics of the Ericaceae and Melastomataceae, as well as floristics in the southeastern United States and the West Indies, Dr. Judd is also an accomplished teacher, where at the University of Florida, he has been awarded numerous times for his excellence in pedagogy. He also has taught an internationally renowned class in tropical botany for the past 30 years at Fairchild Tropical Botanical Gardens and the Kampong in Miami. Dr. Judd is the lead author of the influential textbook, Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, which has been adopted throughout the world as a model for teaching plant systematics and taxonomy. Dr. Judd’s passion for teaching, research, and learning is ever influential to the graduate and undergraduate students he mentors. The 2012 BSA Merit award is a much-deserved honor for Dr. Judd.
Dr. Richard Olmstead - 2012
Dr. Olmstead, University of Washington, is recognized for his outstanding contributions to reshaping the field of plant systematics, including his leadership on the use of chloroplast data in phylogenetic inference and angiosperm classification. His doctoral research with Melinda Denton resulted in a monograph of the Scutellaria angustifolia complex (Lamiaceae). His subsequent research on Asteridae has resulted in major realignments in our understanding of family boundaries in Lamiales (especially Lamiaceae and Scrophulariaceae). He has published influential papers on a broad range of issues in systematics.
Dick has guided the careers of numerous undergraduates, graduates, and post-doctoral fellows; fostered extensive collaborative research activities; and made significant service contributions to botanical and systematic societies. The integration of his excellent research program with public outreach activities through the Burke Museum and the University of Washington herbarium serves as a model for how we should be sharing our botanical knowledge to improve the world.
Dr. Allison Snow - 2012
Dr. Snow from The Ohio State University is recognized for her outstanding contributions to botanical science in the areas of basic research, education, and professional service. Allison's research on pollination biology, gene flow, and risk assessment of transgenic crops represents significant contributions to the field. She has mentored a number of students and researchers, and has been a strong advocate for communicating the importance of botany to the general public via the media. Finally, Allison has been deeply involved both nationally and internationally in service to a variety of organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences, the World Trade Organization, and as president for the Botanical Society of America.
Dr. Ann Hirsch - 2011
Dr. Hirsch, University of California, Los Angeles, is recognized for her outstanding contributions in the research of plant-microbe interactions, bridging the interactions among genes, plant growth regulators, signal transductions, and microbes. Her research is truly exceptional in combining field aspects of basic research and classical knowledge with molecular aspects, especially in legume-microbe interactions; she has been described as a bold and fearless experimentalist. Ann has also had a long and outstanding record in education where she has set very high standards, and her passion for research has created a stimulating laboratory environment for many undergraduate students, graduate students, post-docs, and visiting scholars to start or pursue careers in science. Dr. Hirsch has excelled in all aspects of her professional life and is richly deserving of the 2011 Merit Award.
Dr. Dennis Stevenson - 2010
Dr. Stevenson is recognized for distinguished contributions in the organization and phylogenetic relationships of cycads and cycad-like plants and is recognized for his breadth of publication, which has included lycopods and ferns, bryophytes and gymnosperms, and monocots and dicots. Guiding the work of doctoral students and post-doctoral researchers, in the evolution of his own career, he has continued to set standards for studies of land plant anatomy and morphology, while increasingly serving as a strong public advocate for our discipline to the public.
His long and productive affiliation with the New York Botanical Garden has communicated the importance of fundamental studies of plants to the community at large.
Dr. Darleen De Mason - 2010
Dr. DeMason is recognized for her contributions in plant anatomy, which stress functional and structural aspects of stem thickening in monocotyledons, germination biology of palms, germination problems of the high sugar sweet corn genotypes, and leaf development in pea, elucidating auxin's integrating affect on developmental morphogenesis. A recognized scholar, teacher, academic leader and contributor to the botanical sciences, she has held various BSA posts, including Secretary of BSA and Council Representative and is noted for her volunteer work in improving the botanical environment of Riverside's Victoria Avenue Park. - University of California, Riverside
Dr. Nancy Dengler - 2010
Dr. Dengler is recognized for her significant scientific contributions in the areas of the developmental morphology of leaves, the evolution of plant anatomical patterns associated with C4 photosynthesis, and the role of the cell cycle and programmed cell death in plant developmental processes.
Generous as a scientist, colleague and mentor, Nancy is recognized as an excellent plant anatomist with extensive career achievements, including leadership roles as President of the BSA during a time of great transition for the Society. She has encouraged and inspired young botanists on both sides of the border and is among the most prominent of current plant biologists studying leaves. - University of Toronto
Dr. Judy Jernstedt - 2010
Dr. Judy Jernstedt is recognized for her careful scholarship providing new insights into morphogenesis and other aspects of development in myriad vascular plant systems. Examining such diverse systems as rhizophores, to contractile root development, to cotton fiber production, she has developed techniques to integrate the role of the cytoskeleton in biomechanical patterning of cell expansion and microfibril orientation in cell walls.
In her service to BSA, her role has been transformational for the Society and for the American Journal of Botany. Her influence on botanists through her research, instruction and service are incalculable. - University of California, Davis
Dr. Douglas E. Soltis & Dr. Pamela S. Soltis - 2010
Drs. Douglas E. and Pamela S. Soltis are recognized for their far-reaching influence on many different sub-disciplines within the botanical sciences. Deeply involved with the field of molecular systematics since its infancy, they paved the way for such ambitious projects such as the National Science Foundation's Deep Time and Tree of Life projects contributing greatly to the understanding of floral evolutionary development, particularly in the basal angiosperms.
Their prodigious research productivity has not limited their service activities, however, as both Doug and Pam have served in leadership positions and as Presidents of BSA. Either would be outstanding in their own right, but together as frequent co-authors and collaborators, they continue to mentor and influence a generation of evolutionary scientists in resolving longstanding questions of angiosperm phylogeny.
Dr. Norm Ellstrand - 2009
The Botanical Society of America recognizes Dr. Norman C. Ellstrand
with the Merit Award for his studies on plant population genetics;
Ellstrand is one of the country's foremost experts on plant gene
flow, the movement of genes from one organism to another. His
research has involved the study of the possibility of escape of
genes from genetically engineered crops into their wild relatives
as well as the potential consequences of that escape.
work has shown that crops can mate with their wild relatives at
rates and distances much higher than previously supposed. He also
has shown that the hybrids are often more fit than suspected,
suggesting that once transgenes occur in hybrids they will spread
readily. Ellstrand has warned that if transgenes confer an advantage
to a weed, such as herbicide resistance, that weed will become
more difficult to control.
His recent research has come to focus
on the evolution of invasiveness in plants. He was among the first
to suggest that invasive species could evolve from relatively
innocuous progenitors. Ellstrand is the author of more than 100
peer-reviewed research papers and of the influential book Dangerous
Liaisons? When Cultivated Plants Mate with Their Wild Relatives.
Norman Ellstrand is richly deserving of the Merit Award, the highest
award of the Botanical Society of America.
Dr. Alan Graham - 2009
The Botanical Society of America recognizes Dr. Alan K. Graham with the Merit Award for his lifetime of perceptive and careful study, by which Graham has laid the foundations for our "concepts about the origins and history of tropical vegetation" in the Western Hemisphere during the past 75 million years. Encouraging numerous students and colleagues for several decades, he has greatly advanced the field of vegetation history, the basis of our understanding the past migrations of plants and animals in North and South America, their evolution, and the way in which we should understand their present distributions. For his life's works, the Botanical Society of America awards Dr. Alan Graham with its highest award.
Dr. Gar Rothwell - 2009
The Botanical Society of America recognizes Professor Gar W. Rothwell with the Merit Award because he has demonstrated a level of professional commitment and accomplishment that we all strive to attain. He is a world-class scholar as judged by his peers, an effective and persuasive teacher as judged by his University and students, and an active and convincing advocate for the plant sciences as judged by the scientific community. As noted by one of his peers: Rothwell's "work with fossil ferns of many types…helped to more accurately define the three major radiations of true ferns and to sharpen the focus when molecular clade estimates and phylogenetic analyses based only on molecular data conflicted with each other." These individual, but highly intertwined activities in his career have been carried out at the highest level of professionalism and with a sense of purpose that is rarely matched. "Scholar, teacher, and extraordinary professional citizen" for the plant sciences underlines the distinguished career of Gar W. Rothwell, who so richly deserves the BSA's Merit Award.
Dr. Marsh Sundberg - 2009
Professor Marshall D. Sundberg has demonstrated excellence in
basic research, education, and exceptional service to the professional
botanical community. His studies on the morphology of teosinte
and its relatives are considered stellar contributions. Sundberg
has made many valuable contributions to the Society, especially
to the teaching section (vice-chair, program chair and workshop
and section chair for many years) and as chair of the committee
which revised and expanded the valuable 1995 booklet, Careers
in Botany. This small booklet with large outreach for our
society and for educators provided the resources to help students
and professionals alike to understand the importance of a botanical
education and how they could apply it to their life's work. Professor
Sundberg has also chaired the Society's Education Committee, Membership
and Appraisal Committee and assumed editorial responsibility for
the Plant Science Bulletin. As the current editor of
our Bulletin, established in the 1950's as a vehicle for disseminating
information for our colleagues in the Plant Sciences, Marsh has
surpassed this goal with his choice of subject matter, editorial
insights and innovative reports. Marshall Sundberg is a notable
public ambassador, speaker, researcher and advocate for plant
biology at state, national, and international venues. Marshall
Sundberg has earned the Botanical Society of America Merit Award,
the highest honor our society can bestow on a colleague who has
made outstanding contributions to botanical science and dedicated
his career to our profession.
