PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 48, NUMBER 4, 2002
The Botanical Society of America:
The Society for ALL Plant Biologists
ISSN 0032-0919 - Electronic version ISSN 1537-9752
Address Editorial Matters (only) to:
Marsh Sundberg, Editor
Dept. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ.
1200 Commercial St.
Emporia, KS 66801-5057
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:
Johanne Stogran, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293
Plant Science Bulletin
Editorial Committee for Volume 48
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Univ. of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 681823
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside CA 92521-0124
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Andrew W. Douglas (2005)
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
Douglas W. Darnowski (2006)
Department of Biology
Chestertown, MD 21620
ER 2002 VOLUME 48
ContentsThe Botanical Society of America: The Society
for ALL Plant Biologists
Sarah P. Duke Gardens
News from the Society
Bill Dahl, Executive Director..............................................................................................130
News from the Sections
Archives and History Section............................................................................................130
Darbaker Prize, Dr. Arthur Grossman
2002 Lawrence Memorial Award, Andrew
Plowman Research Award, Pedro Lezama
Highlands Biological Station Course
Offerings in 2003
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Deep Achene: The Compositae Alliance First
Illinois Symposium on Invasive Species.
Second International Elm Conference
4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference
International Solanaceae Conference
and Poster Photo Competition
Plant Group Seeks to Nip Invasives in
Priceless New England Literary Collection
Establishes Major Botanical
Library at Chicago Botanic Garden
The Dead Grandmother's/Exam Syndrome and
the Potential Downfall of
Native Plant Makes History
Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
Offers Online Linnaean Exhibition
To Inspire Future
Students of Linnaeus
Announcement of Plant Talk
A Classic State Flora Returns to Print
Essential Book on New Zealand's Unique
Vegetation Returns to Print
Conference on Orchidology
Research Fellowship in Conservationy
William L. Brown Plant Genetic Resources
Second Annual NSF/New England Wild
Flower Society Research
Program in Conservation Biology
Grants-in-Aid of Research (Highlands
2003 Lawrence Memorial Award
National Security Education Program
Integrative Organismal Physiologist
Where can a Student get Traditional Training in Botany?
Botanical Society of America Logo Items
At this time last year the Plant Science Bulletin highlighted the
E.A. McIlhenny Natural History Collection as one of the less well-known botanical
treasures in the United States. With the holiday season upon us it's time
to showcase another gem in our collection of arboreta, gardens, and museums
that may not be well-known to many members of the Society. This time the
focus is on a living collection that has been a campus landmark for years,
but which is now growing in size and national and international stature _
the Sarah P. Duke Gardens at Duke University, Durham, NC.
Last spring I had the opportunity to participate in a workshop at the new
Doris Duke Center at the Gardens. What a wonderful educational facility! However,
I have to admit that it was difficult to keep my mind "on task" with the
gardens beckoning just outside the doors. The gardens take advantage of the
natural terrain to divide the collection into major sections focusing on
horticultural or botanical themes. A highlight for me was seeing one of the
original Metasequoia trees, grown from seed collected at the "discovery"
of living specimens in 1941. (I've also seen the specimen at William and
Mary - - does anyone know the whereabouts of other "original" trees?)
Those of you from the east coast, who are driving to Botany 2003 in Mobile,
will have the opportunity to visit the Gardens at Duke. Leave yourself plenty
of time to explore _ a full day if possible. You won't be disappointed. And
while you're there (or at any one of our local gardens or museums) you also
might want to think about offering support. The easiest thing would be a
monetary contribution or pledge. These are hard financial times for all or
us, but it's especially true for scientific and educational collections that
are often under-appreciated by the general public. You might also consider
offering your time, talent, and expertise. It's a great chance to engage
in practical application of our profession!
Sarah P. Duke Gardens
Tucked neatly into the heart of the Duke University campus, the Sarah P.
Duke Gardens enjoys a respected reputation both locally and internationally.
The Gardens has become a polished, gleaming gardening jewel, but it had much
humbler beginnings. To make Duke Gardens blossom into the spectacular set
of gardens it is today, it took foresight, determination and a bit of luck.
view of Culberson Asiatic Arboretum
In the 1920s, what is now Duke Gardens was a weedy ravine. Although a
lake had originally been planned for the area, that idea had been scrapped.
Dr. Frederic Hanes, one of the original faculty members of the medical school,
saw this area as a potential new home for his favorite flower, the iris.
Hugo L. Blomquist, chair of the Duke Botany Department, opposed the idea
of a garden with only iris. He felt iris should just be part of the complete
garden, filled with different representatives from other species. Hanes brought
in Philadelphia horticulturist John C. Wister to analyze the situation. Wister,
after some consideration, suggested a $30,000 total to begin the new garden
— $15,000 for construction, $15,000 for planting. That $30,000, however,
was just not feasible in the Depression era. All planning at the University
Hanes didn't let that stop him. He asked Sarah Pearson Angier Duke, widow
of Duke University co-founder Ben Duke, to donate $20,000 for a garden that
would be named for her. It wouldn't be enough money, but with Mrs. Duke's
funding, the University again became interested in the project. The first
planting in 1935 featured 40,000 iris, 25,000 daffodils, 10,000 small bulbs
and various annuals.
That delight was short-lived, however.
Rain caused problems (iris rot, for one) because of the poor drainage.
At one time in 1934, horticulturist Thomas Norfleet Webb wrote to Wister that
there were "at least" three acres of water standing in the Gardens at that
Sarah P. Duke, the Gardens' original benefactor, died in 1936. Hanes then
approached Sarah's daughter, Mary Duke Biddle, and asked her to participate
in the Gardens project as a way to honor her mother. He had already talked
with legendary landscape architect Ellen Shipman to create a formal garden
as a lasting memory of Sarah P. Duke. Mary was delighted with the idea.
Shipman, a landscaping renegade at a time when there were almost no women
in the profession, fell in love with the Italian garden design work of Charles
A. Platt. His ideas and Shipman's implementation created the Italian villa
concept that is known today as The Terraces.
In fewer than 12 acres, The Terraces packed in many unique garden architecture
features as well as plants. Shipman's plans provided a number of delightful
touches that would astound visitors for decades to come. At the top of a
hill, an iron Pergola was constructed. Chinese wisteria, still magnificent
today when it blooms, was planted to crown it. Low retaining walls were built
with rock dubbed "Duke stone." Walkways were designed to bisect the terraced
beds of plantings. Fountains, complete with statues, decorated the center.
At the bottom of The Terraces, a small koi pond was located.
Rock wall designer Frederic P. Leubuscher was hired to create the rock
garden, Shipman's idea for the sharp slope behind the small koi pond. Approximately
50 tons of N.J. limestone were brought in for the project. Leubuscher and
his crew embedded the stones into the slope for a natural look. Around the
edges of The Terraces, Shipman envisioned Magnolia grandiflora.
After spending 1938 in construction, The Terraces reopened with much ceremony
in 1939. The 1940s saw the Gardens fill out, and the general public seemed
to discover it. Much was written in local newspapers that soldiers were seen
strolling the Gardens. Additional staff members were hired. In 1945, the
Gardens' first director was named.
William B.S. Leong, Boston landscape architect and planner, was hired to
develop a master plan for the Gardens' 55 acres. (The Gardens has just begun
the undertaking of developing a new master plan.) It was with this plan in
the 1960s that much of the current look was developed. Part of the Leong
plan incorporated the concept of the disappearing vista, a popular design
technique in Europe. With this feature, the tall grand spires of Duke Chapel
slowly disappear from sight as the visitor begins the slight incline at the
The Gothic gate welcomes visitors. When visitors walk through the gates,
the path leads directly to the Rose Circle with its 16 varieties. From the
Rose Circle, visitors may access other areas of the Gardens.
Roses figure prominently at the Gardens. The Rose Circle itself contains
300 bushes of its 16 different varieties. A species rose collection also exists
in the Asiatic garden. A David Austin collection of nine different varieties
and approximately 40 bushes is planted on the South Lawn.
The right path from the Rose Circle leads to the William L. Culberson Asiatic
Arboretum (CAA.) This garden became possible when a wide dam (1982) was built
to control the stream that had previously constantly overflowed the Gardens.
A lake was formed at the Gardens' north end. This lake has become the center
point of a spectacular Asiatic collection of plants that would ultimately
bear the name of Duke botanist William C. Culberson.
Like Hanes, Culberson, director of the Gardens from 1978 to 1998, was a
man with a dream. His idea was to develop an area that would clearly demonstrate
the close relationship between plants of the southeastern United States and
eastern Asia. In this 20-acre area of the Gardens, hundreds of plants with
an Asian heritage are planted. Placed throughout the CAA are numerous Asian
stone lanterns, a tea house, an arched bridge and a zig-zag bridge.
According to CAA Horticulturist Paul D. Jones, the strength in the Asiatic
collection is represented by specific examples vs. cultivars or selections.
Camellia japonica selections and hybrids, for example, are a strength of the
CAA collection. Several unusual species not normally found in public gardens
would be the CAA's Sassafras tzumu, Taxus maireir or any of
the several Asian species of Lindera. Jones, who has traveled to China
numerous times on seed-collecting trips, also has a growing collection of
species from China, grown from seed of documented sites in the wild.
The CAA also has a unique collection of Japanese maples. Most notable are
`Shishigashira,' the Lion's Head Japanese Maple, `Kasagiyama
,' because of the most unusual color of the new foliage, 'Omurayama
,' because of the weeping habit, and `Ornatum,' not because it's unusual
but because it's such a beautiful specimen.
The left path from the Rose Circle leads to the Azalea Court, the H.L.
Blomquist Garden of Native Plants, and The Terraces. That path is called the
Perennial Allée and is home to a number of interesting specimens that
provide year-round delight to all who stroll through. Of particular interest
are: Climbing Carolina Aster (Aster carolinianus), White beautyberry,
Aster tataricus, Allegheny Spurge, Euphorbia amygdaloides,
Phlomis fruticosa, Lilium formosanum, Yucca filamentosa
`Gold Heart' (a variegated Spanish Dagger), Indigofera kirilowii,
Kirilow Indigophera, and Arum italicum (Italian arum.)
Just this summer, The Terraces were given a facelift. Retaining walls were
reworked. Fresh soil was added to the terraced beds. As new planting
selections are made, some decisions are firm. The Terraces' legendary collections
of daylilies, paeonies, and hostas will continue. The SPDG's collection of
Hemerocallis features award winners such as the Stout and Lennington award
winners, designations set by the American Hemerocallis Society.
The H.L. Blomquist Garden of Native Plants was first mentioned in the Leong
master plant as, simply, "a fern garden." Today, it represents well the southeastern
region of the United States with more than 900 different species of native
plants in its 6.5 acres. A small pond, complete with millstone stepping stones,
is just one focal point in the Blomquist. A second pond, the Sunny Pond,
was built in the early 1990s in the southwest corner of the Blomquist. A
particularly charming structure _ the Bird-Viewing Shelter _ is the newest
construction. Built to resemble a bird house, the building is a delightful
find for Blomquist visitors. Much of the current Blomquist was developed
by horticulturist Ed Steffek, who worked in the Blomquist for almost 25 years,
until his sudden death in 2001.
