PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
SPRING 2006 VOLUME 52 NUMBER 2
The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists
Table of Contents
Extraordinary, "Ordinary" American Botanists
Sherwood Foster: An Academic Grandchild Remembers
News from the Society
Centennial Meeting begins on 28 July 2006
: The Planning Countdown
Grady L. Webster Award
Notes From the Office
Young Botanist of the Year - Certificate of Special Achievement
BSA Science Education News and Notes
How to Develop and Deliver Botany Workshops for K-12 Teachers
BSA Contact Information
News from the Sections
Hello Development and Structure Section Members!
Jack A. Wolfe, 1936-2005. Paleobotanist
The Rupert Barneby Award
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Integrating Evolution, Development, and Genomics
3rd International Orchid Conservation Congress and 2nd
International Conference on Neotropical
Second Meeting of the International Society for
Evolution of the Compositae
: A Symposium
53rd Annual Systematics Symposium,
Missouri Botanical Garden
Plant Collections Manager
(Manager of Scientific Collections)
Post Doctoral Position. Mechanisms of
Pierce's disease transmission in grape vines
Grants in Ornamental Horticulture
Botanical Research Reports 30 Endangered & Threatened
Plant Species at the Franklin Parker Preserve
Turn Used Gardening Plastic Into
Botanical Garden Admission
Pfizer Plant Research Laboratory to open at The New
York Botanical Garden
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 4475 Castleman Avenue,
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299. The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in
the membership dues of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Periodical postage
paid at St. Louis,MO and additional mailing office.
Address Editorial Matters (only) to:
Marsh Sundberg, Editor
Dept. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ.
1200 Commercial St.
Emporia, KS 66801-5057
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:
Botanical Society of America
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
Editorial Committee for Volume 52
Douglas W. Darnowski (2006)
Department of Biology
Indiana University Southeast
New Albany, IN 47150
Andrea D. Wolfe (2007)
Department of EEOB
1735 Neil Ave., OSU
Columbus, OH 43210-1293
Samuel Hammer (2008)
College of General Studies
Boston, MA 02215
Joanne M. Sharpe (2009)
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens
P.O. Box 234
Boothbay ME 04537
Nina L. Baghai-Riding (2010)
Division of Biological and Physical Sciences
Delta State University
Cleveland, MS 38677
Extraordinary, "Ordinary" American Botanists
Each of the past three issues of Plant Science Bulletin has highlighted
one of the Presidents of the Botanical Society of America from the era of
our 50th anniversary as a Society. In the current issue we add
Adriance Foster. One of the goals of this "100
th Anniversary Series" was to take advantage of the memories of some
of the students and colleagues of these distinguished botanists who could
provide some personal insight into the personality and character of these
distinguished botanists that most of us know only by their reputation as
researchers and frequently as textbook authors. I have found these articles
to be fascinating and informative and I'm sure that many of you feel the
But this is really only part of our heritage of distinguished and significant
American botanists over the past 100 years. If you are like me, there
was one, or maybe two, individual botanists who made a significant
impact on your career _ perhaps introducing you to botany as a potential
career, or turning your path to a specific discipline, or serving as model
of integrity and excellence.
If you would like to share a paragraph or two about a particular botanical
mentor who had such an impact on you, please send it to me at email@example.com
for a future article (or series) on the extraordinary, "ordinary"
American botanists of the past 50 years.
Adriance Sherwood Foster: An Academic Grandchild
"Don't you know, Stefan, the salient point is . . .."
These words will always conjure up the memory of Adriance
S. Foster to one of the authors (SJK), who had Foster as a professor for
undergraduate classes at UC-Berkeley. SJK was privileged to take Foster's
Plant Morphology course and his Plant Anatomy class the final time they were
offered prior to Foster's retirement although he did not appreciate at the
time how fortunate he was to be taking those classes.
AMH was aware of Foster (and E.M. Gifford) as an undergraduate student
only through their seminal textbook Morphology of Vascular Plants.
However, she met Foster when she arrived
as a graduate student at UC-Berkeley although by that this time he was already
retired. Nevertheless, she asked him
to be an examiner on her oral qualifying examination (more about this later).
But who was this person that he made such a lasting impression on both of
Adriance Sherwood Foster was born on August
6, 1901 in Poughkeepsie
, New York.
He did his undergraduate work at
and received a B.S. degree in 1923. He then went on to
where he earned an M.S. degree in 1925 and a D. Sci
. degree under the direction of Irving W. Bailey, the respected wood anatomist,
in the Bussey Institution in 1926.
The Bussey Institution was established
under the Morrell Act with
in 1872 for research in agriculture and horticulture (1).
Foster was a graduate student in the applied biology program, but
was a "free spirit" (7), and followed his own research interests for this
thesis—bud scales of woody plants.
The results from his thesis were published in Biological Reviews in 1928.
Upon completing his degree at Harvard, Foster traveled to
England on a National Research Council fellowship to
do postdoctoral research with the renowned developmental physiologist, J.H.
Priestly, at the University
of Leeds (6).
At the same time, F.C. Steward, who later would achieve botanical
fame because he cloned an entire carrot plant from individual, cultured carrot
cells, was working on his doctoral degree at Leeds
. The two became friends, and later Steward would be influential in bringing
Foster to Berkeley
After Leeds, Foster took a position at the
University of Oklahoma
(1928-1934). It was here that Foster
met Helen Vincent, who would later become his wife. Helen was working on her
Master's degree at the University.
During this time, Foster did research on foliar determination of hickory
); this work was published in the Oklahoma Proceeding of the
Academy of Science
and the American Journal of Botany.
Foster was at the University
of Oklahoma during
the heart of the Great Depression.
Adding to the economic desperation of the Depression was the local environmental
Oklahoma was a drought-stricken dust bowl in the
1930's. For eight years, the winds
blew and the rains failed, destroying crops, covering houses with dust, and
making everyday life impossibly difficult for Oklahomans.
Many of these, the so-called "Okies",
drifted west to California
Foster in 1954. Photo from M.S. Cave
looking for a new life away from the unending
dust storms. Foster was a part of
this exodus. George Cross, who eventually
became the President of the
University of Oklahoma
, succeeded Foster in the plant anatomist position.
Ultimately, Foster's doctoral student from Berkeley, Norman
Boke, assumed the plant anatomy professor position at the
University of Oklahoma
Steward, Foster's old friend from Leeds
, was a postdoctoral researcher with Dennis R Hoagland, a plant physiologist,
at UC Berkeley. Partly through this
connection, Foster came to Berkeley
in 1934 to a newly reorganized Department of Botany that not only included
plant taxonomy, but also plant nutrition, cytology, and structure (2).
Foster was the University's first plant anatomist (6).
, Foster studied bud scales of Ginkgo (which he pronounced "Jin-
Ko" much to the amazement of a young SJK), and thus began his seminal
research on shoot apical meristems (SAM).
When Foster looked at sections made through the SAM, he observed
that some cells were extremely vacuolated whereas others were not.
Previously, researchers had been interested primarily in following
cell lineages and assumed that all the cells of the SAM were identical.
The Ginkgo SAM was not homogenous in terms of cell types, and cell
lineages were not obvious. The different
sizes of the cells, their cytoplasmic density,
wall thickness, etc. all led Foster to use cytological characters to define
the SAM. He was the first person to
do this, and now his concept of zonation in the
SAM not only has been validated, but also extended by the use of molecular
markers to delimit the different zones.
Foster in1936. Photo from the Bancroft
His interest in meristems led him to
Cuba on a Guggenheim Fellowship to collect
Microcycas. San Pedro, a field biologist,
who co-authored a publication with Foster in 1942 on their research in
Cuba, took a picture of Foster next to the cycad in
; the photograph can be viewed in Morphology and Evolution of Vascular
Plants (p. 361, the third edition; 4).
Foster was also interested in dichotomous leaf venation because this
was considered to be an ancestral trait.
He chose Kingdonia and
Circasester, two herbaceous members of the
Ranales. AMH and SJK remember
Foster in his office on the second floor of the old Life Sciences Building,
with jars of cleared leaves of these Ranalean
species. Publications about dichotomous
venation started in the 1950's and continued until the 1970's right before
his death. Also, Foster's work on
cleared leaves had an impact on other fields.
He recommended their use in paleobotany
, especially for studies of species composition, paleoecosystems
, and paleoclimate, because more information
can be gleaned from leaf venation patterns than just from leaf shape and
size alone (
). Many museums now house diverse collections
of cleared leaves, which are mounted between pieces of glass or
plexiglass for viewing by microscopy.
From 1955-1960, Foster took on the responsibility of the chairmanship
of the Botany Department during a period of expansion at UC Berkeley (6).
At the same time, he and Gifford were
working on the first edition of their book and Foster was teaching plant anatomy
and morphology classes as well as doing scientific research.
Foster always followed his instincts and interests rather than the
current trends in his choices of research topics (6).
As a consequence, he was much less well known than some of his plant
morphologist/anatomist contemporaries although he served as president of
the California Botanical Society in 1954 and Botanical Society of America
in 1955 (6). He passed on his independent
spirit to the doctoral students that worked with him, or jointly with him
and Lincoln Constance. He also bequeathed
his high standards and quality of workmanship.
Over twenty Ph.D. students studied under his direction, many of them
also became leaders in the field of plant structure: Herbert Wagner, Sherwin
Carlquist, Ernest Gifford, Norman
Boke, Ernest Ball, Howard Arnott, Donald
Kaplan, and Fred Rickson, his last student.
In addition, Foster has had a lasting effect all of us who read his and
Gifford's book in introductory plant biology courses.
Where else is it possible to learn so much about living and extinct
plants in one place? However, this
book was not his first literary effort.
His book Practical Plant Anatomy, first published in 1942, is a tour
de force. This textbook, designed
as a laboratory manual, was meant to bridge the gap between theory and observation.
In addition to suggesting the use
of many common plants as subjects for study, Foster not only described what
was known about plant anatomy up to the time the book was published, but
also asked the student to prepare detailed drawings and notes on the plant
material (3). Many of the plants suggested
for visualization of collenchyma (celery),
sclereids (pear fruit or pea seed coats), and various tissues and
organs of the plant are still commonly studied today.
Learning plant anatomy from Practical Plant Anatomy with Foster
as the instructor was an amazing experience as SJK discovered when he was
an undergraduate student. Foster had
a deep interest in the differentiation of single plant cells.
He was fascinated by idioblasts, which
had a significant role in the first lectures and laboratories of the course.
While Foster was a fine teacher, he
would often not spell out where the path was leading, preferring the student
to make the final connections. He
would teach the steps along the path and the "Don't you know" (which we frequently
didn't know) would merely give tantalizing hints.
He would always help the student along, but he would never spoon-feed
them. Foster was the consummate scholar-teacher,
receiving the Botanical Society of America's Merit Award in 1959.
Unfortunately, Practical Plant Anatomy was not illustrated, thereby
leaving a niche open for an illustrated plant anatomy text that was. Katherine
Esau, who is thanked by Foster in his preface for reading both the first
and second editions of his book, authored Plant Anatomy in 1953.
Her exceptionally well-illustrated text supplanted Practical Plant
Anatomy and is considered even today as the "bible" of plant anatomy.
Back in the days when AMH and SJK were doctoral students at UC-Berkeley,
one had to take an oral qualification examination no later than the beginning
of the third year of graduate school.
Unlike today's oral exams, which usually involve writing a grant proposal
on some topic outside of the student's Ph.D. research, we were expected to
study five diverse fields of plant biology and then to be asked detailed
questions about them by five examiners.
In addition, the Ph.D. advisor (in AMH's case,
Don Kaplan) could not sit on the exam.
Hence, AMH had to ask Foster to come out of retirement and sit as the examiner
for plant structure on her committee.
He graciously agreed to do so. About
90 minutes into the exam, Foster asked AMH a question about the differences
between seed structure in gymnosperms and angiosperms and to draw them on
the board. As she turned to the board
and started drawing, all of a sudden she heard a yelp and smelled smoke.
Apparently, Foster, who at that time
was a clandestine smoker, had attempted to light a cigarette (these were
the days when smoking in conference rooms was not verboten) and instead ignited
the entire matchbook, slightly burning his fingers.
As AMH turned, everyone on the committee was batting out the flames,
and decorum was soon re-established.
It was one of the shortest oral examinations on record.
Upon retirement, Foster pursued interests that he had
not the time or inclination to follow earlier.
He learned how to play the piano, often playing at departmental Christmas
parties. He had a wonderful sense
of humor and a twinkle in his eye.
However, Foster died unexpectedly on May 1, 1973 before SJK and AMH finished
their doctoral degrees. Just like
grandchildren who, because of the age difference, do not know their grandparents
very well, AMH did not really know Foster well before writing this article.
Although she had read his book cover
to cover and had the privilege of having him serve on her qualifying exam,
she knew little about the depth and extent of his influence on research,
teaching, and service. SJK was fortunate
to have been a student in Foster's plant anatomy and morphology courses the
last time he taught them, and hence had the opportunity to witness a dedicated
teacher first-hand. Clearly, he has
left a lasting impression on us… don't you know?
Ann M. Hirsch, Department of Molecular Cell, and Developmental Biology
and Molecular Biology Institute, University
Los Angeles, CA90095. Stefan J.
Kirchanski, Liner, Yankelevitz,
LLP, Los Angeles,
1. Anonymous. 1936. The Bussey Institute of
2. Constance, L. 1978.
Botany at Berkeley
. The first hundred years. Privately printed booklet.
3. Foster, A.S. 1942.
Practical Plant Anatomy. D. van Nostrand
Co., Inc. Princeton, NJ.
4. Gifford, E.M. and A.S. Foster. 1989.
Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. 3rd
Edition. W.H. Freeman
and Co. New York,
NY. 626 pp.
5. Kaplan, D.R. 1973. Adriance Sherwood Foster
(1901-1973) An Appreciation.
Plant Sci. Bull. 19:57-59.
6. Kaplan, D.R., L. Constance, and R. Emerson. 1977.
Adriance Sherwood Foster, Botany:
Berkeley. In Memorium
7. Kaplan, D.R. 2005. Telephone Interview. September,
News from the Society
Centennial Meeting begins on 28 July 2006:
The Planning Countdown
The BSA Centennial Meeting Planning Committee began its work in
autumn 2003. Now, with the help of the BSA Office staff and others,
we are almost ready for the "Meeting of the Century" to begin.