Dr. Thomas Rost - 2008
Dr. Thomas L. Rost is one of the world’s foremost researchers
on root development. His research record spans four decades
and includes more than 140 published papers in highly regarded
journals, with 82 on root structure and development, plus
10 co-authored and co-edited books. These studies have laid
down the foundations for understanding of root apical growth,
especially involving cell cycle control and meristem function,
lateral root production, root differentiation, epidermis and
rootcap development, and root meristem structure in an evolutionary
context. Tom’s papers have corrected the misconceptions
about Arabidopsis that have dominated the previous
15 years of research on that model plant for developmental
and molecular studies. He has led his students and post-doctoral
researchers to a modern and accurate understanding of the
development of this model root system. Specifically, he and
his colleagues have shown that the architecture of the root
apical meristem changes as the meristem ages. Also of particular
importance, he has shown that the pattern of root apical meristem
ontogeny is associated with periclinal divisions and gives
rise to a three-dimensional arrangement of periclinal derivatives
arranged in a helix.
Further, Tom has gone beyond Arabidopsis to put it
in the context of root organization in angiosperms, especially
dicotyledons, as a whole. Tom’s research on root apical
meristems of a broad range of species (Azolla, pea,
maize, cotton) have provided an important framework for understanding
the streamlined structure of Arabidopsis roots. He
has enabled his group to make unique contributions to understanding
the structure and development of this genetic model organism.
Tom Rost has done more than any other current structural botanist
to bring the plant root to our attention as a dynamic developmental
entity. However, his research has not been limited to roots.
He has authored or co-authored impressive articles regarding
seed structure and histochemistry, plant morphogenesis, and
agriculture, and especially the recent studies on Pierce’s
disease in grapevine. Further, Tom’s contributions to
botanical education via his teaching/mentoring and his writings
have been quite well known and recognized. With great pleasure,
the Botanical Society of America is proud to recognize Dr.
Thomas L. Rost with this highest award.
Dr. Warren Wagner - 2008
The botanical community is indebted to Dr. Warren L. Wagner
for his major contributions: monography of Oenothera,
The Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, studies
on speciation and relationships of Marquesan plants, and service
at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution)
are among those that will be most remembered. Born January
8, 1950 (Las Cruces, New Mexico), Warren early showed the
enthusiasm for the New Mexico landscape. His work on Oenothera
for his doctorate (1981) was at Washington University, St.
Louis (Peter Raven, advisor). In 1982, he undertook what was
probably one of the most difficult and at the same time, the
most needed contribution in floristic botany: a flora of Hawaii.
The previous flora (Hillebrand, 1888) was out of date, and
subsequent contributions featured varied species concepts
and were published in scattered places. The 1990 Manual (rev.
1999) was a major factor in permitting botanists to explore
the amazing insular evolutionary phenomena that the Hawaiian
flora contains. Wagner’s work on islands continued with
the Marquesas, where cladistic studies and contributions using
DNA permitted an understanding of the biogeographic nature
of the remote and neglected archipelago. Wagner is both imaginative
and practical, and has served as Chair of Botany at the Smithsonian,
managed funds for IAPT and ASPT, and served in numerous capacities
for professional societies. Moreover, his genial presence,
encouragement, and knowledge have helped advance the careers
of younger scientists. Thus, his identity in monographic,
floristic, and phylogenetic botany has been multiplied significantly.
Dr. Bruce Baldwin - 2007
Dr. Bruce Baldwin is recognized for his contributions in plant
systematics. Beginning in graduate school, Dr. Baldwin studied
one of the icons of island biogeography, the Hawaiian Silversword
Alliance. His dissertation work using chloroplast DNA was
one of the pioneers on island plant groups and confirmed that
this morphologically diverse group represented a single colonization
event from ancestors in North America. Baldwin reconfirmed
these results using nuclear genes, the internal transcribed
spacer (ITS) region. His development of ITS for plant phylogenetic
study is perhaps his most widely recognized contribution.
Less well-known outside of California is that Dr. Baldwin
has made major contributions to plant floristics, through
his efforts editing the Jepson Desert Manual and the 2nd edition
of the Jepson Manual of California plants. For his many contributions
to the systematics of Asteraceae, Hawaiian plant biogeography
and evolution, and advances in molecular systematics, the
BSA is pleased to recognize Dr. Bruce Baldwin with its highest
Dr. William Crepet - 2007
Dr. William Crepet is recognized for his contributions in
paleobotany, especially the reproductive structures of seed
plants. Dr. Crepet's early work on interpreting the development
of Cycadeoidea reproductive structure led to a better understanding
of the enigmatic fossil group Bennettitales. However, for
many, his most important contributions come from his ability
to connect fossil and extant plants through phylogenetic study.
This is especially true for his contributions to knowledge
about fossil angiosperm floral structure, particularly ancient
pollination syndromes and their role in flowering plant diversification.
For his many contributions to paleobotany and plant phylogeny,
the BSA takes pride in recognizing Dr. William Crepet with
its highest award.
Dr. Edith Taylor - 2007
Dr. Edith Taylor is recognized for her contributions in paleobotany.
Her work has focused on the structure and evolution of fossil
plants. Her detailed investigations have permitted the interpretation
of functional and ecological aspects of plants, including
phloem development, plant/insect interactions, and tree growth
and adaptation to high latitudes. For over two decades she
has brought to light the diversity of plants once living in
present day Antarctica. The wealth of information from these
studies has shed light on plant diversity at high latitudes
in the southern hemisphere, plant biogeography and evolution,
and climate history. For her many contributions to paleobotany,
Antarctic paleoclimatology, and the biology and evolution
of fossil plants, the BSA is delighted to recognize Dr. Edith
Taylor with its highest award.
Dr. Ruth Stockey - 2006
Dr. Ruth Stockey is recognized for her contributions to paleobotany,
especially to our understanding of the anatomy and development
of fossil conifers and angiosperms. Dr. Stockey has been a
member of the Botanical Society of America for more than 30
years. She began her research career elucidating the structure
and development of fossil conifers and is recognized as the
world's expert in this area. Since moving to the University
of Alberta, she has concentrated on anatomically preserved
fossil angiosperms, providing data on floral structure, development,
and phylogeny in these ancient plants. Her research has been
supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council (NSERC) of Canada for more than 26 years. Dr. Stockey
is truly an "ambassador of botany" and is involved
in collaborative work with colleagues around the world; her
letters of support came from five countries! She is an enthusiastic
teacher and her support and training of students is exceptional--one
student began research in her laboratory in high school, and
received her Ph.D. this year. For her many contributions to
paleobotany, including her dedication to training the next
generation of botanists, the BSA is proud to recognize Dr.
Ruth A. Stockey with its highest award.
Dr. Barbara Webster - 2006
Dr. Barbara Webster is recognized for her many contributions
to plant development and structure. Her early work focused
on abscission and senescence in higher plants, and included
anatomy, ultrastructure, histochemistry, and physiology, as
well as experimental work, especially on the genus Phaseolus.
Beginning in the 1970s, Dr. Webster began to concentrate more
on reproductive biology, but she has contributed to a wide
range of topics, including nitrogen fixation in the legumes,
environmental stress, and yield of crop plants. Her impressive
publishing career spans more than five decades and includes
more than 100 published papers and book chapters; her research
has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the
USDA and USAID. Dr. Webster was truly a pioneer in advocating
for increased participation of women and minorities in science,
and has served as a role model and mentor to both undergraduate
and graduate students in plant biology. She is a fellow of
the American Association for the Advancement of Science and
the American Society for Horticultural Science, served as
Treasurer and President of the Botanical Society of America,
and has served as Associate Vice-Chancellor for Research at
the University of California, Davis since 1989. As one letter
writer noted, "It is hard to believe that Barbara has
not already received this award." For her numerous contributions
in many arenas to the field of botany, the BSA is proud to
recognize Dr. Barbara D. Webster with its highest award.
Dr. Scott D. Russell - 2005
Dr. Scott Russell’s career has been devoted to understanding
the morphological, physiological, and developmental aspects
of double fertilization in plants, and in particular the structure
and behavior of sperm cells during reproduction. Dr. Russell
has explored this question using approaches ranging from descriptive
works to experimental studies, resulting in over 100 scientific
publications. His contributions have reshaped this field and
have stimulated research in plant anatomy and morphology for
a generation of botanists.