Particularly well-represented in the Blomquist are the native Trillium
and Asarum (syn. Hexastylus). At least 16 different endangered
species exist, including: Rhododendron minus var. chapmanii, Sarracenia
rubra subsp. jonesii, Helonias bullata, Neviusia alabamensis, Conradina glabra,
Shortia galacifolia, Hexastylis virginiana (syn. Hexastylus virginicum, Hexastylis
contracta), Cymophyllus fraseri, Croton alabamensis, Marshallia mohrii,
Pityopsis ruthii (syn. Chrysopsis ruthii), Conradina verticillata, Hydrastis
canadensis, Panax quinquefolius, and Hexastylis speciosa (syn. Hexastylis
Also striking throughout the SPDG are the presence of the native old-growth
Pines (esp. P. taeda and echinata) and the aged Quercus alba
, falcata and coccinea.
One of the favorite plantings among both the SPDG horticulturists and the
general public would be its splendid example of the Dawn Redwood, (Metasequoia
This tree is one of the original trees grown from the first seed collected
in China after living members of this species was discovered in 1941.
With the opening of the new 12,000-square-foot Doris Duke Center in 2001,
the SPDG now has a truly unique indoor space for visitor services, horticultural
education, special events and its administrative offices.
The Kirby-Horton Hall is the focal point of the building. A magnificently
large room, it features a Brazilian cherry floor, Douglas Fir ceiling and
vertical beams, cedar ceiling, and birch side walls. The chandeliers were
custom-made for the DDC by designer Phyllis Mueller. Each chandelier (at almost
15-feet tall) has a 48-inch diameter basket that is 17 inches tall itself.
The panels of the chandelier are laser-cut steel and have a sandblasted exterior.
The design was inspired by a vine motif on the door panels of a 19th
-century Arts and Crafts cabinet made in England by Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo.
The centerpiece of the Entry Garden for the Doris Duke Center is the Iris
Fountain, given by Dr. Robert Teabeaut to honor the memory of Dr. Frederic
M. Hanes, his friend and mentor. In addition, the walkways, galleries and
terraces of the Center are paved with Pennsylvania bluestone.
The Entry Garden for the Doris Duke Center is framed by the Wickersham
Pergola, a wood structure designed to provide a vine-covered entryway extending
the full width of the front entrances to the Center.
Just outside the Doris Duke Center, a new amphitheater and pool are located.
Four new gardens have been planted as well.
The Serpentine Garden extends along the east border of the Doris Duke Center
Gardens and creates a backdrop for the North Terrace and Tent Lawn, visually
separating the Center from the Horticultural Service Complex. This garden
features an interesting redbud from China, Cercis chinensis `Avondale.'
The White Garden is located on axis with the Pennsylvania bluestone pathway
leading from the North Terrace to the amphitheater. On display is a variety
of shrubs and perennials that will provide year-round bloom, including Pearlbush
(Exochorda), a white Wisteria, and a Lycoris alba.
The East-Meets-West Garden demonstrates again the splendid horticultural
link between North American and Asian plants. A stunning splash of Acer
`Sumin-nagashi,' Matsumurae Group, is settled in a grove behind
a new pond. The new Water Garden creates unity among the Doris Duke Center
Gardens. Greg Nace, associate director of horticultural operations, plans
to raise Amazon water lilies from seed to accent the water.
In a sunny 600-square-foot room in the Doris Duke Center, the Harriet Jackson
Phelps Library welcomes anyone with a horticultural question. This horticultural
library features nearly 2,300 volumes.
Also located within the Horticultural Complex are the Valhope Greenhouses.
The SPDG works to develop and keep friendly ties with the community. SPDG
has worked with South Eastern Efforts Developing Sustainable Spaces or, more
simply put, SEEDS. That group's mission is to challenge and support neighborhood
residents, community activists, city government, and corporations. It strives
to bring community groups together to help them transform underutilized and
vacant urban land into productive, community-controlled places. SEEDS uses
SPDG's greenhouses to jumpstart seedling production. The SPDG also collaborated
with the Durham Sister Cities program on an Ikebana flower arranging demonstration.
Currently, the SPDG is coordinating with DSC to build a Japanese pavilion.
From Duke's campus, professors use the Gardens' to facilitate their teaching
programs. For example, limnology classes take core samples from the pond;
geology classes learn surveying by surveying around the pond.
Educational classes - on every topic from bonsai gardening to what makes
a plant grow _ are popular with area adults and children. One particular favorite
is a horticultural-therapy program that takes the Gardens to hospitalized
children. Several educational courses are created and taught through the combined
efforts of SPDG staff and representatives of the local Durham County Masters
Gardeners. Classes in plant systematics (to encourage the public to learn
locally botanically interesting trees and shrubs) are often taught to packed
rooms. An annual Easter Sunrise Service is hosted at the Gardens as well
as a number of performances by area dance groups and the annual nationally
acclaimed American Dance Festival.
—Nancy Oliver, Sarah P. Duke Gardens, Box 90341, Duke University, Durham,
NC 27708-0341, 919-668-1704
News from the Society
The Botanical Society of America is pleased to present its first ever Executive
Director in Bill Dahl. Bill comes to us from Richmond Fellowship New Zealand
Incorporated, New Zealand's leading innovator and provider of community
based behavioral health and social services. As General Manager
for Richmond he assisted in the development of a culturebased on meeting
its members' needs and ensuring its service offerings meet the needs of the
people and mission it was instigated to serve. Bill led the organization
with a strong emphasis on strategic development and sound business practices.
Bill holds a Masters of Business Administration degree from the University
of Canterbury, based in Christchurch, and holds dual citizenship (USA and
New Zealand). He will be responsible for the operation of the Botanical Society
of America office based in St. Louis, Missouri; manage membership in general
with particular emphasis on membership services & development; and run
BSA's fundraising programs. Bill will also act as one of our relationship
links with other like societies.
Father of two great kids (Rebecca 20 and Peter 18). Rebecca is a student
at Victoria University in Wellington and Peter has just graduated from high
school and is considering his options (may want to come to the US of A to
News from the Sections
ARCHIVES and HISTORY SECTION
Betty Smocovitis, former section chair, has asked me to chair the section
and I have accepted. Larry Davenport graciously has offered to serve as co-Program
Chair for our meetings. Therefore we are now asking for your assistance in
organizing the next Historical Section program. We wish to encourage our
members and their students and colleagues to present a paper or poster at
the Botany 2003 meetings in Mobile, Alabama. If you know of anyone working
on an historical project that would have interest to our membership please
encourage them to participate. Additionally, we are updating our list of
section members and would encourage you to send us your latest postal and
email address for our records. If you are not currently a member of the Archives
and History section we welcome your affiliation. Thanks, Lee Kass and Larry
Davenport. Lee B. Kass, L. H. Bailey Hortorium Department of Plant Biology,
Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-4301 email:
Larry Davenport, Department of Biology, Samford University, Birhamingham,
AL 35229-2234 Email:
Meet me in Mobile!
Dr. Arthur Grossman of the Carnegie Institution of Washington was
selected for the 2002 Darbaker Prize. This award has been given by the Botanical
Society of America since 1955 for meritorious work on microalgae, as judged
by publications over a two-year period. Dr. Grossman's recent publications
reflect his long-standing and diverse interests in algal biology, and include
studies on cyanobacterial nutrient and light responses, and the characterization
of light-harvesting systems in two major groups of algae. Dr. Grossman is
also enthusiastic in promoting algae as model organisms, being deeply involved
in the development of genomics tools for the study of gene expression in
the green alga Chlamydomonas, and instrumental in the development
of one of the first transformation systems for diatoms. We congratulate Dr.
Grossman on his Darbaker Prize!
2002 Lawrence Memorial Award
Andrew L. Hipp, at the University of Wisconsin _ Madison, is the
recipient of the 2002 Lawrence Memorial Award. A student of Paul E. Berry,
Mr. Hipp has undertaken a phylogenetic and taxonomic study of Carex
section Ovales. He will use the proceeds of the Award to support his
field studies of the Carex microptera complex. Commemorating Dr. George
H.M. Lawrence, founding Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
at Carnegie Mellon University, the annual Award of $2000 is made to an outstanding
doctoral candidate for travel in support of dissertation research in systematic
botany or horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences, including literature
Plowman Research Award
Pedro Lezama Asencio, Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego,Trujillo,
Peru received the Plowman Research Award to support the study: "Biodiversity
and Systematics of Lupinus (Tourn.) L. in Department Ancash, Peru"
The genus Lupinus (Tourn.) L. (Fabaceae) contains ca. 300 spp.,
of which 200 are distributed in the Americas. The genus Lupinus has
only four domesticated species, though it is an important crop plant in the
Andes of South America, and Peru in particular. While many cultivars have
their origin in the Mediterranean region, Lupinus mutabilis is derived
from South America. Members of Lupinus form associations with rhizobia
bacteria (Bradyrhizobium spp.) and these are potentially "species-specific."
In Peru, ca. 84 species of Lupinus are recorded, and of these, 60
are reported for the Department of Ancash. This total number remains controversial
and it has been suggested there are possible hybrid swarms. To date, 15 different
"morpho-type" species have been identified in the northern sector of Department
of Ancash. These require identification and placement in accepted nomenclature.
This study has allowed for collecting native species, identifying species
boundries, and applying the proper nomenclature to the representatives in
the Ancash region. The hypothesis that the rhizobia bacterial are "species-specific"
will be tested when all bacteria have been characterized and species concepts
refined. Lupinus species have may play an important role in sustainable
agriculture, due to their ability to be cultivated in soils poor in nutrients
by the fixing of nitrogen by the symbiotic bacteria Bradyrhizobium
The Plowman Research award allowed for a visit to the Field Museum and
Missouri Botanical Garden, where Dr. David Neil had amassed a large number
of loans from major herbaria (including F) of Andean Lupinus. Dr. Neil
is conducting a monographic study of Andean Lupinus in conjunction
with Dr. Colin E. Hughes (Oxford University), which includes DNA analysis.
Appropriate DNA samples from Ancash will be included in these studies and
will allow for testing hypotheses of species relationships and specificity
for bacterial strains. It is hoped that by expanding our knowledge of the
native members of Lupinus, we may be able to develop additional species
having characteristics favorable for cultivation. These may include disease
resistant, increased nutritional content, and potentially better adaptions
to local environments. Understanding the taxonomic diversity and variability
in Lupinus may allow us to progress on other research fronts.
THE HIGHLANDS BIOLOGICAL STATION
COURSE OFFERINGS IN 2003
The Highlands Biological Station, located in the Southern Appalachian Mountains
in southwestern North Carolina, is pleased to announce its summer course
offerings for 2003. These courses are taught at the advanced undergraduate-graduate
level, and credit for all courses is available through UNC-Chapel Hill or
Western Carolina University.