We enthusiastically invite you to join us in recognizing
over one-hundred years of service to the plant sciences community.
It goes without saying, we are proud of our past and the people who
have brought us to where we stand today.
As a Society we look forward to playing an important role in the future of
the plant sciences as we work towards fulfilling the mission of the BSA
. To celebrate our rich heritage and
to strengthen our collective vision, this Centennial meeting will include:
- Betty Smocovitis' publication (going to
press soon) and plenary talk on the history of BSA;
- A specially-designed Centennial medallion to be given to each attendee;
- Displays of historically-interesting items (if you have things you
would like to share, contact Bill Dahl);
- A recognition ceremony for prominent botanists;
- Many symposia:
- A Century Of Wood Anatomy and 75 Years Of IAWA
- Botanical Cyber-infrastructure: Issues, Challenges, Opportunities, and Initiatives
- Bringing Together The Living And Dead: Integrating Extant And Fossil Biodiversity In Evolutionary Studies
- Ecological Responses of Bryophytes to Changing Climate
- Evolution, Ecology And Floristics In Northern California-Current Knowledge and Unexplored Realms
- Flora Of North America: Synergy With Other Botanical Projects
- Human Transformation Of California: Botany, History, and Sociology>
- Hybridization As A Stimulus For The Evolution Of Invasiveness In Plants
- Land Plant Evolution:Phylogenetics and Beyond
- Lichens as Bioindicators of Air Quality
- New Advances in FernEcology
- Paleobotany in the Post-Genomics Era
- The Comparative - Phylogenetic Method Of Reconstructing Evolutionary History
- The Evolution Of Ericales: Recent Insights Using Both Morphology And Molecules
- Field trips, socials, the banquet and special lectures;
- Student Job Fair
- A perspective on Botany from each of the Sections
- A strategic planning session, "Looking to the Future, Conserving the
Past" on Wednesday afternoon, August 2nd.
What is left to do? We need to remind everyone
that it is time to complete their plans to attend the Centennial Meeting.
We look forward to being able to
greet you in Chico!
BSA Centennial Planning Committee and the BSA Office Staff
Grady L. Webster Award
The Botanical Society of America is pleased to announce the formation
of the GRADY L. WEBSTER AWARD, established in March, 2006 by BSA President
(1983) Dr. Barbara D. Webster, and daughter Dr. Susan V. Webster to honor
the life and work of husband and father, Dr. Grady L. Webster.
The Grady L. Webster Award is a rotating award presented by
the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and the Botanical Society of America
in alternating years. Grady was an
ASPT President (1982), BSA President (1993), and recipient of both the ASPT
Asa Gray Award (2006) and the BSA Merit Award
(1997). The American Society of Plant
Taxonomists and the Botanical Society of America are pleased to join together
in honoring Grady.
The BSA component of the award, the Grady L. Webster Structural Botany
Publication Award recognizes the most outstanding paper published in the
American Journal of Botany in the field of structural and developmental botany
(i.e., anatomy and morphology) over a two-year period, or a book, monograph
and miscellaneous publication of significant importance in the same field.
The ASPT component of the award, the
Grady L. Webster Plant Systematics Publication
Award will be given in even numbered years and will represent the paper illustrating
the most significant contribution consistent with Grady's own interests and
focus in systematics.
The first award will be given by the BSA in July of 2007 at the
Grady is remembered as a person whose contributions has been truly monumental
in the recent history of plant systematics and
constitutes a massive body of work that rivals anything produced through the
initiative and influence of a single individual.
More importantly, Grady inspired young people with his passion and
energy for seeing plants in their natural habitat and his global knowledge
of vegetation. He will be remembered
for the importance of his contributions to our knowledge of tropical and
subtropical plants; his infectious, wry sense of humor; and his warm and
constant support of his friends and family
Notes From the Office
Botany 2006 is set to be one of the most significant botanical conferences
in modern times. It will be a gathering
point for plant scientists, bringing together a diverse group of botanists.
This group will include members who
were on the cutting edge of plant science before and during the Kennedy era,
those who built on the foundations of the Society and kept it relevant during
changing times. It will also include
members who are on the leading edge of science today, those guiding the Society
during a period where the plant sciences are becoming ever more important
in providing solutions for man made problems.
And of course, it will include those who will be the leaders of tomorrow.
On behalf of the staff let me say
we are looking forward to meeting you all in
a safe trip and we'll see you in the golden state.
Please note: Chico will be warm, keep this in mind when planning your visit.
For those flying into Sacramento and planning to use the shuttle bus to Chico,
please ensure you have made your reservations (https://rce.csuchico.edu/botany2006
If we can be of any assistance or help in any way, please contact us. The BSA
Office can be reached through firstname.lastname@example.org
or by phoning 314-577-9566. Johanne can be contacted at email@example.com
Scientific Inquiry through Plants (Sip3)
continues to develop and take plants, scientific inquiry and scientists into
classrooms around the country. We've been in 13 states, 14 different schools,
worked with 17 educators and over 1,000 students. We continue to refine the
student/teacher/scientist interface as we learn more about online science mentoring
and we've made it very easy for you to take part. We now have over 60 scientist
mentors participating in the project. The only person missing at the moment
is you! To find out more about the Sip3 project and to register to
participate, visit the web site at http://www.plantbiology.org.
Membership renewal starts again in October.
I'm aware the Summer PSB might seem a bit early to start mentioning
renewal, so I won't. What I'd like
you to think about over the summer is the development of new student members.
There has never been a better time
to encourage or support students in becoming BSA members.
The benefits of a student membership so far surpass the minimal cost
that it's scary to mention award and travel opportunities, student discounts,
meetings, peer development…. and the list goes on and on…. Please think
how you might involve more of your students in the activities of the BSA.
Young Botanist of the Year - Certificate of Special
John C. Benedict, Arizona State University Dr. Kathleen B. Pigg
Meagan Coneybeer, Denison University Dr. Warren Hauk
Justin Cummings, Eastern Illinois University Dr. Scott J. Meiners
Matthew Dumlao, University of California , Davis Dr. Judy Jernstedt
Faiza Fakhar, Miami University Dr. Michael A. Vincent
Veder Garcia, University of Maryland College Park Dr. Todd Cooke
Scott Gevaert, Saint Louis University Dr. Janet C. Barber
Keith Gilland, Miami University Dr. Carolyn Howes Keiffer
Vincent Hustad, Eastern Illinois University Dr. Andrew S. Methven
Alana Oldham, Humboldt State University Dr. Alexandru MF Tomescu
Elizabeth (Ely) Huerta Ortiz, University of California, Davis Dr. Judy
Michael J. Patterson, James Madison University
Dr. Conley K. McMullen
Melissa Schwind, Miami University Dr. John Kiss
Dianne Velasco, University of California Davis Dr. Judy Jernstedt
BSA Science Education
News and Notes
Welcome to a new section in the Plant Science Bulletin. Science Education
News and Notes will encompass happenings about the BSA's
education efforts and the broader science education scene.
We hope you will look forward to, and perhaps contribute to, these
Become a Leader in Plant Science Education
Looking for ways to become more involved in and better informed about science
education? The BSA offers ongoing
and annual opportunities. If you have
an inquiry activity that allows students to explore a key concept in plant
biology, the Scientific Inquiry through Plants program (
) welcomes your ideas. Join us for
a special workshop to develop new inquiry units during the 5th
annual Education and Outreach Forum (July 29 & 30) in
The Forum promises to be informative and fun, with opportunities
to share innovate ways to infuse plants across informal and K-16 formal education
efforts. A highlight of the Forum will be keynote speaker Roger
Hangarter, whose sLowlife exhibit and
award winning Plants-in-Motion website (
) encourage a view of plants as dynamic, sensory organisms.
The 2006 Science and Engineering Indicators
are Out , and We have Work to Do
"By the time U.S. students
reach their senior year, the report states, "even the most advanced
U.S. students perform at or near the bottom
on international assessments."
"We know," concludes the National Science Board, "that there is a need
to make drastic changes within the Nation's science and mathematics classrooms.
If not, our Nation risks raising generations
of students and citizens who do not know how to think critically and make
informed decisions based on technical and scientific information."
National Science Board. 2006. Science and
Engineering Indicators 2006. Two volumes.
VA: National Science Foundation (volume 1, NSB 06-01;
volume 2, NSB 06-01A). Available online at
Students' Understanding of Plant Biology
It is the first day of class.
Your new students sit wide-eyed in their desks eager to deepen their understanding
of plant biology. And you
wonder, what prior knowledge they bring to your class.
Two recent studies examine the ideas young learners (K-7) hold about
U.S. and Greek students alike hold common
misconceptions (or preconceptions): 1. plants require food from an outside
source and 2. plants breathe carbon dioxide and
oxygen. Do your students share these
ideas about plant growth and photosynthesis?
Edible plants take center stage in a new text for students in grades 9-12.
Garden Genetics features familiar foods in activities and inquiry-based
experiments that integrate genetics, ecology, evolution, and social science.
Barman, C.R., Stein, M., McNair, S., and Barman, N.S.
2006. Students' ideas about plants and growth. American Biology Teacher
, P. and Galanopoulou, D. 2006. Pupils'
understanding of photosynthesis: A questionnaire for the simultaneous assessment
of all aspects. International Journal of Science Education
Rice, E., Krasny, M.,
and Smith, M.E. 2006. Garden Genetics: Teaching with Edible Plants.
VA: NSTA Press.
We invite you to submit news items or ideas for future features.
Contact: Claire Hemingway, BSA Education Director, at firstname.lastname@example.org
or Marshall Sundberg, PSB Editor, at
How to Develop and Deliver Botany Workshops for K-12 Teachers
David W. Kramer
Asst. Prof. of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal
D. Timothy Gerber, University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse
, and I presented a "workshop on workshops" for the Forum at the 2004 meeting
of the Botanical Society. Our goal was to help members fulfill that portion
of Botany for the Next Millenium which
urges us to support K-12 teachers. Both of us have planned and implemented
teacher workshops and want to share what we learned. Our purpose is to encourage
our colleagues to offer such workshops and to help them avoid some pitfalls.
We also want to offer our teacher workshops as models.
An outline of the Forum "workshop on workshops" is at
The site includes links to specific information about the teacher workshops
both of us have presented on our campuses. It isn't too early to begin planning
News from the Sections
Hello Development and Structure Section Members!
I want to call your attention to funding opportunities that are available
for student travel to the Botany 2006 meeting. Students who are presenting
papers in Development and Structure Section sessions at Botany 2006 or who
are or have advisors who are members of the section are eligible for travel
awards from the section. Applications for Development and Structure Section
travel awards can be made via the Web at
Please also note that Vernon I. Cheadle Student
Travel Awards are available to students who will be presenting papers on
topics related to development and structure. Applications for
Cheadle awards also can be made via the Web at
There are nine opportunities overall for student travel support listed
on the BSA home page at
. The new Conant "Botanical Images" Award
sounds fun and interesting. Be involved to benefit!
Award applications are due each year on 1 May.
Current graduate and undergraduate students as well as graduate students
who completed their degrees within the last year are eligible to apply for
BSA Contact Information
All inquiries for the BSA Business Office should be directed to:
Executive Director: William Dahl and / or Administrative Coordinator: Wanda Lovan
BSA Business Office
Botanical Society of America, Inc.
P.O. Box 299
Office hours are 7:30 am to 4:30 pm Central Time
President: Ed Schneider - email@example.com
All inquiries about the Botany 2006 meeting (and any other future meeting)
should be directed to:
Mrs. Johanne Stogran , Meetings Manager. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Voice: 614-292-3519 Fax: 614-247-6444
Jack A. Wolfe, 1936-2005. Paleobotanist
On August 12th 2005 the world of paleobotany
lost one of its greatest research minds of the last half of the 20th
Century. Jack Wolfe was not only an extraordinary systematist
with an encyclopaedic knowledge of angiosperm
leaf architecture, but he went where few paleobotanists
dare go; he ventured into the realms of multivariate statistics in pursuit
of uantifying the relationship between foliar
hysiognomy and climate. His ability to go well
eyond botanical observation and description into
using fossil leaves as tools for understanding nvironmental
change through time has defined an
rea in modern palaeobotany that has found
pplication is fields as diverse as meteorology
and crustal dynamics.
Born and raised in Portland
Oregon, Jack Albert Wolfe attended
Franklin High School
where, with the encouragement of his biology teacher Anne
Bohlen, he first developed his interest in palaeobotany
. Anne was the adviser to the school Science Club and in 1952 she arranged
a club visit to the fossil museum that Lon Hancock, a retired postal worker
had made in his home. Lon was an amateur who had helped furnish localities
and material to both Ralph Chaney and Chester Arnold, and was a founder of
Museum of Science &
Industry (OMSI). Lon, under the auspices of OMSI, started a summer field
camp in the John Day
Basin of central
Oregon. Looking for a research project to write up
for the Westinghouse Science Talent Search, Jack attended the second year
of the OMSI field camp and became fascinated with two classic
alaeobotanical sites near the camp: the Clarno
nut bed and the Bridge Creek leaf flora. Jack's project must have been impressive
because, as one of 40 finalists, he won a trip to Washington
and one of the contest judges, the Harvard astronomer Harlow
Shapley, encouraged Jack to apply to both Harvard and
Princeton. Unfortunately the application and scholarship deadlines
had both passed, but still Shaply made encouraging
noises. In the end Jack finished in the top 10 and went to Harvard in 1953
on a full scholarship.
At Harvard, Jack did his undergraduate research under
the direction of botanist Elso S.