One of his most significant findings is that plant sperm from
a single pollen grain are dimorphic, with dissimilar complements
of organelles, and that this dimorphism leads to a predictable
pattern of fertilization. His research has led to major advances
in our understanding of key processes in sexual plant reproduction
such as double fertilization and the maternal inheritance
of organelles. Dr. Russell also continues to enhance public
awareness of botany through his teaching and his informative
While the BSA Merit Award to Dr. Russell is based on his significant
contributions to botanical science, he also has given generously
of his time to the Botanical Society of America, serving as
President, Webmaster, and longtime member of the Executive
Committee, among other offices. Dr. Russell is most definitely
a technically skilled, forward-thinking scholar who has made
a lasting mark on botanical science and on the Botanical Society
of America. In recognition of his myriad accomplishments,
the BSA is proud to present him with a Merit Award.
Harry (Jack) T. Horner - 2004
Dr. Horner’s research has primarily focused on the cytology
and development of anthers and pollen and on calcium oxalate
crystal formation in plants. His research has been innovative,
ground-breaking, and sustained. Over the past 43 years, he
has published or has in press 110 papers in 43 high-quality
refereed journals. His work is described by peers as “meticulous,”
“pioneering and outstanding,” and “carefully
documented.” His work calls on multiple tools and approaches,
is often collaborative and interdisciplinary, and has earned
him an international reputation as one of the most eminent
specialists worldwide on plant ultrastructure. An indication
of his stature as a researcher is invitations to three Gordon
Conferences on calcium oxalate, for one of which he was chair
and another vice-chair.
His “heroic service” and numerous contributions
to BSA over many years are greatly appreciated. Through his
participation on committees, as Chair of the Financial Advisory
Board, and in elected office (two terms as Treasurer and President),
he has been an agent of many positive changes in our Society.
He has also served his department and Iowa State University
as Director of the Bessey Microscopy Facility for 34 years,
in administrative positions, and on numerous committees. He
served as President of the Iowa Academy of Science. He has
reviewed manuscripts for about 30 journals.
Along with this impressive research productivity and service,
Dr. Horner has been a dedicated and effective teacher. He
has taught three different courses on microscopy each for
over 20 years and up to the present, and his teaching of microscopy
techniques is renowned. He has successfully advised 13 M.S.
students and eight Ph.D. students. Many of his students have
gone on to highly successful careers, indications of the solid
training and mentoring he gave them. He has served on well
over 100 graduate student advisory committees in 21 different
programs at ISU or elsewhere.
It is not surprising that his numerous accomplishments have
brought him many awards, including a Special Award for long-standing
continuous service to the Botanical Society of America, a
Centennial Citation and Distinguished Service Award from the
Iowa Academy of Science, and the highest award at ISU, a University
One of the best measures of one’s reputation is recognition
by peers. Hence from the supporters of Dr. Horner’s
nomination we hear that he maintains “the highest standards
of performance imaginable,” that he is a “model
of clarity and rigorous scholarship,” as well as “an
exemplary scholar and citizen–and a good guy.”
James L. Seago, Jr. - 2004
This award is in recognition of the tremendous contributions
Dr. Seago has made in encouraging and supporting students
to pursue careers in botany. Dr.Seago has spent the majority
of his career at the State University of New York, Oswego,
a primarily undergraduate institution where the faculty carry
heavy teaching responsibilities. Despite this, he has maintained
an active research program involving undergraduate students
and has mentored many of them to continue to graduate school
in botany. It is primarily for his mentoring of undergraduates
that we recommend Dr. Seago for this award.
If students do not enter botany, the field will wither away.
Attracting students into botany may not advance one’s
career as publications and grants do, but without a steady
flow of new students, and especially students who are bright
and interested, into botanical graduate programs, all botanists
will have increasing difficulty publishing and obtaining funding.
Dr. Seago has made remarkable and long-standing contributions
to the flow of students into our discipline. He has the ability
to spot interest and aptitude, to involve students in research,
and thus to nurture their ability and interest. He has fostered
student attendance at professional meetings and their presentation
of papers at these meetings, and he has co-authored papers
with students. In more than half of the past 30 years, Dr.
Seago has coauthored a presentation or a paper with a student.
One colleague noted that “Jim obviously works closely
with the students in planning the research and in helping
prepare the talk, and the results are clear to all. Jim’s
students know their stuff and are well prepared to present
their work in the most professional and effective manner.”
One colleague summarized Dr. Seago’s mentoring of students
as an “unrivaled, significant, and persistent commitment
toward fostering undergraduate botanical research over the
last 30 years.”
Dr. Seago has encouraged many students to pursue careers in
botany by actively promoting their applications to graduate
schools. His matching of students with graduate programs that
are right for them has not only benefitted the students but
also the programs and ultimately plant sciences.
Dr. Seago has served his profession and his home institution
in many important ways in addition to bringing students into
botany. He was department chair for six years and has served
on numerous committees at SUNY Oswego. He has served the Botanical
Society of America as Program Director of the Developmental
and Structural Section (1994-1997) and has been a diligent
and hard-working reviewer for the American Journal of Botany.
Dr. Seago’s research deals with root developmental anatomy
as well as the structure, development, and function of aquatic
and wetlands plants. One colleague notes that “When
one thinks of plants and roots, one must think of Jim Seago.”
He has published 14 papers in refereed journals (nine papers
in the American Journal of Botany) and has one in press. His
research program, while modest in terms of number of publications
and grant support, is admired by colleagues who describe it
as “solid and substantial,” and “solid scholarly
For his outstanding contributions to botanical science, and
especially for being, as a colleague observed, the “vibrant,
enthusiastic teacher and researcher” that he is, Jim
Seago is unquestionably deserving of the Botanical Society
of America’s highest honor.
Spencer C.H. Barrett - 2003
For his myriad contributions to reproductive biology, plant
breeding systems and aquatic ecology. He established heterostyly
as a model system in reproduction, contributed to understanding
of the evolutionary modification of floral development, genetic
structure of populations, the role of incompatibility in the
breeding systems of natural populations, the evolution of
dioecy and the influence of gender ratio in determining plant
breeding systems. In addition to his service as Associate
Editor and Book Review Editor of the American Journal of Botany,
he mentored a generation of plant biologists, including 2
Master's students, 9 Ph.D. students and 6 postdoctoral associates
who have occupied faculty positions.
Jack B. Fisher - 2003
The 30 years of contributions made to botany by Dr. Fisher
have been broad, deep, original, and patient. He has carefully
combined anatomical, developmental, physiological, and ecological
considerations, to show how tropical plants grow and adapt.
He has made critical contributions to our understanding of
water transport in lianas and fundamental discoveries on the
developmental basis of tropical tree geometry. In the same
way that he has waited patiently for tree seedlings to mature
and yield their anatomical secrets, he has worked for 20 years
to forge alliances between Fairchild Botanical Garden and
institutions of higher learning to promote education of the
next generation of comparative botanists. Dr. Fisher has benefited
botany through his research and his thoughtful outreach and
he richly deserves recognition through a BSA Merit Award for
these admirable accomplishments.
Leslie G. Hickok - 2003
Dr. Hickok has made a career out of defying the odds and generating
surprises. While others were intimidated by the high chromosome
numbers of ferns, he showed that valuable insights into polyploidy
and speciation could be obtained by studying their cytogenetics.
While the mainstream focused attention on Arabidopsis as a
plant model system, Hickok promoted the unique properties
of the fern Ceratopteris. His pioneering work on selection
and mutation using this model demonstrated the power of a
system that separated gametophytic and sporophytic life stages.
More recently, he has succeeded in marrying his deep commitment
to advancing botanical knowledge and his desire to provide
meaningful, enriching experiences for biology students. Through
his insight and perseverance, he transformed Ceratopteris
into C-fern, and now over 60,000 students per year are learning
about plant genetics using this inexpensive but effective
teaching system. Dr. Hickok is a distinguished scholar whose
research and teaching efforts at all levels from K-12 to international
seminars can be characterized as groundbreaking, inspirational,
dedicated, and unselfish. For his outstanding contributions
and longstanding generosity, the BSA is pleased to present
a Merit Award to Dr. Leslie G. Hickok.
Jeffrey D. Palmer - 2003
Dr. Palmer has excelled in his contributions to botanical
science. His astonishing research productivity has resulted
in over 200 scientific papers, many of them published in the
most prestigious scientific journals. Dr. Palmer has fundamentally
transformed the scientific landscape we now operate in through
his legendary contributions to phylogenetics and gene and
genome evolution. He has arguably been the most influential
person in the development of the field of molecular systematics
of plants and has been directly responsible for the paradigm
shift in our current views of evolutionary relationships among
eukaryotes, including higher plants. Other major contributions
from his laboratory include the characterization and evolution
of introns and plant mitochondrial genomes, the evolution
of plastid genes in non-photosynthetic plants, and the origin
and evolution of chloroplasts. The list of the graduate students
and post-docs trained in his laboratory reads like a who's
who of botanical science. His collaborative approach and willingness
to share data has built a sense of community among plant molecular
phylogenetics workers unparalleled in other fields of organismal
biology. At the same time, Dr. Palmer has generously served
as department chair at Indiana University as well as on review
panels and editorial boards and has promoted outreach through
his many public presentations. For his innovative and productive
scientific contributions, Dr. Palmer has received many awards,
among them the Wilhelmine Key Award from the American Genetic
Association, election to the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and an
ISI Highly Cited Award for the top 15 most cited plant and
animal scientists. In honor of his extraordinary accomplishments,
the BSA is proud to present him with a Merit Award.