Conservation Biology of Amphibians May 19 - May 31 Three
semester hours. Raymond D. Semlitsch (University of Missouri)
This course is designed for advanced students and wildlife professionals who
are interested in understanding the basic processes that regulate natural
populations of amphibians, as well as contemporary problems associated with
the conservation of amphibian diversity. Students will participate in a class
field project on the effects of forest management practices on woodland salamanders
and sharpen their communication skills through individual presentations on
Prerequisites: herpetology or vertebrate biology, ecology or population
biology, or permission of instructor.
Taxonomy and Natural History of Southern Appalachian Mayflies, Stoneflies,
and Caddisflies June 2-14 Three semester hours. John C. Morse (Clemson
Natural history and taxonomy of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera),
and caddisflies (Trichoptera), including systematics, ecology, and behavior
of larvae and adults, with emphasis on those aspects important in ecological
studies, biological monitoring of water quality, and sport fishing. Insects
will be collected from mountain stream habitats, and identifications will
be done in the laboratory.
Prerequisites: general biology, entomology, or permission of instructor.
Conservation Biology—Principles for Conservation Illustrated by the
Diverse and Dynamic Landscape of the Southern Appalachians June 16-28
Three semester hours. Peter S. White (University of North Carolina at Chapel
This course presents the major biological principles that are important in
our efforts to conserve biological diversity. The setting of Highlands Biological
Station will allow us to examine and illustrate those principles through
field work in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the Blue Ridge Parkway,
and the Highlands area. Topics to be covered include: the history and philosophy
of conservation goals, the definition and measurement of biological diversity,
island biogeography and conservation, communities and ecosystems, natural
disturbance and patch dynamics, the special problems of islands, exotic species,
and ecological restoration. Students will explore computer simulations of
ecosystem and population dynamics, population genetics, and island biogeography.
Prerequisites: general biology, ecology, or permission of instructor.
Forest Ecosystems of the Southern Appalachian Mountains June
30 - July 12 Three semester hours. Thomas R. Wentworth (North Carolina State
University), J. Dan Pittillo (Western Carolina University), Peter S. White
(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to patterns and processes
in forested ecosystems of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. The focus is
on natural vegetation, with an emphasis on vascular plants. Through lectures,
readings, and discussions, students will be introduced to a series of topics,
including biogeography, paleoecology, classification of vegetation, regional
environmental patterns, succession and community dynamics, vegetation/environmental
relationships, and current threats to the integrity of these systems. Trips
to a variety of natural areas will illustrate these topics in the field.
Students will be expected to participate fully in all group activities and
to maintain personal journals summarizing the information presented.
Prerequisites: General biology, ecology, or permission of the instructor.
Vascular Plants of the Southern Appalachians July 14 - 26
Three semester hours. Paul S. Manos (Duke University)
The vascular flora of the Southern Appalachians is extremely rich. This course
will introduce students to the full diversity of vascular plants, focusing
on identification of characteristic and endemic taxa. A variety of keys and
regional floras will be used. There will be lectures, labs, and field trips
to sites in the Blue Ridge Mountains and Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Field trips will involve some moderate hiking.
Prerequisites: general biology, ecology, or permission of instructor.
Bryology—an Introduction to Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts of
the Southern Appalachians July 28 _ August 9 Three semester hours.
Paul G. Davison (University of North Alabama)
The Highlands area is the wettest place in eastern North America and harbors
an incredible diversity and abundance of bryophytes. This course examines
the systematics, morphology, and ecology of this diverse, but often overlooked,
group of plants. Field trips to collect specimens will be followed by microscopic
examination in the laboratory to identify these to species. A collection
will be required.
Prerequisites: general biology, ecology, or permission of instructor.
Costs include a course fee of $400 per 2-week course, charged to all students;
a registration fee of $80, charged only to students who wish to register
for credit; and housing costs of $40 per week. Courses may be taken without
credit, but preference is given to degree-seeking students who wish to enroll
The Highlands Biological Foundation, Inc., offers limited financial aid,
typically a subsidy amounting to one-half of the course fee, to qualified
students. Further information on specific courses, financial aid, and application
forms can be obtained by writing to Dr. Robert Wyatt, Executive Director,
Highlands Biological Station, P.O. Box 580, Highlands, North Carolina 28741.
Forms can also be downloaded from our website at
Ode to code (by Don Les)
You may have me, you can take me; sometimes you'll
even tell me,
I am money, you can spend me; but can you really spell
Poems are very nice because the words are meant to
But spell me similarly, and you'll see that I'm no
Which family am I in?
Answer on page 163
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Deep Achene: The Compositae Alliance. First International Meeting - South
WHEN: 9-10 January 2003
WHERE: Environmental Education Centre
National Botanical Garden
2 Cussonia Avenue
Pretoria, South Africa
REGISTRATION: $50 (50 Euros) includes lunch and tea for both days.
The registration form (attached) and checks, made out to the National Botanical
Institute, should be sent to our local host Dr. Marinda Koekernoer (PRE).
Please send a copy of the form to Funk as well. There is a much reduced rate
for local participants and they should contact Marinda for additional information.
TITLES AND ABSTRACTS: Titles are due 15 November 2002 (please include
the tribe name or names in your title). Abstracts (150 words) should arrive
by 10 December 2002. Please send Titles and Abstracts by email, fax or letter
to Funk and to Koekemoer. We will use the same guidelines for abstracts as
used by the SAAB website h
although they will be processed separately. Please note: Do Not submit your
title and abstract through the SAAB website, send it directly to Funk and
Koekemoer via email, fax or letter.
A program with abstracts will be sent via email to all participants around
the 15th of December, and a printed version will be part of the
registration packet. After the meeting we hope to publish revised abstracts
and perhaps a meeting summary in the Compositae Newsletter.
PROGRAM: There will be talks as well as posters. There is at least
one person per tribe invited to give an overview of our current level of
knowledge in that tribe. In addition, anyone is welcome to present a contributed
paper and/or poster.
The Program will be divided into three parts.
Part I: An overview of the family and the three subfamilies will be presented
on the morning of Day 1. A large cladogram with all the "latest" groupings
will be posted in the room to encourage comments.
Part II: The afternoon of Day I and most of Day 2 will be devoted to talks
and posters organized by tribe beginning at the base of the diagram and working
up the tree. Each tribe of any size has a coordinator(s) who will present
a talk on the tribe and organize the talks and posters for that group. The
small tribes will be picked up by the subfamily speakers or by those covering
the sister tribe.
Outgroups: Melanie Devore
Barnadesieae: Tod Stuessy and Estrella Urtubey (?)
Mutisieae: Jorge Cnsci(?), Vicki Funk & Santiago Ortiz
Cardueae (Cynareae): Nuria Garcia-Jacas & Alfonso Susanna
Vernonieae: Sterling Keeley & Harold Robinson(?)
Liabeae: V. Funk & Mike Dillon (?)
Arctoteae: Nigel Barker, V. Funk & Per Ola Karis(?)
Lactuceae (Cichorieae): Walter Lack & Joongku (?)
Calenduleae: Bertil Nordenstam
Gnaphalieae: Randal Bayer, Ilse Breitwieser & Jo Ward
Anthemideae: Linda Watson, Christoph Oberprieler and Joan Valles
Astereae: Tim Lowrey & Lowell Urbatsch
lnuleae + Plucheeae: Arne Anderberg (?)
Senecioneae: Beitil Nordenstam
Heliantheae: Jose Panero & Bruce Baldwin
Eupatorieae: Ed Shilling (?) & H. Robinson (?)
(Names followed by a "(?)" indicate that the individual may not be attending
Part III: At the end of the second day there will be a general meeting
to discuss several subjects of importance to the Compositae research community.
Topics include the possibility of a meeting in Vienna, Austria, hosted by
Tod Stuessy either during or after the International Botanical Congress in
2005. The purpose of this 2005 meeting would be to produce a published work
similar to the volumes by Heywood, Harborne & Turner (1977). Also on
the agenda are efforts to provide some voluntary organization for investigations
into the evolution of the family. For instance, the designation of a list
of characters that should be included in general descriptions (a draft is
to be provided by David Keil), a discussion of molecular markers and ways
to approach areas of the cladogram that lack resolution, the possibility of
a repository for published sequences that would be analyzed annually to provide
insight into the evolution of the family, how to use the Deep Achene project
to raise funds for research, etc. Anyone with topics they wish to discuss
should contact Funk. Depending on the number of titles submitted, part of
this discussion may take place on the evening of the Day 1. If anyone would
like to help organize and moderate the discussion, please contact Funk.
ACCOMMODATION: As many of you know, the Deep Achene meeting is taking
place at the same time as the South African Association of Botanists (SAAB)
meeting, 7-10 January, 2003. Their web site (
) has a list of accommodations. Other accommodations somewhat closer
to the Garden are as follows:
Bed & Breakfast (Guest Houses)
1. Bosau (Single, R230; Double R350 per room)
2. Weavind (R250 per person)
3. Sugar & Spice (R250 per person)
4. Khayalethu (Single, R180; Double~ R300)
Hotel (Breakfast excluded)
Holiday Inn Garden Court (Single, R749; Double, per person sharing, R658)
Currently the exchange rate is about 10 Rand to the dollar or Euro. Marinda
can ask someone to make a reservation for you at one of the Bed & Breakfasts
without a website; if you have any difficulty please contact her.
FIELD TRIP: Marinda is organizing a 10 day field trip leaving on
the 11th of January to Lesotho and the Natal Drakensberg / Sani Pass area.
The cost of the trip will be approximately $1000 (or Euros) which will include
all lodging, meals, and transportation. Marinda is looking into some less
expensive options and we hope to have a less expensive price tag for the
trip. We will have some final information soon. Those wishing additional
information should contact Marinda as soon as possible.
SIDE TRIPS: If you have extra days there are a number of interesting
places for short trips. Some possibilities are:
1. Pilansberg Reserve (
www.knet.co.za/pilansberg/ about the.html
) and Sun City (
) [2-3 days]
2. Cradle of Mankind (
) [3 days]
3. Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (
) [3 days]
4. Sight seeing in Pretoria and Johannesburg
You can find all of these `on line' and Marinda can give you additional
suggestions and information.
Dr. Marinda Koekemoer
Dr. Vicki A. Funk
US National Herbarium
National Botanical Institute
Private Bag X1Ol
P.O. Box 37012
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
South Africa USA
Tel:  12/804 3200
Fax:  1218043211
Illinois Symposium on Invasive Species
The Illinois State Academy of Sciences, The Nature Conservancy, and the
Illinois Department of Resources will sponsor a symposium on Illinois invasive
species on 5 April 2003 at Illinois State University, Normal. Plenary session
speakers include: David Thomas, Chief of Illinois Natural History Survey,
David Lodge, Department of Biology, Notre Dame University and a member of
the Federal Invasive Species Advisory Council, Phil Lounibos, Department
of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Ann Bartuska, Executive
Director, Invasive Species Initiative, The Nature Conservancy, and Lynn Padovan
with the State of Illinois Governor's Office. The symposium will also include
Round Table Discussions on a variety of topics related to invasive species,
and a poster session. To receive additional information and a registration
form email (
) or mail your name and address to:
Roger C. Anderson, 4120 Biology Department, Illinois State University,
Normal, IL 61790-4120.