Barghoorn and where for almost every day for 3 years Jack had
unch and coffee with the group that included I.W. Bailey, Don Whitehead,
and Margaret Davis, among others, and visitors such as Sherwin
Carlquist. With the stimulation of such company and building on his
avid collecting in the Pacific Northwest
, Jack had his first paleobotanical publication
only a year after being admitted to Harvard. It was on the
Collawash flora of the upper
Clackamas River Basin
and appeared in the Newsletter of the Geological Society of Oregon. During
the summers at Harvard Jack gained further field experience joining, on separate
occasions, Roland Brown, Dallas Peck and J.F. Smith who were all with the
US Geological Survey (USGS). In this way Jack gained a breadth of experience
that went way beyond palaeobotany and saw him
mapping Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Cascades and
Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks in
In 1957 Jack began his graduate studies in paleobotany
under Wayne L. Fry, A.S. Foster and Herbert L. Mason and in 1959 was awarded
an M.A. in Palaeontology after writing a thesis
on the Tertiary Juglandaceae of Western North
America. At Berkeley
, Jack was particularly influenced by J. Wyatt Durham, the mollusk/echinoderm
worker. Jack realised that mollusk workers had
rigorous criteria for identifying their material and this prompted him to
try the same approach with angiosperm leaves. With the encouragement of
Adriance Foster (an I.W. Bailey connection) Jack starting leaf clearing
in 1958 and by 1969 this had evolved into a project to survey modern
dicots using cleared leaves. Eventually the USGS cleared leaf collection
(now housed at the Smithsonian Institution in
Washington) represented around 15,000 species and
Jack had become, in his own words, "the largest herbarium beetle known to
exist". His rigorous approach was one of the major foundation stones of modern
leaf architectural analysis in fossil angiosperm leaf identification and
In 1960 (when still only 23) Jack completed his PhD dissertation
on the early Miocene floras of northwest
Oregon. This rapid academic advancement was achieved
alongside reporting on referred fossils for the US Geological Survey under
the supervision of Preston E. Cloud. Jack's industry was rewarded with a post
that led him to being Research Geologist with the US Geological Survey,
Menlo Park California
. Jack remained with the USGS throughout much of his career, mostly at
Menlo Park, but with spells in Washington
DC (1961-65) and
In 1969 Jack produced his first major work on fossil floras: it was a synthesis
of his findings on the Late Tertiary floras of the Pacific Northwest, which
he published in Madrono in time for it
to be handed out to attendees of the International Botanical Congress in
In the 1960's Jack also began work on the Tertiary floras of
Alaska. In publications with David Hopkins, Clyde
Wahrhaftig and Estella Leopold, he presented
a first cut on dating the younger floras of the Kenai Lowland as Late Tertiary.
Before this biostratigraphic work, many prominent
geologists considered the rocks of the Kenai Group as being of
Paleogene age. Jack continued and produced in 1977 a monumental and
thoughtful work on the Paleogene floras of
Alaska and Wrangellia
, which still stands as an exceptional monograph. One of the reasons it was
so notable is that he established for the first time that truly subtropical
floras existed as far north as 60° N. Lat.
Jack's primary role at the USGS was to use plant
megafossils for biostratigraphic and
paleoenvironmental determinations, but through his collaboration with
Elso Barghoorn he
also factored the pollen record into his deliberations. He not only undertook
fieldwork himself, primarily in the western US including
Alaska, but also identified material brought in to him by scores
of geologists working throughout the
United States. After a long and highly productive
career at the USGS Jack retired to and adjunct position with the University
of Arizona in 1992, where he remained an active researcher and, as at Berkeley,
actively supervised research students, most of whom have continued working
in paleobotany and have co-authored papers with
One of his important monographs, published in 1979, was the climatic analysis
of the forest types in eastern
China described by Wang Chi Wu in the 1960's.
He adapted the quantitative comparison of mean annual temperature with seasonal
range of temperatures in different forest types. It resulted in his development
of nomograms that sketch out the climatic parameters
of the forest types, not only for eastern China
, but for eastern and western North America and
Australia. His nomogram
models are widely used by botanists today.
While Jack's reputation as a systematist and
biostratigrapher will be remembered for a long
time, probably his most innovative work was in quantifying the relationship
between leaf form and environmental conditions, primarily climate. Following
on from the pioneering work of I.W. Bailey and E.W.Sinnott
, Jack recognised that leaf form is controlled
by an interplay between the genotype honed through
evolution and a spectrum of environmental factors. As early as the late 1970's
he realised that the best way to decode the complex
form/climate relationship was through multivariate analysis. He set about
building and testing a unique database of foliar physiognomic characters derived
from leaves of woody dicots growing in vegetation
for which the climate (weather-station data) is quantified through long term
observation. His rigorous collecting methodology incorporated the full observable
morphological range rendering the approach remarkably robust in the face
of taphonomic filters. The technique, which he
named CLAMP (Climate Leaf Multivariate Programme
), has found application not only in the North America and Japan where the
calibration datasets have their origin, but in Russia, Europe, South America
and New Zealand. Most spectacularly the technique yields data on enthalpy,
a property of a parcel of air that can be used to determine
paleoelevation. In recent years this approach has been applied to
the uplift of Tibet and
the Andes. However for some years Jack had
an interest in the uplift history of the western US and it was here that
he tested the technique, something he was still working on when he died falling
from an outcrop in the eastern Sierras.
Jack always had an eye for detail and abhorred what he regarded as sloppy
work. This, coupled with a tendency to be fairly
brusque, a trait that he sometimes resorted to in order to disguise his innate
shyness, led to feuds with some colleagues and he was a critical reviewer.
Nevertheless those who became his close friends discovered a man of great
intellect, loyalty, warmth and generosity.
Jack Wolfe is already sorely missed by his colleagues and students. We
have lost a singular leader and scholar of paleobotany
. We are privileged to honour his life by following
where he led in the study of the major evolutionary and
stratigraphic problems, and the relationship between plants and climate:
areas of endeavour where Jack blazed an important
Bob Spicer and Estella Leopold.
The Rupert Barneby Award
The New York
Botanical Garden is
pleased to announce that Rodrigo Duno de Stefano
, of the Centro de Investigación
Científica de Yucatán A. C. (CICY), is
the recipient of the Rupert Barneby Award
for the year 2006. He will be studying the family Leguminosae
in the Yucatan Peninsula Biotic Province (YPBP),
Mexico. With about 60 genera and more than
260 species there, the Leguminosae are one of
the most important plant elements of the
Yucatan region. This study will also contribute to
a revision of four legume genera for the "Illustrated Flora of the
" (G. Carnevali, general editor).
The New York
Botanical Garden now
invites applications for the Rupert Barneby
Award for the year 2007. The award of US$ 1,000.00 is to assist researchers
to visit The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection of
Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit
their curriculum vitae, a detailed letter describing the project for which
the award is sought, and the names of 2-3 referees. Travel to the NYBG should
be planned for sometime in the year 2007. The application should be addressed
to Dr. James L. Luteyn,
Institute of Systematic Botany
, The New York Botanical Garden,
200th Street and
Kazimiroff Blvd., Bronx
, NY 10458-5126
received no later than December 1, 2006. Announcement of the recipient will
be made by December 15th.
Anyone interested in making a contribution to THE RUPERT BARNEBY FUND
IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS, which supports this award, may send their check,
payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Luteyn
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Integrating Evolution, Development, and Genomics, University
of California , Berkeley, May 31-June 2, 2006
We are pleased to announce the first international U.C. Berkeley Integrating
Evolution, Development and Genomics Conference May 31st through June 2nd
2006. This meeting is organized by graduate students and is inspired by the
integration of evo-devo research programs at
U.C. Berkeley. The meeting has been designed to be small in order to offer
many opportunities for meaningful interactions between faculty, student,
and post-doc attendees.
The meeting will include multiple non-concurrent symposia covering a wide
range of evolutionary developmental biology topics, including paleontology,
comparative morphology, and genomics. In addition to talks from the confirmed
invited speakers listed below, additional, shorter talks and posters will
be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be lunchtime workshops,
a dinner for speakers and students hosted by local graduate students at their
homes, and receptions around the
To register for the meeting, or to submit an abstract, please visit
. We would like to remind everyone that since conference attendance
is limited, we encourage you to register as soon
as possible. The registration and abstract submission deadline is April 14th.
We look forward to seeing you in Berkeley this spring.
IEDG 2006 Organizers
Confirmed Invited Speakers:, Patricia Beldade ( Leiden University ), Anthony
DeTomaso (Stanford), Mike Eisen (LBL, U.C. Berkeley), Greg Elgar (Queen Mary,
Univ. of London ), Sarah Hake (U.C. Berkeley), Jukka Jernvall (University of
Helsinki), David Lambert (University of Rochester), Mike Levine (U.C. Berkeley),
Sally Leys (University of Alberta), Chris Lowe (University of Chicago), Jim
Mallet (University College London), Phil Newmark ( University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign),
Nipam Patel (U.C. Berkeley), Richard Prum (Yale), Dan Rokhsar (U.C. Berkeley),
Elaine Seaver (University of Hawaii ), Mike Shapiro (University of Utah), Moya
Smith (Kings College London), Ulrich Technau (SARS ,International Center for
Marine Molecular Biology), John Willis (Duke University), Greg Wray (Duke University
At the University of California, Berkeley : Center for Integrative
Genomics, Dept of Integrative Biology, Dept of Molecular & Cell Biology,
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Museum of Paleontology, University and Jepson
The Crustacean Society, Deep Gene Research Coordination Network
3rd International Orchid Conservation Congress and 2nd
International Conference on Neotropical Orchidology.
This event, sponsored by the Orchid Specialists Group of the Species Survival
Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature will be
held March 19_24, 2007, in San Jose, Costa Rica. Organized by the
of Costa Rica) and
the Charles H. Lankester Foundation, the congress
will provide a forum for sharing knowledge, concerns, and hypotheses about
the current status of orchid conservation worldwide.
The primary objective will be to broaden the spectrum of knowledge and
instruments of conservation. We aim to include a broad base of professionals,
both biologists and non-biologists, to analyze the factors that affect orchid
populations and to suggest feasible strategies for conservation. The implementation
of an International Agenda for Orchid Conservation will be reviewed and goals
will be proposed to support the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.
For further details see:
Second Meeting of the International Society for
Phylogenetic Nomenclature, Yale University, New Haven , June 28 - July 2, 2006
The Second Meeting of the International Society for
Phylogenetic Nomenclature will be held at
from June 28 to July 2, 2006. This meeting is an opportunity to discuss
topics that pertain to phylogenetic nomenclature
and the PhyloCode. In addition to providing a
forum to contribute oral and poster presentations, this meeting will include
three symposia with a number of invited guest speakers.
(Logistics and general information) and Walter Joyce (Program), Peabody
Museum of Natural History,
, 170 Whitney Avenue, PO Box
208118, New Haven,
Registration is set at $165 for regular members and $70 for students who
register by May 1, 2006. Late registration is $190 for regular members and
$75 for students who register by June 9, 2006. On-site registration is $215
for regular members and $85 for students. To register, please go to
and download the meeting second circular.
The conference will begin on June 29 with a lecture by David
Hillis (University of
Organizers: David Baum (University
Madison) and Benoit Dayrat
Speakers: David Baum (University
Madison), Julia Clarke (North
University), Benoit Dayrat
, Matthew Haber (
University of California
Implementing Phylogenetic Nomenclature
Organizer: Philip Cantino (
Speakers: Paul Berry (Washington
University), David Marjanovic
Paris 6), Paul Sereno
Organizers: Michael Donoghue (
and Nico Cellinese
Speakers: Michael Donoghue (
David Hibbett (
), Mikael Thollesson
speakers will be announced.
Evolution of the Compositae: A Symposium Barcelona
, 3-10 July 2006
Randall J. Bayer, CSIRO, Canberra ( Australia), Vicki A. Funk, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington (USA ), Núria Garcia-Jacas , Botanic Institute
of Barcelona ( Spain), Marinda Koekemoer , National Herbarium, Pretoria ( South
Africa), Christoph Oberprieler , University of Regensburg ( Germany), Santiago
Ortiz, University of Santiago (Spain ), Alfonso Susanna, Botanic Institute of
Barcelona ( Spain), Joan Vallès, University of Barcelona ( Spain)
Registration - To register for the Conference, please complete this form and
send it to the Technical Secretariat. The Secretariat will confirm the registration
once payment has been received.
All those presenting a paper should register before 1st May in order to
have the paper published.
Registration fees - Before 1st May, 2006 After 1st May, 2006, Registration
fee 300 340, Student fee (1) 100 130
(1) A certificate being an student will be required
Payment should be made by credit card on line. A 3% will be charged as bank
expenses. Cancellations - Before 1st May 50% of the registration will be refund.
After 1st May there will be no cancellation refunds.
Cancellations for the accommodation - Before 31th May 50% of the accommodation
will be refund. After 31th May there will be no cancellation refunds. All the
cancellation must be send in written to the Technical Secretariat of the congress:
53rd Annual Systematics Symposium, Missouri
Botanical Garden, 13-14 October, 2006 "Impact of Peter Raven
on Evolutionary and Biodiversity Issue in the 20th and 21st
Organizing committee: Barbara Schaal, Paul Berry, Peter Hoch,
Friday 7:30 _ 9:30 p.m. Informal mixer in
Saturday 8:30 am-8:30 p.m. Symposium presentations.
Speakers and Titles of Talks.
Diane Campbell- -Pollinator Shifts, Pollinator Losses, and Floral Evolution.
Paul Ehrlich- - Saving the World (after-dinner talk).
Ulrich Mueller- -Coevolutionary Principles
of Insect Fungiculture: Lessons for Human Agriculture.
Stephen O'Brien- -The Moving Landscape of Comparative Genomics in Mammals.
Christopher Pires- - Polyploidy and Chromosomal
Barbara Schaal- - Differentiation of Populations:
Gene Flow Redux.
Jun Wen- - Evolution of
Major Patterns of Plant Disjunctions.
Registration must be accompanied by a $75.00 registration fee, which covers
the cost of refreshments at the Friday mixer and lunch and dinner on Saturday.
Information on local hotels and motels will be sent to registrants. No refunds
will be granted after 28 September.
SPACE LIMITS REGISTRATION TO 400; PLEASE REGISTER EARLY
I plan to attend the Systematics Symposium.