Carol C. & Jerry M. Baskin - 2001
We were impressed by their extensive contributions to the
field of seed ecology, each having about 300 articles and
other important publications. Their lab is the only one in
the world that has been able to maintain a research focus
on seed ecology for such a long time, since the mid-1960s.
The Baskins have also written a highly-praised book, "Seeds-Ecology,
Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, published
in 1998 by Academic Press. An exerpt from one review of this
book states " Carol and Jerry Baskin bring many years
of seed germination experience with a wide array of species
to what is an inspiring work. They interweave their own studies
of numerous temperate North American species with those done
by others world-wide. To provide some idea of scope, individual
chapters contain hundreds of references, with two chapters
each having more than a thousand. Just as the number of studies
presented is extensive, so too is the number of species. Nearly
6400 are listed in the taxonomic index! These species provide
a substantive base for the concluding discussion of biogeographic
and evolutionary aspects of seed dormancy and germination.
We are indebted to the Baskins' for their fine contribution,
surely a labor of love, to the seed literature."
Proponents also cite Carol and Jerry Baskin's generous service
to the Botanical Society of America and other societies, on
editorial boards, and in helping undergraduate and graduate
students. They have been an inspiration to their own students
and colleagues worldwide as exceptionally kind and tolerant
Leslie Gottlieb - 2000
Dr. Leslie Gottlieb has had a profound impact on the direction
of plant systematics and has been one of the most influential
plant evolutionary biologists over the past several decades.
His 1977 paper in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden,
laid the foundation for the intelligent application of allozyme
data in plant systematics. His 1982 paper in Science is a
classic study of the duplication and conservation of isozyme
loci in plants. His 1984 paper in the American Naturalist
has been called one the most important papers in plant evolutionary
biology during the past half century. However, his greatest
contribution may have come through his influence on the careers
and research of a substantial number of plant evolutionary
biologists, including many of the people most active in this
field today. Despite the fact that his research has often
been more genetic or molecular in nature, Leslie has remained
a botanist at heart.
Daniel J. Crawford - 1999
A role model in botany, combining service to plant science
and a productive research program. Prof. Crawford's service
to the profession has covered an impressive span of over 30
years, with some 23 years as an officer, committee member,
and most recently, president in 1996. He received the Alston
Award for the best paper in the Phytochemical section in 1983.
He has been very active with the NSF, with the International
Organization of Plant Biosystematists, has provided frequent
service as a member of editorial and review bodies, and as
a cornerstone of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.
He served the ASPT as President in 1988, and received their
most prestigious award, the Asa Gray Award, in 1997. His research
record is prodigious, with over 150 research articles. His
passionate dedication to botanical research marks him as one
of the leading systematic botanists/evolutionists of our time.
He made great contributions to understanding macroevolutionary
trends in plants and played a major role in the development
of molecular systematics, in particular with the publication
of the book, Plant Molecular Systematics. Through it all he
has kept his focus on the key scientific questions, not on
techniques. He has trained 19 graduate students. He exemplifies
impeccable scientific ethics while maintaining a genuinely
warm and considerate personality. He embodies the award criteria
"...to have made outstanding contributions to botanical
Barbara Schaal - 1999
A long and distinguished record of excellence in research,
service, and teaching. Dr. Schaal has made many outstanding
contributions in over 80 publications to a variety of botanical
disciplines, including population genetics, systematics, ecology,
conservation biology, and economic botany. She is perhaps
best known for her ability to apply new molecular methods
to interesting and important questions. Her studies of ecological
genetics and genetic divergence in domesticated plants are
especially noteworthy. Furthermore, she has trained 12 Ph.D.
students, and hosted many postdoctoral and visiting scientists
in her laboratory. Her service to professional societies is
truly exceptional, including the presidency of BSA. As BSA
President, she was a leader in the best sense of the word;
she inspired others to contribute, and earned respect because
she had a clear vision of her goals, and articulated them
lucidly. She has also served as Executive Vice President of
the Society for the Study of Evolution, on the Editorial Boards
of three journals (Molecular Ecology, Functional Ecology,
and Molecular Biology and Evolution), and on several NSF panels,
while also serving as Chair of the Biology Department at Washington
University, and most recently was elected to the National
Academy of Sciences. Dr. Schaal is widely viewed as one of
the most eminent of the Botanical Society of America, and
has been the role model for many in the classroom and in her
Tod Stuessy - 1999
A productive and influential botanist with particular impact
in plant systematics. His contributions include monographic
studies in the Asteraceae, very early promotion of the burgeoning
field of cladistics, strong advocacy for collections, and
insights into the origin and evolution of island plants. He
is a consummate internationalist, with huge influence in South
America, Asia, and now Europe. His mastery of Spanish, and
clear understanding and sensitivity for Latin American cultures,
close ties with scientists, and various agencies has led to
a multitude of collaborations and prodigious productivity—with
over 200 publications including seven edited or single authored
books. The highlight of the latter was his 1990 book, Plant
Taxonomy: The Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data, winner
of the prestigious Henry Allan Gleason Award. He has trained
18 graduate students. His service to professional societies
is exemplary. His presidency of the American Society of Plant
Taxonomists was marked by perhaps the greatest number of initiatives
in the past three decades. He has also served the NSF as a
program director, held multiple offices in the Association
of Systematics Collections and the BSA, and worked tirelessly
to promote botany at the local level though the Ohio Academy
of Science. He has been honored by selection as a fellow of
the Linnean Society of London, and by the AAAS. During his
30 year career, he made extraordinary contributions to botany.
Margaret B. Davis - 1998
For her fundamental contributions in quantifying modem and
fossil pollen abundances and relating them to existing and
past vegetations, the essential starting point for broader
scale analyses using proxy data sources in the quantitative
reconstructions of past climates. Insights gained from such
reconstructions have challenged and changed assumptions of
neo-ecologists and have been critical in discussions of possible
patterns of vegetation change in the wake of global climate,
Paul B. Green - 1998
For his innovative, technically brilliant and analytically
fundamental work on plant morphogenesis; for the first direct
measurements of cell turgor pressure and the quantitative
description of the importance of wall theology in governing
growth rates in Nitella; for microscopic studies of the initiation
and early growth of leaves and flowers; for elucidating the
bioengineering principles underlying phyllotactic pattern;
for his eloquent, good-humored, inspired, and inspiring presentations
that have linked the communities interested in developmental
and theoretical biology.
Dominick Paolillo - 1998
For his innovative and scholarly research on the developmental
anatomy of Isoetes; for his visualization of the three-dimensional
arrangement of the lamellar components of the higher plant
chloroplast; for his detailed and comprehensive studies of
moss sporogenesis, spermatogenesis and the release of sperms,
the developmental analyses of the growth of moss sporophytes
and the expansion of their capsules; for his revisionist insights
into Onoclea male sexuality and photobiology; and for his
continuing contribution to the effects of dwarfing genes on
the development of wheat.
Edward L. Schneider - 1998
For his skill as a researcher in vascular plant anatomy, as
a teacher of plant sciences, and as a botanical administrator.
Edward L. Schneider has inspired cooperation, enterprise,
and excellence at the institutions he has served.
Nels Lersten - 1997
Elbert Little - 1997
Grady Webster - 1997
Hugh H. Iltis - 1996
Distinguished botanist, for his research on the evolution
of Zea mays and the systematics of Capparaceae, for his strong
concern for the next generation of botanists in the U.S. and
Mexico, for his extensive botanical field work and development
of the University of Wisconsin herbarium, and for his devotion
and tireless commitment to the preservation of biological
Karl J. Niklas - 1996
For his innovative and scholarly research on the paleobiochemistry
of vascular and non-vascular fossil plants, for his almost
single-handed development of the field of biomechanics, in
particular the aerodynamics of wind pollination in extinct
and extent seed plants, for his skilled communication of research
findings, for being unfailingly helpful to his colleagues,
for his talent as an award winning teacher, and for his service
to the Botanical Society of America on several committees
and as editor of the American Journal of Botany.
Robert F. Thorne - 1996
Internationally renowned giant in the field of plant systematics
for landmark contributions in understanding large-scale phylogenetic
patterns in flowering plants evolution, for insightful papers
in the field of plant geography, most notably those on major
disjunctions in seed plants, South African-American plant
relationships, Australasian rain forests, major floristic
regions of North America and desert vegetation in south-western
North America, and as an enthusiastic and inspirational teacher.
Isabella A. Abbott - 1995
The first Hawaiian woman to receive a Ph.D., eminent phycologist,
authority on algal diversity along the California coast; and
ethnobotanist, authority on traditional use of Hawaiian plants.