Second International Elm Conference - 20-23 May, Valsain, Spain
The second International Elm Conference, hosted by the DGCN, Ministry of
Environment, will provide an international exchange of information about established
and emerging methods of saving the remaining elms. Experts from around the
world will present current research on elm ecology, conservation, biotechnology,
breeding, pests and elm diseases. The objectives and topics to be discussed
will follow those presented at the 1st International Elm Conference (The
Morton Arboretum, Chicago, 1998):
*Building dialog between researchers and practitioners
*Providing information about elm conservation and management
*Developing ideas for elm improvement
*Involving citizenship with elm research
The Conference is structured in four plenary sessions: Elm Ecology, Conservation
and Breeding, Pests and Diseases, and Biotechnology. At least two invited
speakers will present key lectures on the state-of-the-art and research needs.
The Conference will be held in the National Centre for Environmental Education
(Valsaín, Segovia). Tours through Segovia, Madrid and to elm forests
will be available. The Conference will be international and interdisciplinary.
Official language is English. Papers will be published after the Conference.
For more information, or to register, please inquire by e-mail to:
or to Dr. Christopher Dunn, The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532 (
4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference 2003
The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference will be hosted by Michigan
State University, East Lansing, MI U.S.A. from 20 to 25 July, 2003. The organizing
committee, chaired by Drs. Frank W. Telewski and Dr. Frank W. Ewers, with
Dr. Guillermo Angeles, Dr. Larry Drzal, Dr. Barbara Gartner, Dr. Lothar Koehler,
Dr. Wendy Silk, Dr. Hanns-Christof Spatz, and Dr. Thomas Speck as members,
invites contributions on a wide range of topics related to plant biomechanics:
1) General Biomechanics
2) Biomechanics and Ecology
3) Biomechanics and Evolution
4) Trees and Wood
5) Biomechanics and Genetic Modification
6) Mechanoreception and Early Signal Transduction
7) Mechanics of Growth Processes
8) Applied Biomechanics I Whole Plants and Plant Products
9) Applied Biomechanics II Fibers and Composites
10) Xylem Pressure and Water Transport
11) Fluid Dynamics
12) Properties of Cell Walls
13) Fracture Mechanics
Prospective speakers are requested to submit abstracts of their papers
or posters to the conference secretary by e-mail:
. The deadline for submitting abstracts is 15 December 2002. The
campus of Michigan State University is located in the heart of the beautiful
Great Lakes Region. For further information visit the conference website
). For additional information or questions, contact Dr. Frank W. Telewski
) or write:
Dr. Frank W. Telewski
W. J. Beal Botancial Garden
412 Olds Hall
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
Announcement of the 2006 International Solanaceae Conference and Poster
The VI International Solanaceae Conference will be held in Madison, Wisconsin
from July 23-27, 2006, at the Monona Terrace, situated on Lake Monona. This
modern facility, situated within walking distance of the State Capitol, hotels,
and scenic State Street, represents an ideal venue for this conference. It
will be held in conjunction with an annual meeting of the Potato Association
of America. The International Solanaceae Conferences have been held every
5-6 years and all have resulted in published proceedings, as will this one.
Details of the conference are being formulated, and can be viewed at:
. The conference will be further advertised by full-color posters
to be distributed worldwide, and we solicit artwork of any Solanaceae theme
that will form the centerpiece of the poster. The contributor of this artwork,
and sponsors to the conference will be acknowledged on the poster. For more
information, please contact the conference organizer: David M Spooner, USDA
Agricultural Research Service, UW-Madison, Department of Horticulture, 1575
Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706; 608-262-0159;
Plant Group Seeks To Nip Invasives In The Bud
St. Louis - Botanists, nursery professionals, farmers and gardeners
are arming themselves to fight back against "plant thugs," the growing invasion
of rogue plants that mar yards, fields and even whole ecosystems.
For a number of reasons, including the sale of non-native species via the
Internet, the infiltration of invasive plants has turned into an onslaught,
causing large-scale environmental damage and economic loses running into the
billions of dollars. That's why the plant community - everyone from window
box gardeners to botanical gardens professionals and nursery operators -
is fighting back.
A group of botanical garden representatives, nursery professionals, landscape
architects, garden clubbers and government experts recently gathered at the
Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis to explore new ways of fighting unwanted
Invasive species pose a significant environmental threat," said Dr. Peter
Raven, Director of the Missouri garden, "and a huge economic problem to agriculture,
nurseries and homeowners. We can work together to solve the problem, or by
omission or commission exotics will defeat us."
As a follow-up to the December conference, the group has released the
St. Louis Declaration on Invasive Plant Species along with a set
of guidelines for all types of growers referred to as Draft Voluntary
Codes of Conduct.
To get the word out, the group has created a website,
, where gardeners, botanists, landscape architects and nursery
operators - anyone who grows plants - can learn more about how to stop the
spread of invasives.
For many, the fight to quell common weeds like dandelions and Queen Anne's
lace is little more than a yearly nuisance. But many lesser known - and far
more dangerous - "plant thugs" pose a serious environmental threat. Plants
like the Brazilian pepper in south Florida, brome grass in the southwest,
kudzu in the southeast and English ivy in the northwest can wreak havoc in
natural areas, decimate biodiversity and change the basic ways native ecosystems
The Missouri Botanical Garden and the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, England,
convened the St. Louis workshop. Other participants include the American Association
of Botanical Gardens and
Arboreta, the American Nursery and Landscape Association, the American Society
of Landscape Architects, The Nature Conservancy, the Garden Club of America
A second meeting to further refine the Draft Voluntary Codes of Conduct
and discuss how to turn plans into action is scheduled for this fall at
the Chicago Botanic Garden.
Often brought from overseas with the best of motives - feeding livestock,
halting erosion and brightening gardens and flowerboxes - plant predators
can sweep across fields and forests and out-compete native flora for light,
water and nutrients. Growing sales of exotics through mail-order houses and
the Internet have worsened the problem.
"There needs to be a change so we can move away from trying to control
invasive plants once they're here to preventing their arrival in the first
place," said Sarah Reichard, a biologist at the University of Washington in
The workshop's findings set forth a list of principles, "The St. Louis
Six," which seeks to provide professional and amateur growers with a
blueprint for preventing the spread of harmful exotics. These guidelines call
*Plant introduction protocols that reduce the chances of bringing in nuisance
*Adherence to national goals and standards while taking regional differences
*Promoting prevention and early detection as the most cost-effective
methods of fighting invasives.
*Added emphasis on research, public education and professional training.
*Organizing a cooperative campaign that includes leaders from horticulture,
the nursery industry, weed science, ecology, conservation, botanical gardens,
garden clubs, the media, schools, landscape architecture, foundations and
*Formulation of an overall strategy based on voluntary action, sound
management practices and appropriate legislation.
*Invasives have serious economic implications, and there is growing
awareness of the problem among nursery operators.
Craig Regelbrugge of the American Nursery Landscape Association said the
nursery industry is committed to implementing voluntary guidelines and educating
both industry members and consumers. The Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
has already taken steps to thwart the spread of exotics, said FNGA representative
Hugh Gramling. The group asked Florida producers to stop growing and distributing
13 plant species three years ago, a list that has now grown to include 45
species considered invasive in the state.
For More Information, Contact:
Darrel Morrison, University of Georgia, (706) 542-8293;
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, (530) 754-8890;
Craig Regelbrugge, American Nursery and Landscape Assn. (202) 789-5980; firstname.lastname@example.org
Sarah Reichard, University of Washington (206) 616-5020;
Jocelyn Sladen, Garden Club of America (540) 349-3248;
Peter White, North Carolina Botanical Garden (919) 962-6939;
Web Site: www.mobot.org/iss
Priceless New England Literary Collection Establishes Major Botanical
Library at Chicago Botanic Garden
The Chicago Botanic Garden has acquired thousands of rare books and journals
from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston, MA, including first
editions of Darwin's botanical works and a collection of botany, horticulture
and gardening journals published in the 18th century.
Like a virtual time machine, the collection provides clues from yesterday
as to how plants have changed and evolved thorough six centuries, as it gives
the Garden one of the country's top historical library collections and forms
the basis for research and education on par with the world's greatest museums.
Containing historical and scarce volumes dating back as far as the 1400s,
the priceless collection includes 2,219 rare books and 2,000 journal titles.
It significantly expands the size of the Garden's existing June Price Reedy
Horticultural Library, which already holds more than 18,000 books on gardening,
horticulture and botany; 400 journals; almost 2,000 rare books and journals;
200 videos; and thousands of nursery and seed catalogs.
In the 19th century, scholars saw this collection as the oldest,
most complete and best-organized strictly horticultural library in the world.
Thirty-percent of the collection's rare books have publication dates between
1400 and 1799; 60 percent of the books were published in the 19th
century. Many of the collection's books and journals are not available for
study anywhere else in the Midwest, and are of limited access in a few academic
and specialized libraries on the East Coast.
"This collection fits into the collections of area libraries, such as the
Newberry, Morton Arboretum and the Field Museum of Natural History, as if
it were a missing puzzle piece," said Larry DeBuhr, the Garden's vice president
of education. "With this collection, Chicago libraries and libraries at the
great universities of Chicago, Northwestern, and Illinois, can proudly claim
to have one of the strongest natural history book collections in the world."
The oldest book in the collection - - published in Treviso, Italy in 1483
- - is "De Historia Plantarum" by Theophrastus, who was Aristotle's favorite
student and is often thought of as the father of botany. The book is the
result of an order by Pope Nicholas V for a Latin translation of Theophrastus'
The Dead mother / Exam Syndrome and the Potential Downfall Of American
MikeAdams, Biology Department
Eastern Connecticut State University
The Connecticut Review, 1990
It has long been theorized that theweek prior to an exam is an extremely
dangerous time for therelatives of college students. Ever since I began my
teaching career, I heard vague comments, incomplete references and unfinished
remarks, all alluding to the "Dead Grandmother Problem." Few colleagues would ever
be explicit in their description of what they knew, but I quickly discovered
that anyone who was involved in teaching at the college level would react
to any mention of the concept. In my travels I found that a similar phenomenon
is known in other countries. In England it is called the "Graveyard Grannies''
problem, in France the "Chere Grand'mere," while in Bulgaria it is inexplicably
known as "The Toadstool Waxing Plan" (I may have had some problems here with
the translation. Since the revolution this may have changed anyway.) Although
the problem may be internationalin scope it is here in the USA that it reaches
its culmination, so it is only fitting that the first warnings emanate here
The basic problem can be stated very simply:
A student's grandmother is far more likely to die suddenly just before
the student takes an exam, than at any other time of year.