Enclosed is my $75.00 registration fee. Please make checks payable to "
Missouri Botanical Garden
." I enclose my registration fee of $75.00________ I request vegetarian meals
My name and professional address:
Phone Fax E-mail
Please indicate if you are a a) graduate student______
b) undergraduate student___
Mail to: Systematics Symposium,
Missouri Botanical Garden
, P.O. Box 299,
St. Louis, MO
Future information will be posted at
P. Mick Richardson
Tel:314-577-5176; Fax: 314-577-0820
Plant Collections Manager (Manager of Scientific Collections, UCPEA
VII) Department of Ecology Evolutionary Biology
The Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology seeks a dedicated person
to manage the botanical holdings in a state-of-the-art combined collections
facility. The collections support teaching and research activities of the
Department and scientific public. The successful candidate will organize
and maintain the vascular and non-vascular plant herbaria and the
paleobotanical collection and will identify, prepare, catalog and
database preserved plant specimens and living arboretum specimens. The plant
collections manager responds to requests from faculty and visiting scientists
and shares responsibility for maintenance and operation of the combined collections
facility with other collections managers. The plant collections manager maintains
professional liaisons with curators at other institutions and assists other
agencies with species identifications, status of rare and endangered species,
etc. Other principal responsibilities are to manage all incoming and outgoing
loans, maintain the botanical collections database and website, mount and
label specimens acquired by the herbarium, curate the associated library,
and perform related duties as required. This position also involves training
of student workers and volunteers, preparation of public/instructional exhibits
and facility tours, participation in a collections management seminar, processing
of donations and exchanges and purchase of equipment and supplies.
Minimum Qualifications: M.S. degree in botany (or appropriate field);
fundamental curatorial skills; knowledge of plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature;
excellent computer and organizational skills; basic knowledge of taxonomic
Preferred Qualifications: Ph.D. in systematic botany or related
area and prior experience in herbarium management; detailed knowledge of
BG-BASE or similar electronic database;experience in data sharing initiatives
(e.g., GBIF, RBGE multisite); detailed knowledge
of modern curatorial standards and techniques; knowledge of standard loan
protocols and specimen packaging; knowledge of image capture and manipulation.
The review of applicants will begin on May 15, 2006 and will continue
until the position has been filled.
Please send cover letter, resume and three letters of
recommendation to: Dr. Don Les, Chair, Search Committee,
University of Connecticut
, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
75 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3043,
Post Doctoral Position
Mechanisms of Pierce's disease transmission in
A postdoctoral position is available working with a team of scientists
studying Pierce's disease in grapevines at U.C.
Davis. Our project is focused on understanding the plant-pathogen interactions
that produce accumulation, movement, and systemic infection of
Xylella bacteria within xylem conduits. We are especially interested
the relationship of disease symptoms to water transport and the movement
of bacteria downward and across impediments, e.g. pit membranes, transitions
from primary to secondary xylem, and graft unions. A qualified candidate
will have in depth knowledge of both plant anatomy and plant water relations.
Experience with electronic interfaces between instruments and PCs, various
forms of microscopy, and in situ techniques such
as immuno-localization is preferred. Responsibilities
will include the independent and/or collaborative design and development
of experimental methods, the preparation of grants and scientific manuscripts
for publication, participation in the maintenance of a collegial atmosphere
in the lab, and the ability to communicate and work with a diverse group
Position is available immediately.
Contacts: Professor Thomas L. Rost, Section
of Plant Biology; University of
95616; Ph. 530-752-0628; Fax 530-752-5410; Email Ctlrost@ucdavis.edu
Professor Mark A. Matthews;
. Dept. of Viticulture & Enology;
University of California
; Phone: 530-752-2048; FAX 530-752-0381; Email email@example.com
Grants in Ornamental Horticulture
The Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust invites applications for grants
up to $20,000 for education and research in ornamental horticulture. Not-for-profit
botanical gardens, arboreta, and similar institutions are eligible. The deadline
for applications is August 15, 2006. For current guidelines, contact Thomas
F. Daniel, Grants Director, SSHT, Dept. of Botany, California Academy of Sciences,
875 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103, USA (email:
Haseltonia is the peer-reviewed
publication of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America. It is published
annually in full color and features papers on all aspects of cacti, succulents
and their environs. Recent topics include new species descriptions, taxonomic
revisions, conservation reports, biochemistry, cytology, anatomy and physiology,
evolutionary biology, ethnobotany, pollination
studies, propagation, and pest control. Serious students of cactus and succulent
flora, taxonomists, horticulturalists, and botanical libraries will all find
Haseltonia a valuable addition to their collection.
We strongly encourage authors to submit their manuscripts on cacti or succulents
to Haseltonia. There are no page charges, even
for color figures. Haseltonia abstracts are indexed
on Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and Garden, Landscape &
Horticulture Index. URL:
Root Gorelick, Editor (Haseltonia@asu.edu and Gorelick.Root@epa.gov
Russell Wagner, Managing Editor (Wagner@lmi.net
Research Reports 30 Endangered & Threatened Plant Species at the Franklin
First time research conducted at Preserve in 100 years
CHATSWORTH, NJ, March 31, 2006 _ A two-year study of plant life
at the New Jersey Conservation Foundation's (NJCF) Franklin Parker Preserve
by Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) research scientists has identified 30 rare,
endangered, and threatened species, or about 6.5% of the plant population.
The 9,400-acre Pine Barrens preserve was
purchased by NJCF in 2003 in the largest private land conservation acquisition
in state history and is now managed jointly with the Department of Environmental
NJCF asked Brooklyn
Botanic Garden to research
the plant life on the property because of its expected habitat significance.
BBG proposed a comprehensive survey of the plants and vegetation in order
to identify the populations of rare plants that grew there allowing the Preserve
to better manage the land. Dating back to 1880, botanists had reported that
the site contained numerous rare plant populations, but for the past century
research was not possible because the land was privately owned and operated
as a cranberry farm.
Adjacent to 250,000 acres of state preserved lands, the Franklin Parker
Preserve is home to sandy roads that wind through pitch pine forest, blueberry
fields, shallow lakes and pristine streams. The Franklin Parker Preserve contains
some of the most beautiful wetlands in the Pine Barrens
and provides critical habitat for many unique wildlife species, such as
the Pine Barrens Tree Frog, in addition to the now documented rare and threatened
plant species. The preserve also filters rainwater that feeds into the Kirkwood-
Cohansey Aquifer, which is essential to protecting the pristine quality
of 17 trillion gallons of underground water. The preserve includes the headwaters
of the West Branch of the Wading
River watershed, which is known
for having some of the rarest and most unique plants in the
"We knew this was a special property," said Emile D.
DeVito, Ph.D., NJCF Manager of Science & Stewardship. "But we
had no idea how many critical species would still occur on the property after
all these years. This research is important because it identifies critical
natural resources and makes recommendations for managing the property to
Dr. Kerry Barringer, Ph.D., Curator of the
BBG's Herbarium, conducted most of the research
visiting the preserve every week from May through October of 2005.
Barringer was assisted by Dr. Gerry Moore, Ph.D.,
BBG's Director of Science. Moore grew
up in southern New Jersey and is an expert
on the Pine Barrens. In a recent report
to NJCF, BBG scientists noted that approximately 465 species of plants are
now known to exist on the Franklin Parker Preserve, 30 of which (6.5 percent)
are currently recognized as rare, threatened or endangered in New Jersey
by either the Natural Heritage Program or the Pinelands. "This percentage
of rare plants is extremely high and is especially remarkable considering
the high plant diversity in the preserve," said Barringer
"For a botanist, this project is a tremendous opportunity to study an extraordinary
ecosystem. The preserve is right in the middle of the
Pine Barrens, which is recognized worldwide as being a unique
place to study plants. Further, because the property was in private hands
until fairly recent, the historical records and plant inventory for the preserve
were previously unavailable to scientists. Through this collaboration, we
were able to search through these collections and plant records." Subsequently,
the botanist used these old records to help guide the fieldwork.
Barringer explained, "It was extremely rewarding to help provide part
of the data that the Conservation Foundation will use to restore parts of
the preserve where these species occurred.
Moore added, "In addition, we found some species that
had never been reported from the preserve. This is very encouraging because
it indicates that additional rare and threatened species have been able to
find a home in the preserve. And our collaboration further allows the scientists
at the Conservation Foundation to use the same data to identify critical
habitats for special preservation or restoration and to protect endangered
"There are many more endangered plant species in
New Jersey than there are endangered animal species—roughly
triple," said DeVito from the Preserve. However,
there are few programs in place to protect these critical components to the
natural systems. "Rare plant species are simply not on the general public's
radar screen," said DeVito. "If more people could
experience the beauty of a Pine Barrens
gentian or bog asphodel in bloom, there would be a lot more support for
these disappearing species." Despite
New Jersey's large number of endangered plant species,
there are only a few botanists working throughout the entire state to document
and protect these rare plants. NJCF and botanists in the Division of Parks
and Forestry are now collaborating to undertake ambitious new management
projects. In 2005, NJCF received a $25,000 grant from National Fish and Wildlife
Foundation to support this work.
One species that formerly grew in the preserve, American
americana), is federally listed as an
endangered species; another Long's bulrush
, is a candidate for federal listing. One existing species, the bog asphodel
), is a candidate for federal listing. Seven species are state endangered.
An additional nine species that grow in the preserve were included on the
Natural Heritage list until recently. Of the 30 rare, endangered and threatened
species, 18 have been found recently. Twelve are known only from historical
records, but Brooklyn
Botanic Garden's botanists
will spend the next year diligently searching for these species.
"The preserve is home to at least 12 additional plant species that are
characteristic of the New Jersey Pine Barrens,"
Moore said. "They may be relatively common in the
Pine Barrens, so they are not listed as endangered, but in
New Jersey they are restricted in their overall distribution
to the Pine Barrens."
As the first research team to explore and catalog the Preserve in more
than a century, the sense of discovery was keen throughout the project. According
to Barringer, "Maybe the biggest moment for me
was on a day in September the first year I worked in the Preserve. I was
working along the river, searching for populations of rare plants. It had
been a good day, but it was hot and getting late and I had been walking through
muck and pushing through thickets. I was heading back to the car, when by
pure chance I saw a dry stalk of Tofieldia
, called false asphodel. It was dry and the seed had been shed and I
thought it was something else at first, but when I saw a little patch of
dark, sticky hairs on the stalk I knew it was Tofieldia
. Now, Tofieldia is a very rare plant
and we had been looking for it since July. The plants that grow in the
Pine Barrens are only found in a couple of watersheds. It was
a good find — and when I looked up I saw that there were more plants growing
nearby. As I was looking around I realized that within a hundred yards of
the spot I was standing, there were at least a dozen different species of
very rare plants growing: asphodels and orchids, rare grasses and rushes,
the showy aster, and the bog goldenrod. They had probably been growing there
for a thousand years or more and would continue to grow there now that they
were part of the preserve."
NJCF has initiated several important projects to enhance public access
and to restore the preserve to its original wetlands state. In 2005, the
U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
and NJCF launched a wetlands preservation and restoration project at the
Franklin Parker Preserve _ the largest NRCS Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP)
project in the Northeast. NRCS and NJCF are collaborating on the restoration
of 1,100 acres of cranberry bogs and blueberry fields that have been altered
by historic agricultural practices. NJCF is also partnering with several
public and private organizations to restore approximately 150 acres of Atlantic
White Cedar forest, which is vital habitat for many threatened and endangered
species. The project is particularly important since 80 percent of the
Pine Barrens cedar swamp have been lost to non-sustainable timbering
The Garden's Moore
said, "We will work in the preserve through this season, as the Conservation
Foundation and the Pinelands Preservation Alliance set up long-term monitoring
of the rare plant populations. We should be finished with a scientific paper
describing the flora and vegetation of the preserve by the end of the year,
and we hope to see that published in 2007. "
NJCF has launched a $3 million campaign to help fund restoration and stewardship
activities at the Franklin Parker Preserve. To learn more about this effort
and NJCF's land preservation efforts statewide,
contact the Foundation at 1-888-LANDSAVE or visit www.njconservation.org.
Rare Plants at the Franklin Parker Preserve
dichotoma var. curtissii _
virgata _ three-awned grass
3. Asclepias rubra
_ red milkweed
4. Aster concolor or
Symphyotrichum concolor _ silvery
brevipilis _ Pine Barrens Reedgrass
divaricata _ spreading pogonia
autumnalis _ Pine Barrens gentian
8. Juncus caesariensis
_ New Jersey
9. Lobelia canbyi _ Canby's lobelia
10. Narthecium americanum
_ bog asphodel
11. Platanthera cristata
_ crested yellow orchid
autumnalis _ autumn snakeroot
cephalantha _ capitate Beak-rush
15. Rhynchospora pallida
_ pale beak-rush
pusilla _ curly grass fern
americana _ American
longii _ Long's bulrush
19. Scleria minor _ slender
reticularis _ reticulated nut-rush
elliottii _ bog goldenrod
22. Solidago stricta
_ wand-like goldenrod
23. Solidago uliginosa
var. uliginosa _ Bog goldenrod
24. Sphagnum carolinianum _ peat moss
25. Sphagnum macrophyllum _ peat moss
26. Stylisma pickeringii
's morning glory
27. Stylosanthes biflora
_ pencil flower
racemosa _ false asphodel
inflata _ inflated bladderwort
30. Xyris fimbriata
Turn Used Gardening Plastic Into Botanical Garden
Plastic Pot Recycling Offered on Weekends From May 20 Through June 25
WHAT: Plastic Pot Recycling
WHEN: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. weekends only, May 20-21, 27-28; June 3-4,
10-11, 17-18, 24-25
Center of the
Missouri Botanical Garden
, 4500 Shaw Blvd.
Botanical Garden; St. Louis_Jefferson
Solid Waste Management; Missouri Department of Natural Resources; Environmental
Improvement and Energy Resource Authority; Monrovia Growers, Inc.; and Plastic
Lumber Company of America
INFO: (314) 577-9440;
Botanical Garden is
once again giving area gardeners a reason to recycle. Plastic garden pots,
polystyrene cell packs and trays can be brought to the Garden's nearby
and exchanged for a complimentary admission pass. Plastic Pot Recycling
collections will be held from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays only
from May 20 through June 25.
The horticultural waste amassed will soon find a new, alternative use
among gardeners. Collections will be recycled locally into co-mingled plastic
lumber for use in raised garden bed kits and compost bins available for purchase.
Dr. Steven Cline, manager of the
for Home Gardening, started the program in 1998. "This represents the eighth
year in our recycling effort to reduce this waste stream that nationally
represents over 350 million pounds pitched into our landfills," said Cline.