James E. Canright - 1995
Scholar on the Ranales, his systematic studies of primative
angiosperm groups contributed to the understanding of flowering
plant evolution and his pioneering work in palynology established
the significance of the discipline for both basic and applied
Gregory J. Anderson - 1994
Tropical systematist, authority on Solanum and pollination
biology, stimulation teacher, dedicated and effective voice
of the Botanical Society as Secretary and President, and whole
plant biologistin every sense.
Lafayette Frederick - 1994
Prominent educator, mycologist, tireless promoter of students
in science, superlative and inspiring teacher for over 40
years, and outstanding role model for students and faculty.
Daniel I. Axelrod - 1993
Outstanding paleobotanist and geologist; authority on evolution
of paleofloras and the origin of modern vegetation types;
expert on palaeoclimates and on changing morphospecies through
geological time; author of the theory of tropical highland
origin of angiosperms.
Robert Ornduff - 1993
Inspiring and imaginative scholar and teacher; President of
the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and the California
Botanical Society; significant contributor to advancing our
fundamental understanding of the reproductive biology and
systematics of plants.
David L. Dilcher - 1991
Dedicated researcher who has revolutionized the study of angiosperm
fossils and contributed significantly to our understanding
of the origin of the angiosperms; inspiring teacher who has
given outstanding service to the Botanical Society of America
as Program Director, Secretary, and President.
Patricia K. Holmgren - 1991
Distinguished botanist who has served the Botanical Society
of America as President, Vice President and Secretary, this
award recognizes her dedication to the profession of botany
as the inestimable Director of the Herbarium of the New York
Botanical Garden, and her exemplary conduct as a role model
for aspiring young botanists.
Ian W. Sussex - 1991
Productive scientist whose morphogenetic research extends
from the classical to the molecular; devoted and able teacher,
mentor of many excellent and influential graduate students;
co-author of an outstanding book on plant development; planner
of important symposia and conferences; excellent botanical
citizen and colleague.
W. Hardy Eshbaugh - 1992
Inspiring and caring teacher, dedicated researcher, able administrator,
president of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the
Botanical Society of America, and the Society of Economic
Botany, and champion of the science of botany.
Raymond Carl Jackson - 1992
Outstanding contributor to cytogenetics, particularly to our
understanding of polyploidy, discoverer of low chromosome
numbers in angiosperms, dedicated teacher, systematist, administrator,
and servant of the Botanical Society of America.
Beryl B. Simpson - 1992
Distinguished botanist recognized for her research in systematics,
biogeography, and pollination biology, for her teaching, for
her service to biological societies, including presidencies
of the Botanical Society of America and the Society for the
Study of Evolution, and as the author of a widely used textbook
on economic botany.
Kenton Chambers - 1990
Eminent biosystematist, internationally recognized for his
studies of various genera of Asteraceae; a pioneer in the
development of plant conservation in Oregon; stimulating teacher
who has inspired many students to become botanists.
Bassett Maguire - 1990
Author of numerous and outstanding contributions to neotropical
botany; explorer and plant collector in the "Lost World"
of the Guiana Highlands; prime mover in the creation of the
Intermountain Flora. He is the taxonomic authority on the
Carlos A. Miller - 1990
Effective and dedicated teacher; patient and ingenious experimenter;
co-discoverer of the nature of the cytokinins and of their
interactions with auxin in the control of morphogenesis; co-author
of one of the most cited papers in the field of plant physiology.
Philip Barry Tomlinson - 1990
A leading authority on plant form and structure, and one of
the primary exponents of modern morphology and anatomy, with
special emphasis on monocots and woody plants. Barry has served
us as a model and an inspiration for investigating many neglected
aspects of the botany of the tropics.
Joseph A. Ewan - 1989
Historian of American botany and natural history, including
Rocky Mountain naturalists and such early figures as Banister,
Bartram and Barton; a prolific writer, engaging teacher and
sparkling public speaker.
David E. Fairbrothers - 1989
Eminent taxonomist, authority on New Jersey plants and their
history; pioneer and international leader in chemosystematics
using protein data to clarify relationships; promoter of the
National Pinelands Preserve and consultant to lawmakers of
Arthur R. Kruckeberg - 1989
Pioneer and authority on serpentine endemism; builder of bridges
across fields of edaphic ecology, systematics, cytotaxonomy,
evolution, conservation and ornamental and native plant horticulture;
Richard W. Pohl - 1989
Premier expert on grasses of temperate and tropical America;
inspiring classroom teacher and advisor of many noted agrostology
students; botanist whose notoriously wry sense of humor keeps
him from being "glumey".
Shirley C. Tucker - 1989
Worldwide leader in the use of floral ontogeny to elucidate
evolution in many families, most recently the legumes, ardent
lichenologist on the side; tireless worker for the Botanical
Society as committee member, section officer, Program Director
Aubrey Willard Naylor - 1988
Distinguished plant physiologist, author and botanical statesman
for 50 years; innovative investigator of mechanisms of action
of plant growth regulators, and of amino acid and nucleic
Richard Evans Schultes - 1988
World renowned economic botanist, editor, explorer, and inspiring
professor; author of definitive works on orchids and rubber,
and on hallucinogenic, narcotic and medicinal plants.
T. Elliot Weier - 1988
Pioneer in chloroplast structure, particularly ultrastructure,
lichenologist of note; superb teacher; exceptional mentor
of students and teaching assistants; author of widely used
Josiah L. Lowe - 1987
Exuberant mycologist, top specialist of polypores with classical
monographs on Fomes, Poria, and Tyromyces; fiercely dedicated
teacher of botany for fifty years.
William Louis Stern - 1987
Erudite systematist in wood anatomy of dicotyledons, keen
investigator in biology of orchids, superlative teacher, theorist,
curator, editor, leader and trustee.
Thomas N. Taylor - 1987
Topnotch teacher, author, administrator; already a worldwide
leader in pale-botanical research, ranging from spores to
cambium and from U.S.A. to Antarctica.
Bernard O. Phinney - 1986
Meticulous research in plant physiology and student of the
biochemical genetics of hormonal metabolism, he has deciphered
the metabolic pathway of gibberellins and made profound contributions
John G. Torrey - 1986
Developmental botanist and student of root biology, he has
contributed classic works on the origin of vascular patterns,
cambium activation, quiescent center, lateral root development,
and the symbiosis of the actinomycete Frankia with roots of
Billie L. Turner - 1986
Exuberant champion of plant systematics, pioneer in chemotaxonomy,
and critical student and monographer of Compositae and Leguminosae,
he has served with distinction as administrator, inspiring
teacher of graduate students, and as ubiquitous catalyzer
in contemporary botany.
Alden S. Crafts - 1985
Renowned plant physiologist and bulwark of botany.
Charles Heimsch - 1985
Comparative plant anatomist, national leader in botany, President
of the Botanical Society of America, and consummate Editor
of the Journal.
Barbara Palser - 1985
Botanist and plant anatomist of many talents, editor, writer
of handbooks, adviser of students, Secretary and President
of the Botanical Society of America.
Martin Zimmermann - 1985
In appreciation of his singularly imaginative approaches to
botany, which spanned artificial boundaries between disciplines
and inspired a generation of colleagues to look at the close
interdependence of structure, function and development.
Donald R. Kaplan - 1984
A developmental morphologist par excellence, whose
detailed investigations and insightful analyses of leaf development
have set the standard in the field. - University of California,
Theodore T. Kozlowski - 1984
A distinguished forest physiologist whose contributions to
our understanding of tree growth are unsurpassed. His studies
of water movement are classics as are his investigations of
the mobilization and utilization of photosynithates and seed
reserves. - University of Wisconsin
Rolla M. Tryon - 1984
Who is preeminently knowledgeable in matters of taxonomy and
nomenclature. This foremost pteriodologist is a perceptive
student of phytogeography and of the evolutionary impact of
the selective process during plant migration. - Harvard University
Harold A. Mooney - 1983
In recognition of his efforts linking plant ecology and plant
physiology; for his contributions to increasing our understanding
of carbon balance, photosynthesis, and water relations of
native, plants. - Stanford Universityb
Winslow R. Briggs - 1983
For pre-eminence in research ranging from vernation in ferns
and hormone transport to the chemistry and biophysics of light-mediated
growth of plants. He is researcher, professor and director
par excellence. - Carnegie Institution of Washington
Richard Allen Popham - 1983
In recognition of a long-term student of plant apices, including
root, shoot and flower; histologist and anatomist with a penchant
for precision; a hard-working and innovative manager of the
purse strings of the Society's journal; - for his devotion
to his field, to his students and to the Society . - Ohio
Ralph O. Erickson - 1982
For contributions to our understanding of integrative mechanisms
of plant development using mathematical analyses; for introducing
the plastochron index for measuring the shoot apical activity
and for leadership in developing models allowing computer
analysis of pl ant growth. - University of Pennsylvania
Ray F. Evert - 1982
For furthering understanding of ontogeny, structure and seasonal
development of phloem; for analyses of leaf structure relative
to solute transport and for co- authorship of a population
general botany text. - University of Wisconsin, Madison
William A. Jensen - 1982
For basic contributions in plant cytology, histochemistry
and embryology: for preparation of three widely used botanical
texts and for loyal service to the Botanical Society. - University
of California, Berkeley
Frank B. Salisbury - 1982
For contributions to understanding flower initiation, growth
of alpine plants, and plant responses to ultraviolet light
and gravity; for authorship of texts on pl ant physiology,
general botany and plant form and function, and for service
Botanica1 Society. - Utah State University
Clanton C. Black, Jr. - 1981
For his significant contributions to our knowledge of the
photosynthetic process; for probing the similarities and differences
in carbon metabolism in C3' C4 and CAM plants; and for seeing
the immediate implications for both agriculture and ecology
in new advances in photosynthetic chemistry. - University
Ernest M. Gifford - 1981
For his services to The Society as Editor-in-Chief of the
American Journal of Botany, for contributions to botanical
science as mentor of many professional botanists and as an
author of a popular text, and for research that has extended
the frontiers of plant development and structure. - University
of California at Davis
Herbert G. Baker - 1980
For his contributions to evolutionary ecology and for his
teaching of ecology and economic botany. - University of California,
Oswald Tippo - 1980
For his devotion and service to the botanical profession as
a teacher, editor, phylogenist and anatomist. - University
Carl L. Wilson - 1980
Honored for his contributions to floral morphology (telome
theory) and his studies on evolution in the Gesneriaceae.