While this idea has long been amatter of conjecture or merely a part of
the folklore of college teaching, I can now confirm that the phenomenon is
real. For over twenty years I have collected data on this supposed relationship,
andhave not only confirmed what most faculty had suspected, but also found
some additional aspects of this process that are of potential importance to
the future of the country. The results presented in this report provide a
chilling picture and should waken the profession and the general public to
a serious health and sociological problem before it is too late.
As can be seen in Table 1, when no exam is imminent the family death rate
per 100 students (FDR) is low and is not related to the student's grade in
the class. The effect of an upcoming exam is unambiguous. The mean FDR jumps
from 0.054 with no exam, to 0.574 with a mid-term, and to 1.042 with a final,
representing increases of 10 fold and 19 fold respectively. Figure 1 shows
that the changes are strongly grade dependent, with correlation coefficients
of 0.974 for mid-terms and 0.988 for finals. Overall, a student who is failing
a class and has a final coming up is more than 50 times more likely to lose
a family member than an A student not facing any exams.
Next exam A
D F Mean
0.04 0.07 0.05 0.05
Mid-term 0.06 0.21
0.49 0.86 1.25 0.574
0.09 0.41 0.96 1.57
Table 1: The mean number of family deaths/100 students for periods
when no exam is coming up, the week prior to a mid-term exam and the week
prior to finals. Values are corrected for the number of students in each grade
class and the relative frequency of mid-terms and finals.
Figure 1. Graph of data in Table 1, showing the relationship between
exam, student grade and FDR. The equation for the simple linear regression
on each is shown, as is the correlation coefficient.
Only one conclusion can be drawn from these data. Family members literally
worry themselves to death over the outcome of their relatives' performance
on each exam. Naturally,the worse the student's record is, and the more important
the exam,the more the family worries; and it is the ensuing tension that
presumably causes premature death. Since such behavior is most likely to
result in high blood pressure, leading to stroke and heart attacks, this
would also explain why these deaths seem to occur so suddenly, with no warning
and usually immediately prior to the exam. It might also explain the disproportionate
number of grandmothers inthe victim pool, since they are more likely to be
susceptible to strokes. This explanation, however, does not explain why grand
fathers are seldom affected, and clearly there are other factors involved
that have not been identified. Nonetheless, there is considerable comfort
to be had in realizing that these results indicate that the American family
is obviously still close-knit and deeply concerned about the welfare of individual
members, perhaps too much so. As some colleagues have expressed some degree
of skepticism over my interpretation of these data, I have extended the scope
of my research into the phenomenon. Using readily available sources(including
the National Census Bureau and The National Enquirer) have examined
the relationship between education and family structure. Interestingly, there
appears to be no correlation between FDR and the size of the extended family
(Table 2). Either large families worry less on a per capita basis than do
small families, or there is a single "designated worrier" in each family,
who bears the brunt of the danger. The exceptionally high death rate among
grandmothers (24 times greater than for grand fathers) suggests the latter
explanation is correct. If not, then people from very small families would
be well advised to discourage other family membersfrom attending college,
since the potential risk becomes excessive with so few members to share the
in family, excluding student
4-8 8-15 16-30
0.71 0.62 0.73
0.64 0.68 ·
Table 2. Mean FDR for all exam periods and all student GPAs over the last
decade. Families ranging in size from 1-30+ show no significant correlation
(0.04) between family size and FDR. The figure for students with no family
would have been zero, except for a single family-less student (a member of
the baseball team) who tragically lost at least one grandmother every semester
for four years.
The problem is clearly far more pervasive than most people realize. For
example, if one examines the percentage of the population attending college
and the mean divorce rate on a country by country basis, there is a very
strong positive correlation between the two. The United States has the highest
percentage of its population attending college and also the world's highest
divorce rate, while South Yemen is last in both categories. Although this
study is still in progress and will form the basis for a future CSU grant
proposal, it seems results already are becoming clear. As more people go
to college, their families find that, for safety reasons, it is wise to increase
the number of grandmothers per family. Since there is currently no biological
way of doing so(though another grant proposal in preparation will ask for
funds to look into the prospect of cloning grandmothers, using modern genetic
engineering techniques), the families must resort to increasing the pool
by divorce and remarriage. Sociologists may wish to use these data to examine
the effect of education on family structure from a new perspective.
Figure2: The mean FDR/100 students for all exams and all grades of students
for the years 1968-1988. The best fitting curve shows an exponentially rising
curve, with the equation shown in the figure.
While the general facts of this problem have been known, if not widely
discussed, I have recently become aware of a potentially far more dangerous
aspect of the whole process. This trend came to light when a student reported
two family members dying prior to an exam. Examination of the numbers
of deaths over the last two decades clearly showed a "death inflation". When
the figures for all students and all exams are pooled for each year, a disturbing
outcome is seen (see Figure 2).
The FDR is climbing at anaccelerating rate. Extrapolation of this curve
suggests that 100 years from now the FDR will stand at 644/100 students/exam.
At that rate only the largest families would survive even the first semester
of a student's college career. Clearly something will have to be done to reverse
this trend before the entire country is depopulated. Three possible solutions
come to mind:
1. Stop giving exams. At first glance, this seems to be the simplest
answer to the problem. Like many simplistic solutions, however, it fails to
consider the full ramifications of such a course. Without exam results, all
medical schools would be forced to close their doors, having no way of distinguishing
worthy students. The resultant dearth of physicians in the next generation
would throw so many other professionals (tax accountants, malpractice attorneys,
golf pros, etc.) out of work that the economy would go into a nosedive.
Regretfully, this solution must be abandoned since it is more dangerous than
2. Allow only orphans to enroll at universities. This is
an extremely attractive idea,except for the shortage of orphans. More could
be created of course,but this would be morally wrong, and in any case would
replicate the very problem we are trying to avoid i.e. excessive family
3. Have students lie to their families. Students must never let
any of their relatives know that they are at university. (Initial field tests
show that keeping just the grandmother ignorant is neither feasible nor safe
for the rest of the family.) It is not enough merely to lie about exams;
if the family doesn't know when the exams are, they may then worry constantly
and this may lead to even higher death rates. The only solution is that the
family must never be aware that the student is even enrolled at a university.
Students must pretend they are in the armed forces, have joined some religious
cult, or have been kidnapped by aliens. All of these alternate explanations
for their long absences will keep the family ignorant of the true, dangerous,
fact. Although it might be argued that such large-scale deceptions could
not be maintained for long periods, the success of many politicians suggests
It will take time to discover whether any of these solutions are feasible.
In the interim, the problem is clearly far too important to be ignored. Following
the government's lead on so many similar, potentially catastrophic problems
(global warming, the ozone layer, and ocean pollution), I propose that a
commission be established to study the problem in more depth. While the state
is deciding on the make-up of such a committee and what itscharge should
be, I would urge all members of the academic community to start keeping their
own records. If faculty throughout the countrywere to send me summaries of
their own knowledge about this matter, I could compile a follow-up report
for publication in a year or two.
(reprinted with permission of the author)
Native Plant Makes History
AUGUST 28, 2002 - For the first time in history, a plant has been delisted
from the federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants due to its recovery
in the wild. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service removed the Robbins' cinquefoil
(Potentilla robbinsiana), a rare plant that was on the brink of extinction
just a few years ago, from the federal List of Endangered and Threatened
Plants. The plant's recovery was aided by the conservation efforts of a partnership
among the Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the Appalachian
Mountain Club, and the New England Wild Flower Society.
A member of the rose family, Robbins' cinquefoil (Potentilla robbinsiana
), also called the dwarf cinquefoil, occurs only in the alpine zone of the
stemless perennial that measures 2 to 4 centimeters in diameter and bears
a yellow flower. Flowering generally begins in early June and lasts approximately
Prior to receiving Endangered Species Act protection in 1980, the known
main population of Robbins' cinquefoil numbered only 3,700 plants. Robbins'
cinquefoil was threatened by plant collectors and disturbance from hikers
along the Appalachian Trail. In 1983, the White Mountain National Forest and
the Appalachian Mountain Club rerouted the trail away from the species' critical
habitat and built an enclosure to protect the primary population.
To meet the objectives of the recovery plan for Robbins cinquefoil, the
Appalachian Mountain Club undertook the tasks of trail relocation, public
education, biological research, seed collection and overseeing the transplant
efforts in the field. With plants provided by the New England Wild Flower
Society, biologists from all the partner agencies and organizations successfully
reintroduced two additional populations to suitable habitat in the National
Forest. Today the population totals more than 14,000 plants.
"The successful, dramatic recovery of Robbins' cinquefoil is an example
of the power of federal/private partnerships to benefit imperiled plants,
fish and wildlife," said Dr. Mamie A. Parker, regional director of the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service in the Northeast. "The White Mountain National Forest
is committed to protecting this small plant's habitat, the Appalachian Mountain
Club is committed to managing habitat and monitoring the population, and
the New England Wild Flower Society is committed to successfully propagating
plants for reintroduction. All were vital to Robbins' cinquefoil recovery."
"Although the New England Wild Flower Society has been propagating endangered
plant species for decades, the collaboration between the organizations was
the real key to the success of this project," said Bill Brumback, director
of conservation for the New England Wild Flower Society. "The techniques learned
during the project will continue to be highly applicable for other alpine
"Thanks to our partnership with the Appalachian Mountain Club, the Forest
Service, and the New England Wild Flower Society, two new populations have
successfully reproduced," said Parker. "The species no longer is threatened
Although Endangered Species Act protection has been removed, Robbins' cinquefoil
will be protected in perpetuity thanks to an agreement between the Service
and the White Mountain National Forest. The Service will also monitor the
cinquefoil's status for at least five years to ensure that any unexpected
population declines can be addressed.
Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation offers online Linnaean exhibition
to inspire future students of Linnaeus
Pittsburgh, PA—Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist Carolus Linnaeus
(also Carl von Linné, 1707_1778) was famous for sending his students
around the world to explore and collect specimens. The Hunt Institute for
Botanical Documentation is pleased to enable new generations of Linnaeus'
students to explore, collect and learn by making our spring 2002 exhibition,
Order from Chaos: Linnaeus Disposes, available online at our Web site
(huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu). Linnaeus devised comprehensive, consistent schemes
for classifying and describing plants and animals and for assigning two-word
scientific names to all species, thus laying the foundations of modern biological
systematics and nomenclature. Pages of manuscripts, plant portraits, portraits
of botanists and rare books from the Institute's Archives, Art Department,
and Library, including the Strandell Collection of Linnaeana, highlight Linnaeus'
achievements in the broader context of botany over two millennia. We invite
everyone to become one of Linnaeus' students as he brings order from the
chaos of early scientific thought and practice while inspiring future generations
The first section of the exhibition covers pre-Linnaean botany. Long before
Linnaeus, classical science was important in the shaping of subsequent science
in the West. Transmitted through the cultures of the Mediterranean area,
classical science was recovered during the Renaissance and ensuing Scientific
Revolution, and undergirded the search for a new botanical system. Highlights
from this portion include four pages of a 13th-century Arabic manuscript,
several leaves from a 15th-century incunabulum herbal, Gart der Gesundheit,
and a number of books from the 15th and 16th centuries.