"Imagine Busch Stadium filled one-and-one-half times to the top, and you
have a good picture of what is being deposited each year. We are simply
closing the recycling loop by offering this service and the products it can
make back to gardeners."
Program organizers hope to collect 100,000 pounds of horticultural plastic
this year, up from 60,000 pounds in 2005. Proceeds from last year's lumber
sales assisted the Garden's purchase of a larger granulator to process plastic
into chips, doubling the former capacity. The St.
Louis_Jefferson Solid Waste Management District
and Monrovia Growers, Inc. have also contributed to the
program's continued efforts this year with a combined donation of
Plastic Pot Recycling is open to the general public on weekends only,
May 20-21 and 27-28; June 3-4, 10-11, 17-18, and 24-25, from 9 a.m. to 4
p.m. Plastic pots, cell packs and trays must be cleaned and free of metal
hangers. No household plastic or clay pots will be accepted. One complimentary
Garden admission pass will be issued per individual. The Garden's main collection
facility is located at the west parking lot of the
, 4500 Shaw Blvd.
at the corner of Vandeventer.
Four area garden centers and two municipal recycling centers have also
been selected as satellite collection centers for 2006.
Waldbart & Sons, For the Garden by Haefners
, Summerwinds at Timber Creek,
Schmittels Nursery, City of Kirkwood Recycling Center and City of
St. Peters Recycling Center will collect horticultural waste during May and
Gardeners can purchase the resulting recycled plastic lumber through the
Garden's Pots to Planks program. Plastic lumber lasts up to 50 years and
is suitable for building decks, walkways, picnic tables, or any other project
where wood and water meet. For more information, call (314) 577-9441 or download
a brochure at www.mobot.org/hort/activ/PlasticPotsLumBro06.pdf.
Proceeds from purchases are reinvested to sustain the Garden's recycling
programs in the future.
For more information on Plastic
Pot Recycling, call (314) 577-9440 during regular business hours or log on
Pfizer Plant Research Laboratory to Open on May 16
at The New York Botanical Garden
The Pfizer Plant Research Laboratory, opening on May 16, 2006, marks a
new era of scientific advancement at The New York Botanical Garden. The laboratory
is the latest addition in a comprehensive 15-year renaissance at the Botanical
Garden. The new facility will further the Botanical Garden's urgent mission
to discover, decipher, document, and defend Earth's vast biodiversity.
The state-of-the-art Pfizer Laboratory will triple the Garden's current
research capabilities and provide much-needed quarters to educate and train
the next generation of plant scientists. The laboratory will house the Lewis
B. and Dorothy Cullman Program for Molecular Systematics
Studies and the Garden's Genomics Program, including the New York Plant Genomics
Consortium. It will also serve as a home base for the Botanical Garden's
large Ph.D. program and provide meeting rooms for visiting scholars.
Gregory Long, President of The New York Botanical Garden, observes, "The
Pfizer Plant Research Laboratory will give the Botanical Garden the most
powerful modern tools to investigate plants and fungi. It will provide scientists
and graduate students with a laboratory research facility equal in stature
to the Garden's recently opened William and Lynda Steere
Herbarium, LuEsther T. Mertz Library, and Nolen
Greenhouses for Living Collections."
The light-filled, two-story, 28,000-square-foot laboratory will provide
highly advanced scientific research facilities, including robotic workstations
and a high-throughput DNA sequencer. It will be a center for collaborative
research in molecular systematics and plant genomics,
serving scientists and graduate students not just from the Botanical Garden,
but also from the region and indeed the whole world. The Pfizer Laboratory
will be the largest and finest laboratory research facility in any botanical
garden in the United States
, enabling scientists to reconstruct the geneology
of plants and fungi and to unravel the mysteries of genes and genomes.
Opening Ceremonies to Celebrate Plant Science
York Botanical Garden
will mark the grand opening of its new laboratory with a multi-day program,
"In Celebration of Plant Science." The celebration begins on Tuesday, May
16, 2006 with a ribbon cutting and dedication of the Pfizer Laboratory and
continues though the weekend. It will include behind-the-scenes tours of
the new laboratory and other key parts of the Botanical Garden's science
campus, a scientific symposium, exhibitions on genomics, family and children's
programming, lectures, demonstrations, and other events.
With the advent of the Pfizer Laboratory in May 2006, the Botanical Garden
may be the only botanical garden in the world that has opened major new facilities
for its library, herbarium, and research laboratory all within the last four
years. All three facilities are in close proximity to each other, allowing
for maximum interaction among research scientists and easy access to research
collections as well as laboratory facilities. The integrated efforts of the
Garden's 200 Ph.D. scientists, graduate students, and technical staff working
in the laboratory, the
herbarium, the library, and the field lead to significant botanical discoveries.
New Developments in Plant Research
Although the fact may not be very well known outside the academic and conservation
communities, The New York Botanical Garden is one of the world's greatest
plant research organizations. We have discovered new information about the
plants of the world, especially those of the New World
tropics, and disseminated that knowledge through publications and teaching
since the 1890's. In service of this mission, we have mounted nearly 2,000
expeditions to collect plants in the wild; assembled the world's largest library
about plants and the world's fourth largest herbarium; and built the world's
most sophisticated plant information system online, the Virtual Herbarium
(visit nybg.org). The Botanical
Garden also has an enormous impact on plant science through our Graduate Studies
Program, which has granted 240 advanced degrees in conjunction with five
premier universities in the Northeast.
Not all plant research is conducted in the field; much of the work is carried
out in the laboratory. Eleven years ago, the Botanical Garden created a program
in plant molecular systematics, and five years
ago a plant genomics program. Today, we have 50 Ph.D. scientists and graduate
students working in these new areas.
Both molecular systematics and plant genomics
use DNA data to answer questions about plant biodiversity and evolution.
However, molecular systematics explores the relationships
and the history of plants species, whereas plant genomics addresses how genes
function and their influence on plant growth and structure. The
's molecular research in plant systematics is
conducted in the Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Program for Molecular
Systematics Studies, a collaborative program established in 1994 with
Museum of Natural History.
The plant genomics research is conducted in the newly constituted Plant Genomics
Plant genomics came of age about five years ago when the genome of Arabidopsis
was completely sequenced. In the New York Plant Genomics Consortium, our
formal partners in studying the genomes of plants are
New York University
and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. NYU's strength is mainly in theoretical
questions concerning gene function in plants, and
Harbor's is in taking the technology they developed
to study the human genome and applying it to plants. Our interest, in keeping
with our traditional scientific mission, is in biodiversity, and the study
of plants and fungi as organisms and populations, both in the present day
and throughout evolutionary time. Our university and high-tech partners are
excited about working with us because of faculty knows plants, where
they live, and the differences between one species and another, and because
we can grow plants for gene sequencing and lab analysis in our state-of-the
art Nolen Greenhouses. These new developments in plant research are really
the modernization of our role as a primary "source" of plant data.
Why the Botanical Garden Conducts this Research
These research initiatives are important to humankind in many ways. The
main reasons that the new molecular systematics
and genomics work is pursued at The New York Botanical Garden are the following:
1. The plants and animals on earth are highly endangered because of the
complexity and drive of economic development and human "progress." It is
essential to learn everything possible about all aspects of plants- including
their ecology, their relationships to animals, their habitat (and habitat
destruction), their usefulness for food or other economic purposes, and their
biology at every level _ and apply this knowledge toward urgent needs in environmental
conservation. The newest type of inquiry is at the level of plant genes,
about which science knows very little at this early stage in the discipline
of genomics. We feel it is the responsibility of a comprehensive research
institution such as The New York Botanical Garden to conduct investigative
work at all levels of biology.
2. The positive, fool-proof identification of plants used for human food
and medicine is critical to consumers, industry, and government agencies
the world over. Useless, ineffective, or dangerous plant-based products are
being marketed because the wrong species were used in their manufacture.
3. Understanding the evolutionary history of a plant group, especially
the species at the node from which new species branch off, contributes to
our knowledge of the natural world. Genomic studies are revealing the genes
that are responsible for the differences among plant species.
4. Most current plant genomics research is being conducted in commercial
settings. The New York
Botanical Garden is
a biodiversity organization, not primarily concerned with agricultural questions
or commercial applications, and not focused on the genetic modification of
economically valuable species. We look at the rest of the plants of the world.
This sets us and our partners apart, and we believe too few resources are
being invested on understanding wild plants (rather than cultivated plants)
at the level of their genes. All of our discoveries are disseminated free
of cost to the non-profit research community, as is all of the other information
5. Today, the brightest young university students in the life sciences
want to pursue molecular systematics and genomics
approaches to research questions. It is the way of the future, and The New
York Botanical Garden has always wanted the best and the brightest, and we
have always wanted to be on the cutting edge.
The Golden Spruce: A True Story of Myth, Madness,
. John Vaillant. - - Jason Koontz.....63
Introduction to the Plant Life of
Southern California: Coast to Foothills
, Philip W. and Robert Gustafson. - - Jennifer Funk...........64
Plant-Provided Food for Carnivorous Insects:
A Protective Mutualism and Its Applications
Edited by F. L. Wäckers
, P. C. J. van Rijn and J. Bruin. - -
a Forgotten Crop of the Aztecs
. Ayerza, Ricardo and Wayne
Coate - - Douglas Darnowski.............................66
Growing Hardy Orchids
. John Tullock - - Root
The Jade Garden: New and notable plants from Asia
. Peter Wharton, Brent Hine and Douglas Justice
- - Joanne Sharpe...........68
Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution
, Volume IV, The Department of Plant Biology
. Patricia Craig - - Lee Kass....69
Hormones, Signals and Target
Cells in Plant Development
. Daphne J. Osborne and Michael T. McManus - - William
A Bibliography of Conifers
. Farjon, Aljos
- - James Riser II.........................................................................72
Neotropica Monograph 96
. Correa A., Mireya D. and
Tânia Regina dos Santos Silva. _ Douglas
Wildflowers & Grasses of
Kansas: A Field Guide
. Haddock, Michael John. - - Marshall
Golden Spruce: A True Story of Myth, Madness, and Greed. John
Vaillant. 2005. ISBN 0-393-05887-5 (hardcover US $24.95) 265 pp. W.
W. Norton & Company, New
Let me confess that I had an alternative motive for wanting to review
this book, besides being intrigued by its title. Augustana
is in the second year of a new general education system. Part of this program
involves classes called Learning Communities (LC) where students take two
classes in different departments over the same theme. After a quick check
the book's information on Amazon.com, I thought it might be an appropriate
text for an LC that would merge plant science with possibly history, political
science, or sociology. We also have a history professor who specializes in
Native American history and he and I have briefly talked about developing
an LC. Given this bias I had developed
before even opening the book, I must admit that I was a little disappointed
in The Golden Spruce and will need to rethink how I would use it in
an LC. However, I did enjoy the story and would not totally discount its
use in other classes. I think it could be a useful supplementary text in
an environmental science or ecology course. I also think anyone interested
in the Pacific Northwest, the lumber industry,
or ecological "detective mysteries" would enjoy The Golden Spruce.
The book charts the events leading up to an act of eco-terrorism
and the community's reaction after the event. The events take place on the
Queen Charlotte Islands in British
Columbia that are introduced in the first chapter.
The Haida people are introduced in the second
chapter in the context of a memorial ceremony for the spokesman of the golden
spruce. The emphasis early in the text (especially chapters 3-5) focuses
on the economic history of the
Pacific Northwest Coast
, first in terms of the fur trade, and later on forestry and the logging industry.
I was expecting to learn more about the Haida
culture and the role of the golden spruce and plants in their society, but
this was pretty much limited to the second chapter.
These beginning chapters go to great lengths to explain the history of
lumber and its role in the economy of
British Columbia. The focus is on European/North
American issues and the dangers faced in harvesting the trees. There is also
a lot of information on how advances in technology changed the way natural
resources are harvested. By the time we get to the sixth chapter we are introduced
to the main character of the story, Grant Hadwin
, and this chapter focuses on his `upbringing' and career in the logging
industry. Towards the end there is good foreshadowing or moral compass for
the reader in regards to urban society being removed from the resources that
we use on a daily basis (As an example, Vaillant
suggests that once the trees are turned into paper towels, we tend to forget
where they come from). It's my impression that the previous three chapters
could have been distilled/shortened to set the
stage for this chapter.
The next chapter serves to link Hadwin's history
to the Haida and does introduce some of the golden
spruce's history. However, Vaillant does not
go into much detail on the golden spruce's significance to the
Haida culture until chapter nine after the spruce is felled.
The remaining chapters of the book go all over the place. Chapter 10 delves
into Hadwin's psychological state and his run
from the law. Chapter 11 and 12 discuss cloning attempts of the golden spruce
as well as the plant science behind its golden color and other propagation
attempts via cuttings. The book ends with messages to the reader about how
what appears to be unlimited resources are usually
not and we must take care of the world around us. The end also serves to
an update the reader on the current state of logging on the
Queen Charlotte Islands.
So while I was disappointed in the lack of some details in The Golden
Spruce, I did learn quite a bit about the history of the natural resources
and their extraction in British Columbia in the context of this tragic event
as well as the development of the logging industry in that part of the world.
I think Vaillant does do a good job of making
the reader reflect on humankind's use of the natural world around us.
For another review, I encourage readers to check out Jeffrey A. Lockwood's
review in the October-
December 2005 issue of Conservation in Practice (vol. 6, no. 4, pp.
42-43). I purposely waited to read his review until after I wrote this one.