- Dartmouth College
David W. Bierhorst - 1979
For his incisive and significant investigations of vascular
cryptogams, expecially Psilotum and Tmesipteris; for his painstaking
studies of lesser-known ferns; and for his comprehensive book
on the morphology of vascular plants. - University of Massachusetts
Margaret H. Fulford - 1979
For her excellent studies of the morphology and taxonomy of
the leafy liverworsts, for her syntheses regarding the phylogeny
of liverworts, and for her distinguished career as a teacher
and investigator in Bryology. - University of Cincinnati
Anton Lang - 1979
For his extensive and diverse contributions to developmental
botany, especially the physiology of plant hormones, flowering,
plant response to environment, cell differentiation, and organ
formation; for numerous efforts in behalf of international
botany, including many editorial tasks; and for coordinating
the research of others as director of several laboratories.
- Michigan State University
Samuel N. Postlethwait - 1979
For his contributions to the art of botanical teaching, specifically
for his long-standing love of students and his development
of the audio-tutorial system of laboratory instruction; and
for research on the morphology of corn. - Purdue University
Lyman D. Benson - 1978
For many years of outstanding teaching and close association
with students; for his taxonomic research on the flora of
North America, especially such groups as the Ranunculaceae
and Cactaceae; and for his preparation of taxonomic and botanical
textbooks. - Pomona College
Theodore Delevoryas - 1978
For distinguished contributions to Mesozoic paleobotany, especially
to our knowledge of the cycadeoids, cycads and conifers and
the elucidation of the reproductive structures of Glossopteris.
- University of Texas at Austin
Warren H. Wagner, Jr. - 1978
For his numerous and outstanding contributions to our knowledge
of the morphology, classification and evolution of ferns and
for his most distinguished career as a teacher of botany to
both undergraduate and graduate students. - University of
W. Gordon Whaley - 1978
In recognition of his early contributions to genetics and
morphogenesis and of his pioneering role in elucidating the
cellular biology of plants, with special reference to the
Golgi apparatus. - University of Texas at Austin
Sherwin Carlquist - 1977
Noted anatomist, naturalist, and explorer, Professor Carlquist
has given us new understanding of adaptations of xylem, island
evolution, and plant dispersal. - Claremont Graduate School,
Pomona College, and Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
Discoveries - Sherwin Carlquist
Rogers McVaugh - 1977
For distinguished contributions to the exploration for, and
systematic studies of, New World plants and to the general
area of plant nomenclature. - University of Michigan
Peter Hamilton Raven - 1977
In recognition of his excellent contributions to angiosperm
biogeography and the systematics and general biology of Onagraceae
as well as his outstanding success in both teaching and administration.
- Missouri Botanical Garden
Charles M. Rick - 1976
For major work basic to economic importance involving both
the cytology and genetics of crop plants and for spreading
his knowledge and capabilities as an authority on this subject
to many places in the world. - University of California, Davis
Paul Weatherwax - 1976
For long continued devotion to gaining an understanding of
the probable origin and evolution of one of our most important
crop plants, Zea mays, and for ancillary information
essential to comprehending the problems dealing with and improving
this most important grain. - Indiana University
Thomas W. Whitaker - 1976
For distinguished contributions to the understanding of economic
plants, notably their improvement, and for a unique contribution
in interpreting this understanding in terms of their domestication
and their influence on the development of civilizations.
Harlan P. Banks - 1975
For his distinguished teaching of undergraduate and graduate
students, numerous contributions to our knowledge of early
land vegetation and services as a former President of the
Botanical Society of America. - Cornell University
F. Herbert Bormann - 1975
For his distinguished studies of nutrient and water flow through
the Hubbard Brook Watershed, for his numerous important pronouncements
on environmental hazards and for his responsible actions on
behalf of the biological community. - Yale University
William C. Steere - 1975
For his fundamental contributions in the biology of the bryophytes
and Arctic botany, and a long-term successful development
in the administration of the New York Botanical Garden. -
New York Botanical Garden
Chester A. Arnold - 1974
Distinguished student of the structure and evolutionary significance
of fossil plants; his many contributions have greatly advanced
our knowledge of the vegetation of past ages and exemplify
the highest standards of objective reporting and honest interpretations.
- University of Michigan
Arthur Cronquist - 1974
Systematist sensu lato: creator of imaginative phylogenetic
systems; effective organizer of and prolific contributor to
monumental regional floras of North America; monographer and
foremost student of North American Compositae. - New York
Gerald W. Prescott - 1974
Influential teacher and knowledgeable student of the taxonomy,
ecology and geography of fresh water algae, especially desmids,
of North America; proponent of the importance of algae in
limnology; prime mover in the founding of the Phycological
Society of America. - University of Montana Biological Station,
Charles Stacy French - 1973
Skillful and persistent investigator of the spectral properties
and state of chlorophyll in tissues; inventor and gadgeteer
par excellence; able and genial administrator of
a productive center of botanical research. - Carnegie Institution
of Washington at Stanford
Mildred Esther Mathias - 1973
Scholarly systematist and distinguished student of the Umbelliferae;
enthusiastic and able teacher; her effective encouragement
of tropical botanical education and her leadership in the
development of American botanical gardens suggest the breadth
of her influence. - University of California at Los Angeles
Richard Cawthon Starr - 1973
Distinguished student of soil algae, sexuality of desmids,
and reproduction and differentiation of Volvox; his
great service to biology in founding and maintaining the culture
collection of algae at Indiana University is widely appreciated.
- Indiana University
Aaron J. Sharp - 1972
Bryololgist, plant geographer; he has demonstrated the floristic
relationships between North America and Asia from the Arctic
to the Tropics. An outstanding and enthusiastic teacher, he
has inspired and guided many who have become leading botanists.
- University of Tennessee
Charles B. Heiser, Jr. - 1972
Scholarly student of the systematics and evolution of vascular
plants; his original and significant contributions through
extended studies of Compositae and Solanaceae have utilized
many techniques; his interest in the origins of cultivated
plants and weeds has led to a new appreciation of such plants
as materials for important evolutionary studies. - Indiana
Frank Harlan Lewis - 1972
Eminent evolutionary biologist, teacher, and administrator;
his studies of chromosome behavior in such genera as Clarkia,
Mentzelia, Delphinium, and their relatives
have provided the cytotaxonomic basis for his brilliant generalizations
as to population dynamics, the processes of speciation, and
the nature of biological taxa. - University of California
at Los Angeles
Ruth Patrick - 1971
A gifted teacher and scholar with a consuming curiosity, she
brings out the best in both scholars and students by her unique
ability to generate excitement over intellectual ideas. Best
known for her work on the systematics of diatoms, she has
also been deeply concerned with the pollution of streams,
rivers and bays, and has used her knowledge of diatom taxonomy
and ecology - and her eloquence - to convince industries and
cities of their responsibility in this area. - Academy of
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia
Verne Grant - 1971
Evolutionist and student of the biology of flowers, especially
of the phlox family. His works on speciation and adaptation
in the higher plants are models of clarity and erudition.
- University of Texas
A. Earling Porsild - 1971
Famous for his share in the Great Reindeer Trek; intrepid
arctic explorer and distinguished student of the flora of
Canada; and a Canadian diplomat as well. - National Museum
Murray F. Buell - 1971
Eminent ecologist, teacher, and editor; his research on ecological
processes in eastern North America has led to an understanding
and public awareness of man's role in changing natural ecosystems.
- Rutgers University
Albert C. Smith - 1970
For his monumental work on the Flora of the Fiji Islands has
set exceptionally high standards and placed him in the front
ranks of the students of the systematics of higher plants.