The second section shows how Linnaeus drew on the work of his predecessors
and contemporaries and developed a coherent system for describing and naming
organisms that has continued into the present. Key works by Linnaeus including
his Species Plantarum (1753) and Genera Plantarum (1754), which
are the starting points for botanical binomial nomenclature, are featured
as well as books, portraits and biographical information of his predecessors
The third section explores the Linnaean inheritance. It shows how
Linnaeus' students travelled the globe to explore and collect information
and specimens, and how aspects of the Linnaean system have enabled amateurs
and professionals worldwide to identify, name and describe plants for more
than two centuries. Included are books by Linnaeus' students, along with portraits
and biographical information, and selected examples of post-Linnaean works
showing how aspects of his system have been used from the 18th century into
the present day.
The exhibition was a collaborative effort by Institute staff that used
resources from all of our departments. The exhibition was organized by Charlotte
Tancin, Librarian; Angela Todd, Archivist, Gavin D. R. Bridson, Bibliographer;
Lugene Bruno, Assistant Curator of Art; James J. White, Curator of Art; and
Alain Touwaide, Visiting Scholar, History of Medicine Division of the National
Library of Medicine, Scientific Collaborator, Section of Botany, National
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and Adjunct Research
Scholar, Hunt Institute, with assistance by Scarlett Townsend, Editor; Frank
Reynolds, Graphics Manager; and Lisa Ferrugia, Archival Assistant. Kristina
Lamothe, Research Assistant, designed the online exhibition. The exhibition
hung in the Hunt Institute gallery from 28 April to 31 July 2002.
Even while planning the exhibition for the gallery, we knew that our ultimate
goal was to place it on the Web. It was still challenging to organize the
artwork, portraits and books, which either hung on the wall or were displayed
in cases, into a Web-format while retaining the look and feel of a hanging
exhibition. The online version enabled us to add text and images. We included
passages from the books that Linnaeus cited in Species Plantarum as
well as a bibliography and a list of Web links. We plan to add a bibliography
for the pre-Linnaean section and enlarged images for each artwork and book.
We are pleased with the way the online version has evolved and even more
so with the opportunity to make this information available not only to the
botanical community but also to the public.
The Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, a research division of
Carnegie Mellon University, specializes in the history of botany and all
aspects of plant science and serves the international scientific community
through research and documentation. To this end, the Institute acquires and
maintains authoritative collections of books, plant images, manuscripts, portraits
and data files, and provides publications and other modes of information
service. The Institute meets the reference needs of botanists, biologists,
historians, conservationists, librarians, bibliographers and the public at
large, especially those concerned with any aspect of the North American flora.
Hunt Institute was founded in 1961 as the Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt
Botanical Library, an international center for bibliographical research and
service in the interests of botany and horticulture, as well as a center for
the study of all aspects of the history of the plant sciences. By 1971, the
Library's activities had so diversified that the name was changed to Hunt
Institute for Botanical Documentation. Growth in collections and research
projects led to the establishment of four programmatic departments: Archives,
Art, Bibliography, and the Library. The current collections include approximately
28,000 books; 24,000 portraits; 30,000 watercolors, drawings and prints; and
2,000 autograph letters and manuscripts.
Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Contact: Scarlett T. Townsend
Day Phone: 412-268-7304
The Oregon State University Herbarium Vascular Plant Specimen database
is now online. Over 47,000 specimen labels have been entered to date, representing
ca. 30% of the Oregon specimens in the herbarium. These can be searched by
taxonomic name, collector, date, and county. For most taxa, at least one
specimen has been entered for each Oregon county it occurs in. All Oregon
specimens have been entered for selected genera including Allium, Carex,
Festuca, Salix and Senecio. All conifer specimens (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae,
Taxaceae) and most weed species have also been entered. Visit the database
Department of Botany & Plant Pathology
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2902 USA
Announcement of Plant Talk
Anyone interested in plants and their conservation around the world should
take a look at PLANT TALK. Published quarterly by the National Tropical
Botanical Garden and read in over 120 countries, PLANT TALK brings
botanists, conservationists, horticulturists, students and amateurs a unique
source of news and information. Its spectacular color features highlight
places of special botanical interest; the news section reports from the front
line of conservation; and the numerous reviews of new floras and field guides
provide valuable references
as do the quality reports on Red Data Books. Take a look at the PLANT TALK
) and you will find it provides a unique resource for a wide audience.
This informative periodical is available by subscription for US$28 (a year)
by contacting the Americas office at PLANT TALK, PO Box 354841, Palm Coast,
FL 32135-4841, USA, or for subscriptions for the rest of the world at PLANT
TALK, 10 Princeton Court, 55 Felsham Rd., London SW15 1AZ, UK.
A Classic State Flora Returns to Print
Over 60 years since its original publication in 1940, the Flora of Indiana
by Charles C. Deam continues to serve as the primary source of information
for those seriously involved in field botany and as a standard among state
floras. The Flora of Indiana has just been brought back into print by The
Blackburn Press, making it available again to libraries, scholars, botanists,
ecologists, landscape architects, horticulturists and others who wish to own
or replace a copy of an invaluable reference.
In working on the book, Deam examined over 84,000 specimens; and from these
he prepared keys, species accounts and range maps showing the occurrence of
each species by county in Indiana. These maps reflect detailed accounts as
of 1940 and remain useful in determining the general range of a species in
the state. The 1,236-page reference is finding new uses today in natural landscape
restoration and protection.
"The Flora is clearly more than a list of plants. Many treasures are found
within its pages, ranging from topics on early 20th century agrarian culture
to herbal cures. There are frequent references to discussions with "old timers",
including some of whom were the first European settlers in the state.I enjoy
reading the Flora like some read novels," says Michael A. Homoya, Botanist/Plant
Ecologist with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, in his foreword
to The Blackburn Press reprinting. "It brings me great pleasure that the
Flora is available again, allowing others to share in the pursuit of understanding,
and ultimately the appreciation and protection of our native plants and natural
areas. So whether you're a professional botanist, ecologist, teacher, wild-flower
enthusiast, naturalist, forester, wildlife biologist, soil scientist, landscape
architect, horticulturist, or just someone wanting to know what that plant
is in your backyard, this book is for you."
For more information, we invite you to point your browser to:
Flora of Indiana by Charles C. Deam, ISBN 1-930665-59-8, Hardcover, 1,236
The Blackburn Press
Publishers of classic scientific and technical books
P.O.Box 287, Caldwell, N.J. 07006
973-228-7077 Fax: 973-228-7276
Essential Book on New Zealand's Unique Vegetation Returns to Print
Originally published in 1991, Vegetation of New Zealand by Peter Wardle
offers a comprehensive description of that country's unique flora and highly
diverse vegetation. The text, supported by over 300 photographs, maps and
diagrams, has made an outstanding contribution to the understanding of the
biology of these islands. The Blackburn Press has returned the book to print
with a new preface by the author.
With its isolation from other lands, its latitudes extending from subtropical
to sub-Antarctic, and its long evolutionary history, New Zealand has a vegetation
of interest to botanists, foresters, ecologists and conservationists world-wide.
Chapters 1-4 describe the New Zealand environment, flora and fauna; and
they discuss the origins, relationships, life forms and reproductive aspects
of the indigenous vegetation. Chapter 5 is a synopsis of vegetation types,
habitat classes and environmental processes; it serves also to define the
terms in which these are described in the book. Chapter 6 contains an outline
of the geographic divisions of the country. Chapters 7-9 offer expanded descriptions
of plant communities, preceded where appropriate by information on their
structure and characteristic species and genera. The concluding chapters
discuss ecological functions and processes. Vegetation of New Zealand
is an essential book for botanists, ecologists, conservationists and many
others who love New Zealand's plants, animals and landscapes.
"The breadth of scholarship displayed by Peter Wardle is impressive. The
book as a whole is remarkably readable; testimony to that comes from this
reviewer, who read all 672 pages in one day and was still captivated at the
end!"-Annals of Botany
"This is a great book and a major achievement by the author. It will be
a source book for many years to come."-Vegetation
"This book is a magnificent successor to Cockayne's Vegetation of New Zealand."-Biological
Vegetation of New Zealand by Peter Wardle, ISBN 1-903665-58-X, Hardcover,
682 pages, $89.95
The Blackburn Press
Publishers of classic scientific and technical books
P.O.Box 287, Caldwell, N.J. 07006
973-228-7077 Fax: 973-228-7276
Conference of Orchidology
The Jardín Botánico Lankester of Universidad de Costa Rica
which is dedicated to the Orchid conservation is organizing a Conference of
Orchidology that will be held in Costa Rica the next year. The main objective
of the Conference is to stress the importance of public awareness about the
global themes related to the Orchid conservation. In this way, the Conference
tries to assemble in Costa Rica specialists in conservation, academics, researchers,
orchid lovers, producers and sellers, officers of the Government agencies,
scholars and general public. For additional information contact:
Lankester Botanic Garden
P.O. Box 1031-7050
Cartago, Costa Rica, A.C.
Road from Cartago to Paraíso, Km 4.
Fax: (506) 552-3151
Research Fellowship in Conservation Biology
The New England Wild Flower Society announces that applications are now
boing accepted for prestigious fellowships offered jointly by the National
Science Foundation and the New England Wild Flower Society. Applicants may
select from more than 50 plant species for projects to provide data on critical
aspects of the life history and ecology of these species. These data are
central to devising sound conservation strategies.
Interested advanced undergraduate and early graduate students demonstrating
potential for completing outstanding research in biology may submit a 5-page
project proposal, a curriculum vitae, and two letters of recommendation.
The proposals are due February 5, 2003. Please visit the Society website at
for complete information and proposal guidelines, or contact Elizabeth Farnsworth
for more information at
or phone 508-877-7630 ext 3207. Generous stipends for the 2003
field season of $3,750 each, plus support of $250 are offered for Fellows
to prepare and present their finding at a New England Wild Flower Society
Research Roundtable in September, 2003. Individual assistance in experimental
design, analysis and preparation for publication will be provided.
The New England Wild Flower Society is the nation's oldest institution
dedicated to the conservation of wild plants, and sponsors educational and
conservation programs throughout New England. The Society owns and operates
Garden in the Woods, a 45-acre living museum of native plants and the NEWFS
nursery, the largest supplier of nursery-propagated native plants for sale
in the Northeast.
William L. Brown Plant Genetic Resources Fellowship
The Missouri Botanical Garden invites applications from suitably qualified,
highly motivated graduates for the William L. Brown Plant Genetic Resources
Fellowship. This fellowship supports graduate study in some aspect of economic
botany and plant genetic resources for students from South Asia. Successful
applicants will receive stipend and tuition support for 2 years of M.S. study
or 5 years of study towards a Ph.D.