Lockwood describes more of the symbolism and addresses other themes in
The Golden Spruce that were not as apparent to me when I read it and
wrote this review. With Lockwood's comments in mind, I'll continue to think
about how I can use The Golden Spruce, or sections of the text, for
possible Learning Community courses at Augustana
-Dr. Jason Koontz, Biology Department,
, Rock Island,
Introduction to the Plant Life of Southern California
: Coast to Foothills. Rundel
, Philip W. and Robert Gustafson. 2005. ISBN 0-520-23616-5 (Paper
US$19.95) 316 pp. University of
2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley,
As a result of an unusual combination of climate, physical geography,
and natural disturbance, Southern California
is one of the most floristically diverse regions in the world. In this guide,
the authors illustrate this remarkable diversity using an ecological framework;
highlighting key physiological and life-history traits that have enabled
plant species to adapt to regional environmental conditions as well as interactions
between plants and the ecosystems in which they occur. The book is divided
into chapters based on vegetation community, including coastal habitats (beaches,
dunes), coastal and interior sage scrub, chaparral, woodlands, riparian systems,
grasslands, and wetlands. The book also contains discussion on the ecology
and disturbance pressures of several of these communities, including chapters
on biogeography, fire, invasive species, and biodiversity. There is a separate
chapter on the Channel Islands, which host
slightly different plant species and growth forms relative to mainland vegetation
communities. The book contains beautiful and informative photographs for
roughly 300 plant species. While the authors limit their discussion to less
than 10 percent of the species occurring in the selected vegetation communities,
they do an outstanding job of showcasing the most common or ecologically
important species for a given community.
Although the emphasis of the book is clearly the description
of common plant species occurring in various vegetation communities throughout
Southern California, the interaction between
plants and their environment provides a consistent framework throughout the
book. The authors discuss numerous physiological, morphological, and life-history
traits that allow plant species to occur in stressful environments, including
mechanisms for salt tolerance and seed dispersal as well as variation in
leaf phenology and photosynthetic pathways. There
is also a discussion of the role of species traits in structuring vegetation
communities. For example, the importance of nitrogen fixation, fire tolerance,
and seed morphology are discussed in relation to community succession following
fire. Due to space limitations, the chapters on invasive species and biodiversity
are necessarily limited in scope. These chapters likely provide enough introductory
material for hikers using the book as a field guide, but may not be sufficient
for an undergraduate course.
In addition to the ecological information accompanying the species descriptions,
the authors discuss how Native Americans and early Spanish and American settlers
made use of native plant species and how they managed vegetation communities
(namely fire management). These descriptions highlight the role of plants
in shaping human society will likely help readers understand the importance
of preserving these vegetation communities.
As the title suggests, the authors focus on flora in coast to foothill
regions. However, Southern California also
includes expansive deserts as well as montane
coniferous forests. While my own bias is that the authors could have included
these vegetation communities, these additions could easily have doubled the
length of the book.
This pocket-sized guide will be useful to hikers and to readers interested
in the ecology and floristic diversity of Southern
California. The book does assume some botanical knowledge and
one limitation of the book is the absence of a glossary for the botanical
terms used throughout the text. The book does contain a very useful index
as well as a table that lists public parks and preserves in Southern California
that contain good examples of the vegetation communities discussed in the
text. The book could also serve as a starting point for a field course on
the flora of Southern California, which
could be supplemented by lectures on the various themes included in the book
(e.g., regional geology and climate, fire ecology, adaptation to water stress,
-Jennifer L. Funk, Department of Biological Sciences,
, CA 94305-5020
Plant-Provided Food for Carnivorous Insects: A Protective Mutualism and Its
Applications. Edited by F. L. Wäckers, P.
C. J. van Rijn and J
. Bruin. 2005. ISBN-13 978-0-521-81941-1 hardback ISBN-10 0-521-81941-5 hardback.
xii + 356 pp. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, United Kingdom
This volume with 23 contributions attempts to describe plant-insect interactions
from a modified point of view, which is clearly written in the title. This
means that plant food-mediated relations are viewed as the most important
factors in plant-herbivore-carnivore interactions. Instead of traditional
natural enemies relations, mutualism is the focus
of these interactions. In this sense the book is an interesting contribution
not only to basic ecology but also to applied biological sciences.
Structurally the book contains three parts: the first
presents food provision by plants; the second presents arthropod predators
and parasitoids feeding on plant-provided food; and the third discusses the
plant-provided food and biological control. 11 chapters written by different
authors treat these subjects and argue for the need to study carnivore biology
and plant-herbivore-carnivore chain relations in depth. The book can be considered
an excellent approach to this field.
The highlight of the work is the concept of plant food as a part of the
diet for both herbivores and carnivores. Ants, for example, play a key role
in the evolution of a range of food-mediated mutualism and plant-provided
food alone can have a strong effect on the life-history parameters of predators
Plant-provided food refers to floral and extrafloral
nectars, pollen and honeydew. They are also the primary rewards by which
plants recruit pollinators and other insects. The food contains chemical
molecules from primary and secondary plant metabolism. Floral nectar, for
example, provides carbohydrates, amino acids and some secondary compounds
for insects. Feeding does, however, have risks for flower visitors.
The plant produces the extrafloral nectar
and uses it to recruit predators or parasitoids. Predators and parasitoids
together with plant chemicals safeguard the plant against herbivores. This
strategy is very important in plant-carnivore mutualism.
Pollen is important in plant-insect relations. Pollen is considered the
primary nutritional motive for pollinating insects to visit flowers. Moreover,
honeydew is also important. It can serve, for example, a defensive function
when it is collected by ants.
Herbivores and their enemies often differ in regard
to their sensory capacities or foraging behavior. This influences interactions
in plant-provided food chains. These influences and their strategies also
have implications for agriculture and forestry. The development of functional
biodiversity programs and biological control in conservation are dependent
on these strategies.
There are many interesting topics (chapters) in this book. F.L.
Wäckers presents an overview of the food sources provided by plants,
especially in terms of their availability, detectability
, accessibility, nutritional value, and mortality risks for the arthropods
feeding on them (p. 17 _ 74). The nectar is considered by S.
Koptur as fuel for plant protectors (p. 75 -108). The evolutionary
origin of extrafloral nectar is examined and
a comparison between floral and extrafloral nectar
is made. The food-for-protection strategies in plants are discussed by M.
W. Sabelis, P. C. J. van
Rijn and A. Janssen (p. 109 _ 134). The evolutionary stability of
extrafloral nectar production and food-for-protection
is the focus of this discussion. Moreover, the food needs of adult parasitoids
are described by D. M. Olson, K. Takasu and W.
J. Lewis (p. 137 _ 147). They discuss the adaptations to the
nectarivorous life-style and the ecological consequences of these
adaptations. The effects of plant feeding on the performance of omnivorous
"predators" are reviewed by M. D. Eubanks and J. D.
Starsky (p. 148 -177). The reader can find a review of some experimental
studies on the subject. The nectar and pollen-feeding by adult herbivorous
insects is presented by Romeis, E.
Städler and W. Wäckers (p. 178 _ 219).
The foraging and feeding requirements of adult herbivorous butterflies, flies,
and beetles are discussed in the context of herbivore-plant interaction.
The book concludes with some considerations on the possibilities of using
plant-provided food in biological control. P. C. J. van
Rijn and M. W. Sabelis discuss the impact
of plant-provided food on herbivore-carnivore dynamics (p. 223 _ 266) and
G. E. Heimpel and M. A. Jervis note that empirical
evidence matches the predicted host parasitism and suppression (p. 267 _
304). Habitat diversification in biological control is a topic described
by T. K. Wilkinson and D. A. Landis (p. 305 _ 325) and implementation of
food-for-protection strategies in agriculture is presented by G. M.
Gurr, S. D. Wratten, J.
Tylianakis, J. Kean and M. Keller (p.
326 _ 347). Moreover, the large range of literature found in this collection
is also significant for future studies of the subject. On the other hand,
in the case of biological control potential, it seems that a similarly large
range of literature concerning the problems existing in this field is missing.
The aim of biological control is not new and there are still many problems
in agri-, silvi- and
horticulture. Many examples exist in regard to the fact that "beautiful"
ecological theories cannot in each case be applied directly to production
and technology. It is unfortunate that this valuable book did not consider
A close reading of the book leads to fascinating findings as well as some
critical remarks. Each chapter is followed by a long list of sources. This
means that on the average more that 30% of the book is a listing of the literature.
The chapter lists of sources are similar and many items are the same. For
example, in chapter 7, the percentage of literature common to all chapters
is as much as 42%. Moreover, citations leave much to be desired. Two special
remarks need to be mentioned, especially for this purpose, when a second
edition is planned. For example, on page 188, there are 39 lines with 57 citations,
which means that there is more than one citation
per line. This is a result of a very mechanical citation process. It also
produces defects in the adequacy of citations in source lists. Moreover, some
repetitions in different chapters could also be cut in future editions. Some
corrections should also be made to eliminate minor language and data errors
(for example, pp. 120 and 130). Although the book is not without flaws, it
is an interesting and comprehensive treatment of the plant-carnivore mutualism.
-Dr. Tadeusz Aniszewski
, Associate Professor in Applied Botany, Department of Biology,
University of Joensuu,
Chia: Rediscovering a Forgotten Crop of the Aztecs.
Ayerza, Ricardo and
Wayne Coates. 2005. ISBN 0-8165-2488-2 (Paper
US$14.95) 216 pp The
University of Arizona
Press, 355 S. Euclid, Ste.
, AZ 85719
Chia by Ricardo Ayerrza
Jr. and Wayne Coates arrives from the University
of Arizona Press intended to provide
a wide range of information on a lost crop of ancient
America, Salvia hispanica
. Chia is a paperback, illustrated by a few black
and white images but largely reliant on the text and textual figures to make
its case. In this it succeeds, admirably raising chia
seeds in the reader's consciousness far above the one place most BSA members
might have encountered it, in a 3AM infomercial selling
Chia was a crop of the great
civilizations of North and South America
, including the Maya and the Inca, though it was most prominently cultivated
by the Aztecs. It has a number of remarkable properties made use of by those
ancient cultures and which have potential for agricultural improvement today.
Not least among the properties of chia is possession
of abundant mucilage, making the seeds very sticky, either for making statues
(ancient religious practice) or those
Chia PetsÍ, though the oil from its seeds
has much greater relevance.
Chia opens with a discussion of agriculture
and food shortages around the world, especially among the native peoples
of the Americas
. Credit is given to Norman Borlag's Green Revolution
and to the tremendous advances it made possible in food production.
Howevre, problems with the modern Western diet are also highlighted,
one of which, the nature of consumed fats, consumption of
chia might ameliorate. Chia is especially
rich in the omega-3 fatty acids which are important aids to health and which
are consumed in flax- and fish-based health supplements. In fact
chia is even richer in these oils than flax.
Chia oil is also very valuable for making oil paints as it provides
extraordinary longevity to the colors used.
The chia crop is considered from an historical
perspective, both its use in the Aztec Empire as a staple crop and a means
by which conquered peoples paid tribute and its decline with the coming of
the Spanish. The authors make the point that chia
fell much more deeply into disuse than other Aztec staples such as amaranth
due in part to certain pagan religious associations of
chia. Along the way, the authors are relatively even-handed, not falling
into politically correct stereotypes of Christanity's
entry to the Americas, and they even point out the loss of some parts of
Aztec heritage due to destruction of codices by the Aztecs themselves under
a king who predated the Spanish arrival. One other possible reason for the
disuse of chia is the fact that unlike many other
Aztec crops, it could not be successfully added to European agriculture.
This is because chia is a short day plant which
flowers too late for agronomic production in Europe
Chia comes as the crop for which it is named
is experiencing a renaissance, both in its original homes as well as in the
. Though the book chapters could be better ordered, as the presently jump
from topic to topic in their present order, and more illustrations, perhaps
in color, would make a significant improvement. Chia
is an excellent book which belongs in college and university libraries,
as well as the libraries of those interested in nutraceuticals
or just simply in using this heart-healthy crop.
-Douglas Darnowski, Department
of Biology, Indiana
University Southeast, New
Albany, N 47150.
Growing Hardy Orchids. John Tullock
. 2005. ISBN 0-88192-715-5. US $29.95 (cloth).
244 pages. Timber Press:
This is a delightful horticultural book that should give lovers of native
plants the encouragement to grow some of the most charming of native plants:
temperate orchids. The author tells us something we long expected, despite
contrary lore. Yes, we can successfully cultivate those orchids that previously
grew vigorously on the ground before humans started extensively paving,
ploughing, polluting, and burning.
This is an imminently practical book. John Tullock
not only instructs us on how to prepare the soil and care for temperate orchids,
but also tells us where we can legally and ethically acquire the plants.
Although his sources for plant materials may someday become defunct and outdated,
for now this information is invaluable.
The author, who hails from eastern Tennessee
, is at his finest when discussing orchids native to the eastern
United States. He also shines in discussing
non-native species that he has successfully grown for several years, such
as Bletilla. Credibility comes from details
and anecdotes, which the author provides through much of this book.
This is a horticultural, rather than a scientific volume. For example,
no documentation is provided to support the author's contentions that orchid
seeds lack endosperm or that adult orchids can survive without
mycorrhizae. Fortunately, John Tullock
shows us that temperate orchids can be cultivated regardless of whether
or not these details are correct.
This book appears to have been written to promote ex situ conservation.
The first and last chapters provide extensive justification of ex situ
conservation, in general, and of orchids, in particular. This is a noble
cause, but seems somewhat out of place. I am not sure whether most conservation
biologists would agree that the practices outlined in this book provide a
substantial conservation benefit, especially if only a few clones of each
species are propagated. Furthermore, the author may be preaching to the choir
insofar as readers of this book do not necessarily need ex situ conservation
as a rationale for cultivating temperate orchids.
This book's biggest weakness is its extreme redundancies, especially with
respect to plants that the author has not grown. In the catalogue of species,
often identical information is repeated for every species in a genus. This
roughly hundred page catalogue could have been half that length just by consolidating
common information within many genera. The author includes USDA hardiness
zone nine and ten orchids, yet almost nobody would consider these plants
to be hardy. The author's horticultural experience seems to be almost exclusively
with true hardy species. Therefore, these zone
nine and ten orchids should have been omitted from the book, leaving more
space for photos and anecdotes about the author's own experiences cultivating
My other comments are relatively minor. The metric to English unit conversion
tables seem anachronistic. The USDA hardiness zone map was printed too small
to be readily readable. The same photo of a Platanthera
ciliaris inflorescence appears to be included
in two places in text and on the dustjacket.
Finally, contrary to the author's assertion, Epipactis
gigantea is probably native to the
For anybody interested in growing native North American orchids, buy this
book. It is reasonably priced and fills a heretofore empty niche, especially
the parts written from the author's practical experience.
-Root Gorelick, School of Life Sciences, Arizona
State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501
Jade Garden: New and notable plants from Asia. Peter
Wharton, Brent Hine and Douglas Justice.