- University of Hawaii, now University of Massachusetts
Charles Drechsler - 1970
Though one of the leading authorities on root diseases of
truck crops, he is best known for his masterful work on the
zoophagous fungi and particularly the nematode-catching fungi
which he has illustrated with beautiful artistry. - Plant
Industry Station, Beltsville
Arthur Galston - 1970
Superb teacher, creative investigator in plant hormones, and
bold fighter to prevent misuse of such substances. - Yale
James M. Schopf - 1970
For his studies of fossil plants, and especially his work
on the petrology of coal, are among the definitive works in
this field. - U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio State University
Alexander H. Smith - 1969
For his prodigious work on the classification and ecology
of the Agaricales, Criteria and Terminology in Fungi Imperfecti.
John R. Raper - 1969
For his demonstration of sex hormones in aquatic fungi and
work on genetics of the Agaricales.
Jacob R. Schram - 1969
For his very thoughtful studies of the ecology of the black
mining wastes of the Pennsylvania anthracite region.
Armin C. Braun - 1969
For his many significant studies on tumor inception and development
Elso S. Barghoorn - 1968
Brilliant investigator of structure and evolution in plants
of the present and the remote past, and an outstanding pioneer
in the discovery of a wide variety of precambrian fossils,
the most ancient life-forms at present known to science.
F. K. Sparrow - 1968
For the unique breadth and quality of his scholarship and
teaching, and for his superb monographic work on the fungi
of fresh and marine waters of the world: A fabled collector,
meticulous observer and vibrant personality.
George F. Papenfuss - 1966
Eminent investigator of the world's marine algae from the
viewpoint of their comparative morphology, reproduction and
systematic relationships. - University of California, Berkeley
Henry N. Andrews, Jr. - 1966
Original investigator in the field of paleobotany and author
of several significant volumes on plant life of past ages.
R. H. Burris - 1966
Distinguished as a teacher of plant biochemists and for his
outstanding contributions to the role of nitrogen in plants.
- University of Wisconsin
C. J. Alexopoulos - 1967
Mycologist, authoritative writer in general mycology, an outstanding
teacher; his research in diverse groups of fungi has greatly
expanded our knowledge of these important plants.
William M. Miesey - 1967
Ecological physiologist, imaginative experimenter, a pioneer
in elucidating the genecological nature of species; he has
done much to encourage and help students in all areas of plant
Daniel I. Arnon - 1965
For his contributions to our knowledge of the mineral nutrients
of plants and for his distinguished pioneering work on the
way green plants utilize the energy of sunlight.
Harold C. Bold - 1965
or his classical research on morphology, cytology, and cultivation
of unicellular algae and his scholarly surveys of the plant
kingdom; an outstanding teacher and considerate editor.
Ralph Emerson - 1964
For his unparalleled success in integrating research and teaching;
a superb teacher and accomplished investigator, indefatigable
in his efforts to inspire students to learn by discovery.
Sterling Hendricks - 1964
For his pioneering work on responses of organisms to their
environment and for setting an ex-ample of the use of highly
refined basic science for the solution of problems in applied
Ira Wiggins - 1964
Intrepid botanical explorer, architect of floras of the Sonoran
Desert and the Arctic slope of Alaska; we salute him as a
botanical citizen of high purpose, persistent effort and rich
production in systematic botany.
Harry A. Borthwick - 1963
For his research on the effects of light on plants and the
enrichment of our understanding of the photoperiodic response,
and for his role in the discovery of the red far-red system
with its many ramifications in the life and form of plants.
Vernon I. Cheadle - 1963
For his deep and abiding interest in science, his service
to biology through untiring efforts to promote scholarly teaching
and research, and for his major contribution to the interpretation
of the evolution of vascular tissues in the monocotyledons
and of the structure of phloem in the dicotyledons.
John C. Walker - 1936
For his sustained and perceptive research on the physiology
and genetics of the host-parasite relationship in plants,
and for his signal success in the development of disease resistant
varieties of vegetable crops.
David R. Goddard - 1962
For his perceptive investigations of respiratory enzymes and
respiratory mechanisms in plants, his deep interest in problems
of cellular growth, and his wise counsel to students, colleagues
and fellow botanists.
Marcus M. Rhoades - 1962
Cytogeneticist, whose fundamental contributions to our knowledge
of chromosome structure and behavior, and of the relations
between nucleus and cytoplasm, have greatly advanced the science
of genetics, and furthered the development of improved strains
of crop plants, especially of maize.
F. C. Steward - 1961
Plant physiologist and biochemist, widely known for his research
on salt accumulation, nitrogen metabolism, and plant tissue
cultures; also an editor of numerous important contributions
in the field of plant physiology.
William Randolph Taylor - 1961
World-renowned authority on the algae, especially of marine
waters, with first-hand knowledge of the floras of many parts
of the world. Author of numerous important books and articles
dealing with the algae of such diverse areas as the northeastern
coast of North America, the Caribbean, the west coast of tropical
America, and Bikini.
James P. Bennett - 1960
Distinguished investigator of dormancy and growth; helpful,
wise, and understanding counselor; and godfather to succeeding
generati6ns of students in plant physiology who have carried
his influence to every corner of the globe.
William Dwight Billings - 1960
For his fruitful ano stimulating studies of the physiological
behavior of plant species and ecotypes in nature. His investigations
have covered the continent from east to west, giving us new
insight into the ecology of deserts, forests, and meadows.
He and his colleagues have created one of the world's leading
Walter Conrad Muenscher - 1960
A truly versatile botanist, for his many distinguished contributions,
especially his books on weeds, aquatic plants, poisonous plants
and garden herbs. His lifelong devotion to all phases of botany
has stimulated the lives and the careers of his numerous students.
Kenneth B. Raper - 1960
For his pioneering and continuing studies on the slime molds
and for his distinguished contributions to the morphology
and classification of Aspergillus and Penicillium.
Reed Clark Rollins - 1960
A leading exponent of an up-to-date plant taxonomy that embraces
morphology, ecology, cytology, and genetics, in well balanced
emphasis. He has brought new lustre to an already distinguished
James Bonner - 1959
Outstanding in plant biochemistry, prolific and original contributor
to diverse aspects of that intricate field, author of several
penetrating and widely influential texts of plant biochemistry
and plant physiology.
Lincoln Constance - 1959
Astute and sound taxonomist, pioneer in cytotaxonomy, and,
in an era of diversified outbursts in scientific endeavors,
distinguished exponent of the dictum that plants are still
Adriance S. Foster - 1959
Bold and yet careful investigator in histogenesis, and especially
of the shoot apex, where all kinds of things begin to happen,
and author of several trail-blazing volumes on comparative
morphology and plant anatomy.
Bernard S. Meyer - 1959
Outstanding plant physiologist, author of an exceedingly important
and much used volume in that field, devoted and unselfish
servant in the scholarly activities of The Botanical Society
Loren C. Petry - 1959
Paleobotanist and anatomist, unusually effective botanical
teacher who has skillfully guided the careers of thousands
of students in the right direction, wise and generous counselor
in scientific affairs.
Harry James Fuller - 1958
For continued, self-sacrificing service to Botany, whether
as a teacher, a writer of needed textbooks, an editor, or
as an officer of the Botanical Society of America. - University
Philip Alexander Munz - 1958
For his penetrating studies of the Onagraceae, of the flora
of California, and for his farsightedness and breadth of purpose
resulting in the development of a model botanic garden. -
Rancho Ana Botanic Garden
Lester Whyland Sharp - 1958
His contributions, both by personal investigations and by
successive editions of carefully edited textbooks, have made
plant cytology a significant field of Botany. - Cornell University
Donald F. Jones - 1957
Through many years an outstanding geneticist, plant breeder
and horticulturalist, a profound and versatile student of
a wide range of hereditary phenomena, especially known for
his contributions to an understanding of hybrid vigor, and
for his pioneer role in the development of hybrid corn.
Paul Mangelsdorf - 1957
Leading investigator in the fields of agronomy, genetics and
economic botany, foremost authority on the history and evolution
of maize, for his contribution to the classification, morphology
and genetics of corn, and for his role in the development
of maize breeding programs throughout the Americas.
Barbara McClintock - 1957
Early student of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations,
pioneer in the use of such aberrations for purposes of genome
analysis, important contributor to the theory of gene structure,
world leader in the broad field of cytogenetics.
William H. Weston - 1957
Master of the spoken and written word, for his contributions
to the lower fungi, which are models of perfection in execution
and writing and particularly for his unselfish devotion to
his students and his superlative ability as a graduate teacher.
Harry Ardell Allard - 1956
For his pioneer investigations of photoperiodism in plants
and for his long-continued contributions to our knowledge
of this phenomenon and to other areas of botanical science.
Edagar Anderson - 1956
For his extensive contributions to the general problems of
evolution, including the species problem, self-sterility,
and particulary for his sponsorship of the idea of introgressive
Dixon Lloyd Bailey - 1956
Discering analyst and interpreter of the concepts of plant
pathology, enriching influence in the lives of his associates,
and outstanding contributor to the vigor of scientific study
Irving Widmer Bailey - 1956
Plant anatomist and inspiring teacher, for his outstanding
contributions on the structure of the cell wall and the histology
of the cambium and for his application of anatomy and morphology
to problems of evolution of angiosperms.