The purpose of the William L. Brown Plant Genetic Resources Fellowship
is to educate botanists who will become active researchers and decision-makers
in their home countries. The fellowship is designed to attract and support
individuals from South Asian countries who will return to their country or
region following graduation and make a significant difference in economic
botany and in the development, application, and conservation of plant genetic
resources. To this end, fellowship recipients will be encouraged to do thesis
and dissertation research in South Asia.
Applicants for the William L. Brown Plant Genetic Resources Fellowship
must have a bachelor's degree in biology/plant sciences and be able to demonstrate
strong scientific and leadership potential in plant genetic resources. These
fellowships are open to students from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Bhutan, and Nepal.
The Missouri Botanical Garden offers a broad-based program of graduate
studies in botany in cooperation with Washington University and University
of Missouri-St. Louis. Students apply to and enroll at one of these universities
and complete the degree requirements of that school, but have full access
to the staff, facilities, laboratory, and research opportunities available
at the Garden. The exceptional faculties and programs at these universities
in plant systematics, population biology and genetics, ecology, and molecular
biology, combined with the excellent herbarium, library, greenhouse facilities,
and research staff at the Garden, make this a unique and stimulating graduate
program. The Garden's strong commitment to tropical research provides students
with outstanding opportunities for field-oriented studies. Peter H. Raven,
Director of the Garden, is Engelmann Professor of Botany at Washington University,
and many of the Curators are adjunct faculty members at the participating
universities. Students may pursue doctoral degrees at Washington University
or masters or doctoral degrees at University of Missouri-St. Louis.
Acceptance as a William L. Brown Fellow is dependent on admission to one
of the associated University graduate programs (note that GRE and TOEFL scores
are required). A committee at the Missouri Botanical Garden will subsequently
review and select the William L. Brown Fellow from among these applicants
accepted by the universities.
Application deadlines are 15 December 2002.
In addition, a one-page essay on the applicant's research interests and
career goals is essential. Interested students should apply directly to one
or both of the affiliated universities (see web applications below) and also
send a copy of their applications and one-page essay to Dr. James S. Miller,
William L. Brown Curator of Economic Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O.
Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299.
Applications for Washington University:
Graduate Program in Evolutionary and Population Biology:
Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences homepage:
Applications for University of Missouri-St. Louis:
Biology Department homepage:
MS and PhD graduate program requirements:
Missouri Botanical Garden homepage:
If you require assistance with the application process, please contact
the Manager of Graduate Studies at the Missouri Botanical Garden, Dr. Mick
Announcing the Second Annual National Science Foundation/New England Wild
Flower Society Research Fellowship Program in Conservation Biology
The New England Wild Flower Society (NEWFS), the oldest plant conservation
organization in the United States, has been awarded a National Science Foundation
grant to support six students to perform basic scientific research addressing
species of conservation concern throughout New England.
These prestigious fellowships will provide generous stipends ($3750) for
the 2003 field season, plus support ($250) for Fellows to prepare and present
their findings at a New England Wild Flower Society Research Roundtable in
Certain research-related equipment will also be available for use by Fellows.
Individual assistance in experimental design, data analysis and preparation
of results for publication will be provided by Elizabeth Farnsworth, Ph.D.,
Biologist at NEWFS.
We seek research proposals from advanced undergraduate or early graduate
students who have demonstrated potential for completing outstanding research
in biology. These proposals must address one or more species of rare plant
taxa for which we have completed Research and Conservation Plans, and be designed
to provide data on critical aspects of the life history and ecology of these
species. These data are central to devising sound conservation strategies.
Thus, in completing a project, the Fellow will generate useful, publishable
information and gain excellent experience in all phases of biological research.
Applications consist of a 5-page project proposal, a curriculum vitae
, and 2 letters of recommendation.
Due date for proposals: February 5, 2003. Notification of Fellowships
will be made in early March, 2003.
Please visit the following links for a full list of these potential project
) , background information on the target plant species
), and guidelines for proposal preparation
For more information, please contact: Elizabeth Farnsworth (508)
877-7630, ext. 3207 or email:
GRANTS-IN-AID OF RESEARCH IN 2003
The Highlands Biological Station, an interinstitutional center of the University
of North Carolina, is pleased to announce the availability of scholarships
and grants-in-aid of research for the 2003 field season. The Station is located
in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in southwestern North Carolina at an
elevation of 4,000 feet. The region receives 80-100 inches of precipitation
per year and supports a remarkable diversity of life. A recent article in
BioScience identified the region as a hotspot for diversity
of, among others, salamanders, land snails, spiders, trees, and fungi. There
is a long and distinguished history of biodiversity studies at the Station.
Facilities include research labs with refrigerators, freezers, ultracold
freezers, microscopes, and field sampling equipment; a research library with
a reprint collection and subscriptions to many ecological, systematic, and
evolutionary journals; an aquatics lab with several outdoor artificial streams
and six large indoor aquariums; two large, walk-in environmental chambers;
and dormitories and kitchens for use by researchers. The Station operates
the Highlands Nature Center and the Highlands Botanical Garden, which includes
a 5-acre lake. There are numerous tracts of Forest Service land in the area,
and the Station cooperates with the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, a Long-Term
Ecological Research (LTER) site, which is located 18 miles away.
Grants-in-aid and scholarships are available to predoctoral graduate students
and postdoctoral investigators for the support of research on the habitats
and organisms of the Southern Appalachians. Awards are made for projects
that involve residence at the Station for one to twelve weeks. Applications
for grants are reviewed by the Board of Scientific Advisors, representing
the 34 colleges and universities in the Southeast that belong to the Highlands
Biological Foundation, Inc. Application forms can be obtained from Dr. Robert
Wyatt, Executive Director, Highlands Biological Station, P.O. Box 580, Highlands,
NC 28741. We prefer, however, that forms be downloaded at http://www.wcu.edu/hbs.
They must be returned before 1 March 2001. Applicants will receive notification
of the decision of the Board by 1 April 2001. Awards are based on the period
of residency at the Station in accordance with the following schedule: predoctoral,
$250/week; postdoctoral, $400/week. Recipients of scholarships and grants-in-aid
are provided research space without charge.
2003 Lawrence Memorial Award
The Award Committee of the Lawrence Memorial Fund invites nominations for
the 2003 Lawrence Memorial Award. Honoring the memory of Dr. George H.M.
Lawrence, founding Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
at Carnegie Mellon University, the annual Award of $2000 is made to an outstanding
doctoral candidate for travel in support of dissertation research in systematic
botany or horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences, including literature
Major professors are urged to nominate outstanding doctoral students who
have achieved official candidacy for their degrees and will be conducting
pertinent dissertation research that would benefit significantly from travel
enabled by the Award. The Committee will not entertain direct applications.
A student who wishes to be considered should arrange for nominations by his/her
major professor; this may take the form of a letter which covers supporting
materials prepared by the nominee.
Supporting materials should describe briefly but clearly the candidate's
program of research and how it would be significantly enhanced by travel that
the Award would support. Letters of nomination and supporting materials, including
seconding letters, should be received by the Committee no later than 1 May
2003 and should be directed to: Dr. R.W. Kiger, Hunt Institute, Carnegie
Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 USA. Tel.
National Security Education Program
2003 David L. Boren Graduate Fellowships
The Academy for Educational Development (AED) invites applications for
the year 2003 National Security Education Program (NSEP) David L. Boren Graduate
Fellowships competition. These Fellowships enable U.S. graduate students
to pursue specialization in area and language study or to add an important
international dimension to their education. Created by Congress to address
the need to increase the ability of U.S. citizens to communicate and compete
globally, NSEP embodies a recognition that the scope of national security
has expanded to include not only the traditional concerns of protecting and
promoting American well-being, but the new challenges of a global society,
including: sustainable development, environmental degradation, global disease
and hunger, population growth and migration, and economic competitiveness.
Boren Fellowships are intended to provide support through overseas study
and limited domestic tuition to students who will pursue the study of languages,
cultures, and world regions deemed critical to U.S. national security. Excluded
explicitly is study of Western Europe, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Fellowships are awarded in a broad range of academic and professional disciplines
including business, economics, history, international affairs, law applied
sciences and engineering, health and biomedical sciences, political science
and other social sciences. Award recipients incur a requirement to work for
an agency or office of the federal government involved in national security
affairs or in the field of U.S. higher education in an area of study for
which the Fellowship was awarded, in that order of precedence.
Eligibility Requirements: Applicants must be U.S. citizens enrolled
in or applying to gradute programs in accredited U.S. colleges or universities
located within the United States. All applicants must include study of a
modern language other than English.
To Apply: Guidelines and applications forms for NSEP David L. Boren
Graduate Fellowships may be obtained from our Web site at
. They also may be obtained by contacting AED at 800-498-9360 or 202-884-8285,
or by e-mail at email@example.com
Deadline: Applications must be postmarked by January 31, 2003.
No faxed submissions accepted; late applications will not be reviewed.
PLANT BIOLOGISTThe Botany Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
invites applications for a tenure-track ASSISTANT PROFESSOR to begin as early
as August, 2003. We seek an individual who uses innovative approaches to
study significant questions in the field of PLANT STRUCTURE (which may range
from the cell to organismal level). The successful applicant will be expected
to develop a nationally competitive research program and will have ample
opportunities to form productive collaborations within the large and strong
community of plant biologists on the Madison campus. Teaching responsibilities
include an undergraduate course in plant structure (anatomy/morphology/development)
and contributions to teaching at the introductory and/or graduate level.
Applicants should submit their curriculum vitae, a statement of research
and teaching goals, selected reprints, and have three letters of recommendation
Dr. Donna Fernandez
Plant Structure Search Committee
Botany Department, 132 Birge Hall
430 Lincoln Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1381
To ensure competitive consideration, applications should be received by
December 15, 2002.
Please note that unless confidentiality is requested in writing, information
regarding applicants must be released upon request. Finalists cannot be guaranteed
confidentiality. UW-Madison is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
INTEGRATIVE ORGANISMAL PHYSIOLOGIST
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill invites applications for
a tenure track position at the level of ASSISTANT PROFESSOR in the Department
of Biology. We particularly encourage applications from individuals who use
integrative approaches to understand the physiology and functional diversity
of whole organisms of any taxon. The appointment will be effective July 1,
2003. Please submit a curriculum vitae, a statement of research and teaching
interests, up to three publications, and four letters of recommendation to:
Dr. Ken Lohmann, Chair, Integrative Organismal Physiologist Search Committee,
Department of Biology, CB#3280 Coker Hall, University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA. Closing date: open until filled, but to
receive full consideration, all application materials must be postmarked
by January 10, 2003. The University of North Carolina is an equal opportunity,
affirmative action employer and strongly encourages applications from women
Updated Positions Available Listings at BSA
Current positon announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society's
website Announcement page at URL
. Please check that location for announcements that have appeared since this
issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement,
contact the webmaster:
Where Can A Student Get Traditional Training in BOTANY?