Timber Press, Portland
Oregon. 2005. ISBN 0-88192-705-8.
The 130 temperate Asian plants described in this book have mostly been
collected through exploration of various parts of
China and bordering countries to the east by representatives
of the Centre for Plant Research which is located at the University
of British Columbia Botanical Garden in
Vancouver. On site is the well-endowed
Garden where there are 2,150
taxa of Asian origin. Those included in this book have all been successfully
cultivated there and found to be "esoteric, scientifically interesting, and
exceptionally beautiful" according to the preface by the director of this
Before introducing the notable new plants, the authors
provide a 30-page description of the natural areas where they had conducted
plant collecting expeditions. Although two general maps are provided, neither
of them seems to correspond at all to the Four Great Steps of China and their
subregions that are subsequently described. The
authors do suggest that the reader refer to the Atlas of China and
Nelles Maps to "navigate the formidable
array of names and locations mentioned here". Not having access to either
of these references, I found the subsequent descriptions of collection areas
indeed formidable and was left to simply admire the excellent photographs
of the magnificent scenery, plants, natives and researchers. This section
might be of interest to someone very familiar with
China and eastern Asia
, or who might be planning a visit to that area, but did not really tie in
very well with the subsequent plant descriptions. I also discovered that
not all plants mentioned are from China
and eastern Asia. As I randomly checked
out plants which could grow in Maine I found
that Linum hypericifolium
is native to the Caucasus mountains and
There is a short section wherein the issue of accidentally introducing
invasive new plants through horticulture is mentioned indicating that while
the plants described in the book have been tested in British Columbia, in
other locations there could be the potential for escape. The book also includes
a section of brief biographies of historical collectors of Asian plants (which
seemed somehow irrelevant to the main subject), a short glossary and a bibliography.
The remainder of the book is divided into three sections: one on perennials
(39), one on shrubs (52) and one on trees (39) with each section written
by one of the three authors. Listed for each plant selection are common name,
family, native distribution, description, hardiness, cultivation and propagation.
The very informative descriptions often cover a variety of subjects including
details on where the plant was found, its unique morphological characteristics,
its growth over time in the botanical garden and taxonomic considerations
where controversies exist. These page-long plant synopses are accompanied
by one or two excellent photos highlighting the special characteristic of
Although there is considerable information about each
plant, I found it very difficult to imagine how the authors intended this
book to be used. The simple alphabetic organization of each of the plant
sections makes it very difficult to categorize the material in any useful
manner. A series of summary listings which indicate various characteristics
such as height, flower, color, blooming season, and soil requirements would
have been very helpful to a gardener planning for a specific landscape. A
horticulturalist interested in specific taxonomic groups would also benefit
from a checklist listing the plants by family as several of the genera are
familiar, such as Aconitum, Cimicifuga, Impatiens,
and Fraxinum, but many are unfamiliar.
Any reader from outside the Pacific Northwest planning to try to grow
any of these plants would first be need to know the recommended hardiness
zone, yet no summary listing exists directing the reader to plants suitable
their own climate. A review of each plant's information showed that over
70% of the plants described will only grow in hardiness zones 6 and higher.
In the tree section, Douglas Justice qualifies much of the hardiness information
by noting either that few North American trials have been made or that for
plants which are widely distributed in the wild,
it could be the actual collection location that may determine cold hardiness.
In some cases, for example Chionanthus
retusus, the plants listed are not really
new to non-Asian cultivation, having been introduced or collected on very
early expeditions. However many are still only known from botanical garden
collections. Although cultivation and propagation information is presented,
no sources for plant material are listed. Few sources were found by doing
an internet search on several of the plant names. In the preface, there is
mention of the legal and political problems, as yet apparently unsolved,
of introducing recently collected taxa into the
North American trade while compensating the country of origin for sharing
Overall, I feel this book will have very limited appeal to all but the
most advanced gardeners who happen to live where growing conditions are similar
to those found at the University of British Columbia
Botanical Garden. By making available excellent photos and interesting detailed
information about selected Asian plants that have done exceptionally well
in cultivation, the authors seem to hope that the horticultural trade will
soon recognize these plants for the gems that they are and find some way
to make them available commercially.
--Joanne Sharpe, Coastal
Maine Botanical Gardens
, Boothbay ME 04537
Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of
Washington, Volume IV, The
Department of Plant Biology. Patricia Craig. 2005.
As part of their centennial celebration, the Carnegie Institution published
five illustrated volumes, which chronicle the Centennial History of the Carnegie
Institutions major extant departments. The Department of Plant Biology
is the fourth in that series researched and written by Patricia Craig, science
writer and former editor of articles and booklets about Carnegie scientists
and their work. Richard A. Meserve, President
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, sets the stage for all five volumes
of the Institution's Centennial Histories in a forward that summarizes steel
magnate Andrew Carnegie's brilliant idea— that science could play an important
role in the advancement of humankind. To this end, in 1902, philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie established the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and provided
"exceptional" individuals with the resources they needed in an environment
"free of needless constraints." Andrew Carnegie directed the institution
to "undertake projects of broad scope that may lead to the discovery and
utilization of new forces for the benefit of man."
Craig makes clear that her "history can not claim to be complete" but
offers a "microcosm of twentieth-century plant biology within the context
of a single funding source, the Carnegie Institution." For her source material,
Craig relied on department reports (discontinued in 1983) published in The
Year Books of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, correspondence dispersed
throughout archives in the
United States, and interviews with Carnegie
scientists, and former postdoctoral fellows. The result takes us on a journey
beginning in Tucson,
Arizona in 1903, where the newly
established Carnegie Institution set up a Desert Laboratory devoted to the
study of desert plants. Carnegie's current Department of Plant Biology, at
California, evolved from this experiment in the desert,
which was the first of what would become a network of Carnegie research departments.
By examining the history of the Department of Plant
Biology, Craig takes us from the beginnings of ecology at the turn of the
century, through the evolutionary synthesis in mid-century, the origins and
investigations on photosynthesis, and the revolution in plant molecular biology,
which began in the 1970s. As botanists we are familiar with some of the more
well-know and sometimes eccentric players, who, supported with Carnegie funds,
made great contributions to our field—Luther Burbank, Frederic Clements;
Nathaniel Britton, John Belling, Jens Clausen, David Keck, William
Hiesey, Robert Emerson, Herman Spoehr,
Stacy French, Winslow Briggs, Peter Quail, and Christopher Somerville—and
who, as exceptional individuals, directed the Carnegie Departments of Plant
Biology over the years. Craig also provides insights on many Carnegie researchers
and their unpaid spouses, who, though less well known outside of their fields,
also made important contributions. Concurrently, she offers a view of department
politics; cooperation and competition among investigators; and depicts interactions
among Department Directors, the Board of Trustees, and Carnegie Presidents,
in setting institutional policy. It is heartening to learn that in the early
1950's the Department of Plant Biology had employed three women biologists
and by 1958, the Institution had six women biologists on their staff at other
The strength of the book lies in its well documented accounts of the Department
as it changes its focus and its name to ultimately become the Department
of Plant Biology in 1951. The black and white photographs of field stations
and buildings, individuals at their field sites with research instruments
often fashioned with their own hands, and groups of researchers and visiting
administrators clothed in period dress, are an excellent complement to Craig's
perspective. Craig often mentions the common names of researcher's plants
(i.e., ocotillo), followed in parentheses by their botanical names (i.e.,
), although she does not give authorities or family associations for those
plants. In addition, botanists may find statements such as "Ocotillo was
not a cactus, but a perennial" a bit distracting. Readers attempting to follow
the changes in administration over the years at both the Department of Plant
Biology and at the Carnegie Institution of Washington would have benefited
from appendices comprising a list of Department Directors, staff investigators,
and Presidents of the Institution, with dates of office.
In the preface to this and the four other Carnegie Centennial History volumes,
President Meserve highlights the work of Barbara
McClintock, and Alfred Hershey, who both won Nobel Prizes for their pioneering
work as Carnegie scientists. Yet there is no centennial volume dedicated
to the History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of
Genetics, at Cold Spring Harbor
, New York, where they began
their "creative and high-risk science." Craig mentions McClintock only once,
in relation to the Plant Biology Department's plan to recruit a cytologist
from Carnegie's Department of Genetics in 1931. McClintock, however, did
not join the staff of Carnegie's Department of Genetics until more than ten
years later (Kass 2003). In a separate volume,
Garland Allen (2004) provides a brief perspective on Carnegie's Department
of Genetics and its relationship to Carnegie's Department of Embryology.
Yet, the only other mention of plant biology research in that Centennial
History regards Nina Fedoroff's project to identify
McClintock's mobile genetic elements in maize (Brown 2004).
Nevertheless, Plant Biologists interested in the history of their field,
as well as historians of science, will benefit from reading this informative
and well written account of the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department
of Plant Biology, which began as an outpost in the desert and is now on the
forefront of the molecular era.
—Lee B. Kass, Department of Plant Biology,
, NY 14853
E. 2004. Heredity, development, and evolution at the
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Pp. 145-171, in J.
Meinschein, M. Glitz, and G. E. Allen, eds
, Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Volume
V, The Department of Embryology.
Brown, Donald D. 2004. The department in the second half of the twentieth
century Pp. 173-208, in J. Meinschein, M. Glitz,
and G. E. Allen, eds, Centennial History of
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Volume V, The Department of Embryology
Kass, Lee B. 2003. Records and recollections:
A new look at Barbara McClintock, Nobel Prize-Winning geneticist. Genetics
164 (August): 1251-1260.
Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development. Daphne
J. Osborne and Michael T. McManus, 2005, ISBN 0-521-33076-9 (hard cover 110.00),
254 pp, Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
The book "Hormones, Signals and target cells in Plant Development" authored
by Daphne J. Osborne and Michael T. McManus, displays very deep knowledge
of a subject that has dodged the scientific community for many years. While
a lot is known about plant hormones, signals and the responding cells, this
book for the first time integrates and highlights the target cell concept.
Although the concept of target cell is well established in research circles
in the animal world, its application in the present context enables a better
understanding a whole range of a complex processes associated with plant responses
to hormones and other signals and their importance to plant development.
This filtration of a complex subject puts the book in a unique position in
Daphne J. Osborne a respected plant physiologist has published many articles
on hormonal control of physiological and biochemical processes in plant differentiation
and development. Michael T. McManus on the other hand, is an outstanding
researcher in areas of biochemical pathways in plants including the biosynthesis
of hormones. Their combined brilliance enabled the effective introduction
of the concept of target cell in the study of plant hormones, signals and
plant development. These are presented here with amazing clarity, making
the book interesting to read and use.
In the first part of the text, the authors define plant hormones and signals.
They present a concise list of the qualifying molecules. Long recognized
candidates of plant hormones including IAA, GA, ethylene,
and jasmonates are listed. Finally additions
to the list of signaling molecules include the likes of Nitric oxide,
Oligosaccharins, lignans and peptides.
Some of the above are not even considered to be hormones in the classical
sense. The synthesis and mode of transport is given a very educating treatment.
The detection and response of these and many other substances is consolidated
by the introduction of the target cell concept.
The second part of the book focuses on the application of the "target cell"
concept and how it enables the development of a coherent concept regarding
how cells detect hormones and other signals. The idea that every cell can
under the right circumstances or right stage of development act as a target
cell is the actual eye opener. Reported here
are ingénues experiments where the presumed target cells are micro-dissected
by laser. It appears that under these circumstances, neighboring cells can
differentiate and take over the functions of the dissected cells. At this
point the issue of competence of cells to act as target cells is explained
as a factor of development.
The search for receptors for various signaling molecules reveals the tenacity
of the effort. The discovery of receptors for various
ligands in animals helped solidify the target cell concept. This book
reports the ongoing effort to find receptors for various signaling molecules
in plants. Receptors for some plant hormones like IAA,
ABA and ethylene have been identified. The search
for receptors for GA and others continue.
Side by side with the issue of target cell concept, this book brings in
the issue of cross-talk in response between target cells. Some plant responses
are mediated by multiple signals, while a single signal can have multiple
responses. One novel idea conveyed through the book is that most cells have
low levels of many signaling molecules. Which one of the multiple molecules
the cell responds to depends on among other things, the relative concentration,
and for some, the presence of the relevant receptors. The expression of the
genes for the receptors in turn is developmentally regulated.
This is a timely book that brings in a new way to look at old ideas. The
idea of "target cell" and "hormonal cross-talk" are all put on a firm foundation.
The gains and frustrations of the search for receptors for various molecules
are presented with new insights. This book will be of special interest, and
an essential to researchers involved in, plant physiology, plant development,
plant biochemistry and molecular biology.
I highly recommend this text to researchers in fields of plant developmental
Katembe, Department of Biological Sciences,
, MS 38732
Bibliography of Conifers. Farjon,
Aljos. 2005. ISBN 1-84246-120-6 (hardback £75.00, ~US$153.00) 211
Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond
TW9 3AB, UK
the foremost expert on conifer taxonomy, has released a second, updated,
edition of one of his conifer classics, A Bibliography of
Conifers. This is an unusual book in that it is simply a bibliography
of literature pertaining (mostly) to conifer systematics
and taxonomy. However, within this simplicity lies a wealth of information
brought together in one easy to use book. In this second edition
Farjon has increased the number of references from 2130 to 3738 and
brings the bibliography up to date (as of 2003). Farjon
has formatted the bibliography as an alphabetical list of publications,
each with its own unique number, separated into 13 sections. The first five
sections cover Bibliographies, floras, manuals, general gymnosperm and conifer
titles. The next seven sections cover references regarding each of the extant
conifer families (Araucariaceae,
Taxaceae, and Taxodiaceae). The
Taxodiaceae is given its own section to accommodate older literature
recognizing this family as distinct from the Cupressaceae
. The last and largest section covers Taxa
Below Family Rank.
In this second edition of A Bibliography of Conifers
Farjon has updated the literature covered by
the original edition for the Pinaceae,
Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae),
Taxaceae and Podocarpaceae and greatly
expands the range of coverage to include the Araucariaceae
and Phyllocladaceae. Non-coniferous gymnosperms
are now only treated in the six page section titled Gymnosperms (General
Titles) and Gnetum,
Welwitschia, Ginkgo, and the cycads are no longer listed
in the index of this edition.