Harley Harris Bartlett - 1956
For his unflagging support and encouragement of the whole
field of botany and its students and for his diverse contributions
to paleobotany, enthnobotany, ecology, and systematics.
George Wells Beadle - 1956
For his long list of contributions to the cytogenetics of
Zea mays and Drosophila and the tremendous
impetus he has lately given to the field of phhysiological
and chemical genetics, particularly in Neurospora.
Ernst Athearn Bessey - 1956
Who with an undeviating zeal for accuracy has fashioned our
generation's magisterial presentation of the science of mycolocy.
Sidney Fay Blake - 1956
For his scholarly contributions to the taxonomy of the Compositae
and other vascular plants and to our knowledge of the floras
of the world.
Emma Lucy Braun - 1956
For her contribution to our knowledge of the origin and structure
of the Eastern American deciduous forest. Her critical evaluation
of the works of others, her capacity to observe correctly
in the field and to interpret forcefully have given biogeographers
a new point of departure.
Stanley Adair Cain - 1956
Whose sensitive perception of complex environmental problems
and intimate understanding of conflicting points of view have
provided us with many new insights. His courage in opening
up new areas has made him an outstanding interpreter and a
leader of men.
Ralph Works Chaney - 1956
For his notable achievements in paleobotany, which have so
greatly enriched our knowledge of Tertiary floras.
Agnes Chase - 1956
One of the world's outstanding agrostologists and preeminent
among American students in this field.
Jens Christian Clausen - 1956
For his work toward the improvement of our understanding of
the nature and origin of plant species.
Ralph Erskine Cleland - 1956
For his extensive researches into the species relationships
and segmental-interchange problems in Oenothera and also for
his statesmanship in representing plant science at the national
Henry Shoemaker Conard - 1956
Taxonomist, morphologist, mycologist, ecologist, bryologist,
shining proof that versatility may serve only to multiply
excellences, and above all a beloved teacher.
William Skinner Cooper - 1956
One of the creators of an American tradition in ecology. His
deep feeling for the relatedness and parallel developments
of geology, physiology, taxonomy, and vegetation science has
been a guiding light to a whole generation.
John Nathaniel Couch - 1956
Whose studies of the small, the intricate, and the odd among
fungi and their relatives have come to fructification in the
vivid, the significant, and the delectable.
Bernard Ogilvie Dodge - 1956
Whose perceptive researches into the taxonomy, evolution,
and pathological relations of the fungi have not been surpassed,
but only overshadowed, by his discovery and exploitation of
Neurospora as a principal source of the genetical truth.
Benjamin Minge Duggar - 1956
For his outstanding researches in plant physiology, plant
pathology, and mycology for over half a century and for his
wise and patient counseling to many students for whom he provided
inspiration, imagination, and high standards of scholarship.
Arthur Johnson Eames - 1956
Plant anatomist and morphologist, for his sustained researches
on the morphology and anatomy of vascular plants and for his
noteworthy contributions to our knowledge of floral development
Katherine Esau - 1956
Plant anatomist and histologist, for her numerous contributions
on tissue development of vascular plants and in particular
for her outstanding studies on the structure, development,
and evolution of phloem.
Alexander William Evans - 1956
Who, to a fruitful life as the honored master of hepaticology
has added a second as profitably devoted to the disentangling
of the noble genus Cladonia.
Henry Allan Gleason - 1956
For his work on tropical and temperate floras of America and
for the ideas and inspiration which he has supplied to the
field of systematic botany.
Thomas H. Kearney - 1956
For his early theoretical contributions to plant geography,
his work in cotton breeding, his systematic studies in the
Malvaceae, and his part in the preparation of the "Flora
George Wannamaker Keitt - 1956
For his many contributions to plant pathology, and in particular
for his excellent researches on fruit-tree diseases, for his
leadership in plant-pathology administration, and for his
patience and kindness in counseling many students for whom
he provided by illustrative example the life of a true gentleman.
Paul Jackson Kramer - 1956
For productive investigations in various branches of plant
physiology, and especially for significant contributions to
our knowledge of plant-water relations and tree physiology.
Louis Otto Kunkel - 1956
For his researches and indefatigable efforts in experimentation,
for his wise counseling of associates and students, for experimental
techniques and publications, and for his productive studies
on the nature of plant viruses.
Daniel Trembly MacDougal - 1956
For numerous contributions over many years to our knowledge
of various phases of plant physiology and plant ecology, and
especially for advances in our understanding of growth and
physiology of tree species.
George Willard Martin - 1956
Courageous investigator, teacher, editor, and philosopher,
who has brought to the elucidation of the classification of
the fungi field familarity, laboratory exactness and a critical
intelligence that neither claims nor acknowledges authority.
Maximino Martinez - 1956
For his many technical and semipopular books and articles
on the plants of Mexico. His works have made him a recognized
authority on the Mexican flora and the use of plants by man.
Frederick Wilson Popenoe - 1956
For his efforts toward the improvement and increased utilization
of horticultural crops in tropical America.
William Jacob Robbins - 1956
A physiologist whose studies have enlarged our knowledge of
the growth and nutrition of plants, and an administrator the
breadth of whose labors has notably contributed to the growth
and nutrition of all phases of botany.
Andrew Denney Rodgers III - 1956
A unique figure on the American literary scene. His biographies
of well-known botanists and histories of phases of the development
of botanical science are readable, scholarly, and authentic.
Jacques Rousseau - 1956
Whose explorations of the unknown North have provided an important
contribution to Pleistocene biogeography. His sympathetic
interest in Indian and Eskimo folklore and ways of life and
his encyclopedic knowledge of the history of Canadian exploration
have yielded a rich harvest of ethnobotanical studies.
Karl Sax - 1956
For his classical studies on the chromosomes of wheat, his
continued interest in the chromosomes of the ornamental woody
plants, and his extensive contributions about the effect of
irradiation on chromosome structure.
Paul Bigelow Sears - 1956
Whose pioneering efforts in pollen analysis and continued
interest in geochronological problems have made him the leader
of all in this field, on our continent. The keenness of his
mind, the warmth of his personality, the quality of his writing,
and his capacity to relate all scientific problems to man
have earned for him the distinction of an exemplary figure
in American science.
Homer Leroy Shantz - 1956
Plant physiologist, plant ecologist, and administrator of
note. His contributions to the understanding of drought resistance
in plants, to the ecology of grasslands, and to world-wide
plant geography have been laudable achievements in botanical
Edmund Ware Sinnott - 1956
Morphologist, anatomist, geneticist, and botanical statesman,
for his numerous, varied, and sustained contributions to plant
anatomy, histology, evolution, and botanical theory.
Folke Karl Skoog - 1956
For outstanding contributions to knowledge in various subdivisions
of plant physiology, especially tissue culture, hormonal regulation
of plant growth, and algal physiology.
Gilbert Morgan Smith - 1956
Morphologist, for his numerous contributions to cryptogamic
botany, and in particular for his study of life histories
of marine and fresh-water algae.
Elvin Charles Stakman - 1956
For his illustrious international leadership in science, for
his recognized world leadership in researches on the pathogens
of cereal smuts and rusts, and for his genius in inspiring
students and workers to labor untiringly to provide food for
George Ledyard Stebbins - 1956
For his specific contributions to the cytogenetics of parthenogenesis,
hybridization, and polyploidy, particularly in Guayule, Kok-saghyz,
and the forage grasses, and for his outstanding review of
the whole problem of evolution in plants.
John Albert Stevenson - 1956
Whose encyclopedic knowledge of the fungi of the world and
the diseases they induce has with generosity and humility
been placed at the service of a generation of botanists.
Kenneth Vivian Thimann - 1956
For his extensive and preeminent contributions to the biochemical
physiology of green and nongreen plants and to the physiology
of plant growth.
Edgar Nelson Transeau - 1956
For his lifetime of support and encouragement of botanical
science in its broadest sense, both its educational and scientific
aspects. He has made substantial contributions to plant ecology,
algology, and to botanical education at all levels, from high
school to graduate school.
Cornelius Bernardus Van Niel - 1956
Whose studies in the realm where kingdoms and classes scarcely
exist have provided illumination for syntheses of diverse
phases of biology.
John Ernst Weaver - 1956
For his lifetime of research on the ecology of the grasslands.
His investigations have contributed to the understanding of
the dynamics of vegetation and have helped provide a necessary
background for new policies in range management.
Fritz Warnolt Went - 1956
For his breadth of constructive interest in botanical science
and especially for his contributions in the fields of plant
physiology and ecology. The first botanist to put the assay
of auxins on a quantitative basis, he subsequently has added
substantially to our knowledge of the hormonal relations of
plants. He has also been an outstanding investigator of the
growth of plants under controlled environmental conditions.
Ralph Harley Wetmore - 1956
Plant anatomist and student of morphogenesis, for his numerous
investigations of the developmental anatomy of vascular plants
and for his studies on morphogenesis of vascular cryptograms.
Truman George Yuncker - 1956
For his lifetime of effective teaching at the undergraduate
level, which has resulted in launching many able young scholars
into careers in botany, and for effective contributions in
taxonomy, especially of the Piperaceae.