At first glance this book seems anachronistic in the face of electronic
database systems; however, further perusal reveals that it contains many references
that are too obscure or old to be electronically referenced anywhere and
so locating them would take many hours following the literature trail from
one bibliography to the next. Instead, Farjon
has assembled all the most pertinent literature into one handy, easy to
use reference work. Nonetheless, one of the most notable drawbacks is that
the index is only keyed to taxa. There is no
way to look up references by keywords (e.g., DNA, turpines
, or China
) as one would do with an electronic database.
This book does show some overlap with Farjon's
World Checklist and Bibliography of
Conifers (Farjon 1998, 2nd edition
2001). The differences being that the Checklist only addresses nomenclatural
references, while this bibliography deals with references related to all
aspects of conifer systematics. These two books
fill slightly different roles and should be used in conjunction with each
other, not one in lieu of the other.
Farjon is an accomplished botanical illustrator
and I was disappointed that none of his impressive drawings grace the pages
of this book as they (and the works of others) do in the Checklists
(Farjon 1998, 2001). As with most of
Farjon's books, the price puts this book out of reach of all but the
most dedicated conifer bibliophiles and libraries. My review copy reached
me in rather poor condition; I hope that the publisher plans to pack them
more securely for shipping, especially considering the price. Overall, this
updated edition of A Bibliography of Conifers
is a high quality publication containing a wealth of information and I highly
recommend this to systematists and taxonomists
working with conifers. In the assembly of a bibliography such as this, it
is fortunate that conifers have such a dedicated and passionate researcher
as Aljos Farjon.
Other plants should be so lucky.
-James P. Riser II, USDA
Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research
Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula
, Montana, 59808
1990. A bibliography of conifers. Regnum
Vegetabile Vol. 122.
Koeltz Scientific Books,
1998. World checklist and bibliography of conifers.
Botanic Gardens, Kew,
2001. World checklist and bibliography of conifers, 2nd Edition.
Botanic Gardens, Kew,
Droseraceae). Flora Neotropica
Monograph 96. Correa A., Mireya
D. and Tânia Regina dos Santos Silva.
2005. ISSN 0071-5794 (Paper US$) 56 pp. The New
York Botanical Garden
), by Mireya D. Correa A. and
Tânia Regina dos Santos Silva, seeks to review, in Spanish except
for the brief abstract and title page, the carnivorous genus
Drosera as it occurs in the neotropics
. In this they succeed partly, but with some obvious oversights and other
This work provides a wide range of information, from
SEM images of pollen and seeds to accurate and clear drawings of the various
species discussed. Distribution maps are also included which clearly show
individual locations for the various species as well as an overall map showing
the number of species found in various
Several deficiencies jump out in Drosera
(Droseraceae). One is that some of the information
is inaccurate. For example, on p. 2 the Droseraceae
is described as containing four genera. While this was the case for a long
time, in the past several years consensus has grown for the removal of the
Drosophyllum, leaving only three carnivorous genera:
Drosera, the sundews; Dionaea
, the Venus Flytrap; and
Aldrovanda, the Waterwheel Plant. Since this work was published
in 2005, there should have been plenty of time to correct this description
of the Droseraceae.
In addition, the photographs range from acceptable to useless. The SEM
images are among the best, and many details of pollen morphology are clearly
visible, though muddy due to low contrast. The in-habitat photographs of
plants are weak at best. Figure 1 C and D are truly useless, with the plants
as pictured being indistinguishable from grasses or small, rosette weeds.
This deficiency is probably due to the reproduction process used rather than
to the efforts of the authors.
Finally, there are some species missing. In 2002, Fernando
Rivadavia named four new species from
Brazil, which of course occur in the
neotropics. His work was published in Carnivorous Plant Newsletter,
which in spite of its name, a relic of its beginnings as a newsletter, is
now a glossy journal from the International Carnivorous Plant Society, edited
by two Ph.D. scientists and publishing peer-reviewed work.
Rivadavia's work was peer-reviewed, and he added D.
tentaculata, D. grantsaui, D.
camporupestris, and D. viridis
to the genus. Since this work was published three years prior to
Drosera (Droseraceae) and since
Rivadavia is probably the most active and prolific botanist dealing
with Drosera today in
South America, this omission should have been corrected.
Who should buy Drosera (
Droseraceae)? In spite of the deficiencies noted above, anyone working
in or strongly interested in carnivorous plants should get a copy. It belongs
in college and university libraries as well. To fully use it, the user will
need to be able to read Spanish, or a very fast typist accessing babelfish.altavista.com.
-Douglas Darnowski, Department
of Biology, Indiana
Wildflowers & Grasses of Kansas
: A Field Guide. Haddock, Michael John. 2005.
ISBN 0-7006-1370-6 (Paper US$19.95).
University Press of Kansas
, 2501 West 15th, Lawrence
, KS 66049
This stunning field guide is the latest addition to a fairly extensive
technical and semi-technical bibliography of
Kansas plants. It illustrates 264 wildflowers and
59 grasses, sedges and rushes commonly found in
Kansas. It is intended to help non-specialists identify
the most common and characteristic flowering plants in the state. As a result,
the author attempts to keep technical terms to a minimum. Most of the terms
used are collected and defined in a concise glossary that compliments a brief
illustrated section on plant morphology at the beginning of the book. However,
several plant descriptions contain descriptive terms not listed in these
resources. At the very beginning is a brief physical and
biogeographical description of the state. It would have been nice
to have a map, similar to the "Generalized Native Vegetation" found in
Owensby's Kansas Prairie Wildflowers.
Species are grouped by flower color. Within each group, the arrangement
is alphabetical by family, genus, and species (with authority). Nomenclature
generally follows that of the Flora of the Great Plains. The excellent
color photographs are close-ups of individual flowers or inflorescences with
good depth of field so that vegetative features can usually be examined.
In addition to family, other descriptors include common name(s), flowering
period (months), distribution (general region of the state), size of the
plant (in English units), and distinctive habitat. The latter provides specific
site types, eg
., exposed limestone, sandy gypsum soils, disturbed areas, upland,
bottom land. It does not contain distribution maps.
Plant descriptions are complete but written in a more
terse, technical style, similar to Bare's
Wildflowers and Weeds of Kansas, than other popular guides such as
Owensby or Barkley's Field Guide to the Common
Weeds of Kansas. In contrast, the comments provide very readable and
interesting notes on the plants. In addition to expected information, like
flowering time of day and native uses, Haddock describes interesting botanical
features and historical perspectives. For instance, in
Linum pretense the petals drop off easily in hot weather
or when disturbed, or the extensive taproot of
extends as much as 15 feet. We learn that Tradescantia
is named for John Tradescant, gardener for Charles
I of England in the 1600's and that Eryngium
leavenworthii is named after
Melines Conklin Leavenworth (1796-1862), an explorer, army surgeon,
and botanist (not Col. Henry Leavenworth, namesake of the Fort and the state's
A useful addition at the end of the book is the finding aid. Though not
a dichotomous key, it is based on that principle and distinctive key characters.
This is a handy guide for young students and anyone interested in the flowering
plants of the central Great Plains. It fits
nicely in a fanny pack! For those plants you might run across that are not
found in the book, you must check the author's web site: www.lib.ksu.edu/wildflower.
The site now contains nearly 500 species (or varieties) and is constantly
growing. The sites organization is similar to the books but with multiple
photos (and site locations) for each species, bulleted descriptions and a
more extensive section on plant morphology, illustrated with hand sketches
that would serve as an excellent model for undergraduate students to emulate.
I'm not suggesting that the state should market this book to promote tourism
- - but that might not be a bad idea. I am suggesting that every school, municipal,
and college library in the region should have a copy on their shelf - -and
you should have a copy to take with you the next time you drive through
- Marshall D. Sundberg
, Department of Biological Sciences, Emporia
Bare, Janét E. Wildflowers
and weeds of Kansas
The Regents Press of Kansas
Barkley, T.M. Field Guide to the Common Weeds of
The University Press of
Flora Association. Flora of the
University Press of
University Press. 1980.
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15
January, 15 April, 15 July or 15 October). E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
, call, or write as soon as you notice
the book of interest in this list because they go quickly! - Editor
Arabidopsis Protocols 2nd ed.
Salinas, Julio, and Jose J. Sanchez-Serrano (
eds.). 2006. ISBN 1-588-29-395-5 (Cloth US$125.00) 469 pp. Humana
Press, 999 Riverview Drive,
Suite 208, Totowa,
New Jersey 07512
Native Plants for North
, Allan M. 2006. ISBN 0-88192-760-0 (Cloth US$49.95)
448pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W.
's Frontier Naturalists. Beidleman
, Richard G. 2006. ISBN 0-520-23010-8 (Cloth US$39.95)
499 pp. University of California
Press, 2120 Berkeley Way
, Berkeley, CA
Flora Briofítica Ibérica
. Pottiales: Didymodon
. Guerra, J. and R. M. Cros
(Coordinating Editors) 2004. ISSN 1696-0521.
(Paper) 35 pp. Sociedad
Española de Briología
Flora of North America North of
Mexico. Volume 19:
Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 6;
Asteraceae, part 1, ISBN 0-19-530563-9 (Cloth US$95.00). Volume
20: Magnoliophyta: Asteridae
, part 7; Asteraceae, part 2, ISBN 0-19-530564-7
(Cloth US$95.00). Volume 21: Magnoliophyta
: Asteridae, part 8; Asteraceae
, part 3,ISBN
0-19-530565-5 (Cloth US$95.00).
198 Madison Ave.
, New York, NY
Flora of the Benezuelan
Guayana, Volume 9.
Steyermark, Julian A., Paul E. Berry, Kay
Yatskievych, and Bruce K.
Holst (general editors) 2005. ISBN 1-930723-47-4
(Cloth US$85.00) 608 pp. Missouri
Botanical Garden Press,
P.O. Box 299,
Saint Louis, MO
Flowers: How they Changed
the World. Burger, William. 2006. ISBN1-59102-407-2 (Cloth US$23.00)
210 pp. Prometheus Books, 59
John Glenn Drive, Amherst,
New York 14228-2197
, (Uncorrected advance reading copy for review).
Volume 4 Epidendroideae (Part One)
Pridgeon, Alec M., Phillip J. Cribb, Mark
W. Chase, and Finn N. Rasmussen. 2005. ISBN 0-19-850712-7 (Cloth £125.00)
University Press, Great Clarendon Street,
Oxford OX2 6DP
, Great Britain
Green Inheritance: Saving the Plants of the World. Huxley, Anthony.
2006. ISBN 0-530-24359-5 (Paper US$29.95) 192pp.
2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley,
Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers
. Rai, Mahendra
K. (ed.) 2005 ISBN 1-56022-270-5 (Paper US$69.95) 579 pp. Food Products
Press, 10 Alice Street
, Binghamton, NY
Insights from Insects: What Bad Bugs can Teach
Us. Waldbauer, Gilbert. 2005. ISBN 1-59102-277-0
(Paper, US$18.00) 311 pp. Prometheus Books,
59 John Glenn Drive, Amherst,
New York 14228-2197
Plant Biotechnology: Current and Future Applications of Genetically
Modified Crops. Halford, Nigel (Ed.) 2006.
ISBN 0-470-02181-0. (Cloth
US$135.00) 303 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex
Plant Exploration for
. 2006. ISBN 10-88192-738-4 (Cloth US$69.95) 336 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W.
, Suite 450
Plant-Pollinator Interactions: From Specialization to Generalization.
, Nickolas M. and Jeff Ollerton
. 2006. ISBN 0-226-87400-1 (Paper US$45.00) 488 pp.
of Chicago Press,
1427 E. 60th Street, Chicago
, Il 60637
Taxonomy and Plant Conservation.
Leadlay, Etelka and Stephen Jury (
eds). 2006. ISBN 0-521-60720-5 (Paper5 US$60.00) 343 pp
Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York,
The Truth about Garden Remedies: What Works, What Doesn't & Why.
Gillman, Jeff. 2006. ISBN 0-88192-748-1 (Paper US$19.95) 212pp. Timber Press,
133 S.W. Second Avenue
, Suite 450
Tulips: Species and Hybrids for the Gardener.
Wilford, Richard. 2006. ISBN 0-88192-763-5 (Cloth US$34.95) 212pp.
Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second
Yuuga: Contemporary Botanical Watercolors
. White, James J. and Lugene
B. Bruno. 2006. ISBN 0-913196-81-9 (Paper US$13.00) 60 pp, Hunt Institute
for Botanical Documentation,
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh
, PA 15213
Captions to figures in C.J.A. article by Blackwell in Plant Science Bulletin
John Peterson's photo of Dr. Alex at
Although Dr. Alex was an academic, teaching and doing research at four
different universities over his career, his first job begun while still a
graduate student, was as a plant pathologist for
the Illinois Natural History Survey. Here he is shown on the running board
of the field vehicle used in the search for peach yellows disease (about
1930) (from Blackwell 1988).
Dr. Alex in his office at the
University of Texas
about 1973. The boxes in the bookcase are his dark green cloth-covered
cardboard reprint boxes of myxomycete literature
with the papers arranged alphabetically by author and lettered with a marker
on masking tape. Also shown in the case is a photograph he made of the Caryatid
porch of the Erechtheion on the Acropolis, the
place where Athena won for the right to have the city named for her. These
maidens are copies. Four of the originals are now protected in the
; the fifth maiden is in the
, courtesy of Lord Elgin. Dr. Alex was proud of his Greek heritage, and although
he usually thought in English, some things such as numbers and prayers were
always recalled in the Greek of his childhood. He and Mrs. Alex traveled
to Greece many summers
and had bought retirement property on Corfu with a view of
Albania they were never to use. Dr. Alex's
photographs matched those of the National Geographic. One summer I
stayed at their house to take care of Melanie while they went to
Greece to see his parents. He instructed
me that if the house caught fire I should try to save in order:
i) the copy of the Myxomycetes autographed
by his coauthor G.W. Martin, ii) his large collection of sorted
Kodachromes in a free-standing 6' tall case, and iii) a centuries-old
icon with a frame enhanced by beetle galleries _that is if I could get them
out without dying in the fire (from Blackwell).
Revised URL for Truman
University's solar clock in Plant Science