It seems like every few years, Plant Science Bulletin runs an article
on the demise of botany departments as they are merged into large biology
departments, organismal biology departments, evolutionary and environmental
biology departments, or something similar (see for instance, Vol. 46 (1),
2000). We have argued that one result of this organizational shift would
be a reduction in the number of students trained in such traditional fields
as plant taxonomy and plant morphology and that as a result, there would
come a time when colleagues in applied fields, and even in cell/molecular
areas, would find a shortage of qualified scientists who could help them to
identify a plant or a specific structure. WE SEEM TO HAVE REACHED THAT POINT!
I was recently informed that the United States Forest Service is now having
difficulty finding young scientists competent in plant identification. ITS
TIME TO GET THE FACTS - - AND YOU CAN HELP by submitting the following information
about your program: your School; your Department; Traditional Botany Courses
offered (and number of students in each per year). Send the information to:
Marsh Sundberg, Editor, Plant Science Bulletin, Department of Biological
Sciences, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801. or, email:
Results will be summarized in the next issue of PSB.
In this issue:
- Conservation of Wood Artifacts
. Unger, A., A.P. Schniewind, and W. Unger. - Lytton John Musselman ...............149
- Bamboo for Gardens
. Meredith, Ted Jordan. - Rugolo de Agrasar, Zulma E. ........................................................149
- Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates
. Dirr, Michael. - Christopher T. Martine............................................150
- An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Clematis
. Toomey, Mary and Everett Leeds. - Aaron M. Ellison...........................151
- Mints: a Family of Herbs and Ornamentals
. Lawton, Barbara P. - Jan Barber......................................................152
- Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook, 6th ed
. Horst, R. K. - Dominy, Peggy...........................................................153
- Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology
. Gibson, David J. - Rejmanek, Marcel..................................153
- Andre Michaux in Florida: An Eighteenth-Century
. Taylor, Walter K. and
Elaine M. Norman - Grady Webster..................................................................................................................155
- A Field Guide to Tropical Plants of Asia
. Engel, D.H. and S. Phummai. - Peggy Dominy.......................................156
- Flavonoids of the Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)
. Bohm, Bruce A. and Tod F. Stuessy.- Lowell Urbatsch...........157
- Generic Tree Flora of Madagascar
. Schatz, George E. - Grady Webster...............................................................159
- Genera Orchidacearum, Volume 2 (Part 1)
. Pridgeon, Alec M., Phillip J. Cribb, Mark W. Chase,
and Finn N. Rasmussen (eds) - William
. Darnowski, Douglas W. - Thomas G. Lammers.................................................................................161
Conservation of Wood Artifacts. Unger, A., A. P. Schniewind, and W. Unger.
2001. ISBN 3-540-41580-7. (Cloth US$225.00). 378+xvii Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- The science of wood anatomy deals with the structure of wood and how it
develops. This book deals with how it is degraded, providing an interesting
perspective on wood destruction by a variety of environmental and biological
factors. While it is not written for plant anatomists, an understanding of
how wood is formed, the chemistry and function of lignin, and other factors
are clearly and accurately discussed in some detail.
Perhaps the oldest record of wood preservation is the tar on Noah's ark.
Later attempts at wood preservation, other than using termite and fungus
resistant woods, involved smoking and charring wood as well as salt and oil
treatments. After a short, but very interesting chapter on the history of
wood preservation, wood structure and chemistry is discussed followed by
the properties of wood. These chapters are a good review of the topics with
extensive, up to date references.
The bulk of the book deals with the deterioration, diagnosis, and preservation
of wood. A great amount of detail is included. For example, arsenic compounds
were used by Leonard da Vinci for preserving wood. Perhaps the best-known
wood preservative to Americans is creosote. Looking up creosote in the index,
however, is not simple (see below). Life histories of wood destroying organisms
are provided, often with helpful illustrations.
There are three indices: Chemicals and Materials Index, Trade Name Index
(which directed me to a chronology of wood preservative use where I learned
that creosote is a term coined by Franz Moll in 1836 for coal tar), and Index
of the Scientific Names of Organisms. Curiously, the Latin names of trees
are not listed in the scientific name index nor in any index.
This book will be a must for anyone working with wood artifacts and should
be in university and museum libraries. - Lytton John Musselman, Biology Department,
American University of Beirut. Permanent address: Department of Biological
Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0266. USA.
Bamboo for Gardens. Meredith, Ted Jordan. 2000.ISBN 0-88192-507-1
(Cloth US$39.95) 408 pp, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, pp.406. - The good
quality binding with a hard cover and an attractive, illustrated jacket, make
this book already a tempting choice for any sophisticated gardener. As soon
as we open it we are struck by the quality of the print and paper, as well
as by the clarity of the design that facilitates the reading. As well, it
contains five schematic figures and numerous illustrative color pictures.
The content is ordered in nine chapters. The first of them refers to the
taxonomic location of the woody bamboo, presenting a simple and interesting
up-to-date analysis on the subfamily Bambusoideae to which they belong. The
treatment of the origin and distribution of the genera is based on revised
bibliography and it contains several concepts endorsed by outstanding specialists
in the topic. It includes interesting data on the phylogenetic relationships
based on recent molecular studies, some of which are currently being carried
out by specialists consulted by the author. The differences between the woody
bamboo and the herbaceous ones, are presented in simple form; the virtue
lies in the fact that these concepts have had little diffusion in the field
of gardening. Chapter two deals with the morphological structure of the bamboo
in 47 pages, profusely illustrated with photographs of numerous details:
canes, knots, rhizomes etc. In the text the appropriate terminology is used,
supported by an explanatory glossary. Subsequently a detailed information
is included on the cultivation and propagation of the bamboo, accompanied
by illustrative pictures. In the chapter referred to the taxonomy there are
40 genera and around 300 species and subspecific categories ordered in alphabetical
form. Most of the genera are cultivated and original from Asia, but also
information about the following native genera of America are included:
Chusquea, Guadua, Olmeca, Otatea, Raddia and Rhipidocladum. For
each species the following aspects are considered: size, diameter of the
culm, temperature and light requirements, and data on their origin.
It should be remarked, for the improvement of further editions, that the
generic and specific names don't include the corresponding authors' names,
and the information about each taxa is not comparative in extension. The
illustrative pictures are excellent in quality, but they are not numbered
nor referred to in the text.
The author also refers to the uses of bamboo and finally includes a list
that facilitates the selection of the appropriate species for their cultivation
in gardens. The bibliography is adequate and it reflects the author's genuine
interest in bamboo. His sufficient documentation and relevant consultation
with specialists in these grasses, give extra value to this publication.
-Zulma E. Rúgolo de Agrasar , Instituto de Botanica Darwinion,Labardén
200, C.C. 22, (1642) San Isidro, Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina
Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates. Dirr, Michael A. 2002. ISBN
0-88192-525X (Cloth US$69.95) 448 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.On the back cover jacket to
Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates there is a photo of the author
hugging a tree. He is not smiling. Before the reader even opens this latest
work from Michael A. Dirr, a glance at the back cover makes one thing apparent:
he loves plants _ but this is not to be confused with any sort of puppy love
or any schoolboy crush. This is serious business.
Michael Dirr first published his Manual of Woody Landscape Plants
in 1975. Now in its fifth edition (1998), the Dirr Manual is considered
by some to be the bible of woody plant cultivation in North America. Dr. Dirr
is now mentioned with the likes of L.H. Bailey and Alfred Rehder as one of
the most important contributors to, and promoters of, the field of woody
In 1999, Dirr continued to set the standard when he released Dirr's
Hardy Trees and Shrubs, a full-color photographic companion to the
Manual that treats plants grown in USDA hardiness zones 3-6 (a great
improvement over 1978's entirely black-and-white Photographic Manual of
Woody Landscape Plants). Dirr has now completed his trilogy by publishing
Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates (for zones 7-11), which
picks up where Hardy Trees and Shubs left off; that is, somewhere
in southern New Jersey.
Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates, like it's predecessor, is a
user-friendly and attractive book. The photographs, all taken by Dirr, are
outstanding and often highlight the most characteristic attributes of a given
plant. These images are accompanied by concise plant descriptions, including
growth habit, cultural considerations, geographic origin, common or recommended
cultivars and varieties, and the candidly poetic commentary readers of Dirr
have come to expect from his works (of Mitchella repens, he writes
"To appreciate this small woodland citizen is a signal that all biological
entities, great and small, are important.").
Given the limitations of its format (more photos and more species with
less text), the book is best used in concert with the Manual (or any
other woody landscape reference), although more than a few species included
in this photographic companion will not be found described there. Alone,
Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates is a detailed and beautifully
illustrated plant encyclopedia - if you will, a souped-up coffee table book
for serious gardeners and landscape professionals.
I am particularly fond of the book's third and last section, "Selecting
Plants for Specific Characteristics or Purposes," a collection of plant lists
for assorted design and cultural characteristics. By including this section,
the author makes it easy to plug into his wealth of experience and apply
it directly to the home landscape. Whether one desires a shade-tolerant tree
with fragrant flowers or a shrub with ornamental fruit that responds well
to hedging, Dr. Dirr has a list of possibilities. These lists are easily
cross-referenced with the plant profiles in the aptly titled alphabetical
(by genus) section, "A-Z Illustrated Guide to Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates."
Lists of native plants and useful wildlife plants might have been nice additions.
Dirr deserves credit for the inclusion of plant profiles for a number of
native species, some of them uncommon choices for the residential landscape.
Several native oaks and maples are profiled and recommended. He also gives
high marks to Leucothoe racemosa (sweetbells leucothoe), Wisteria
frutescens (American wisteria), and Viburnum cassinoides (witherod
viburnum), among others.
From a botanical sciences perspective, Dirr's body of work has appeal as
a means by which to familiarize oneself with exotic woody plants, both in
terms of their culture, identification, and systematics, and in light of
their realized or potential interactions with natural plant communities. This
latter information is often understated, however, since Dirr infrequently
comments on the invasive or potentially invasive nature of the species included
in his books. As an example, the Manual promotes the use of Berberis
thunbergii (Japanese barberry), but never mentions that this species
is perhaps the most noxious woody invader of Northeastern woodlands. Trees
and Shrubs for Warm Climates follows in similar fashion. At least 24
of the exotic species profiled in the book are listed by the National Park
Service (Swearinger 2002) as either invasive or potentially invasive. Dirr
issues warnings for only a few of these _ regarding Ligustrum sinense
(Chinese privet), he writes "I urge abstinence"; and he calls Melia
azedarach (Chinaberry) "a scourge over much of the South" _ but he mostly
skirts the issue with even the most problematic taxa. Bauhinia variegata
(Orchid tree), though listed as one of Florida's most invasive plants
(F.E.P.P.C. 1999), comes highly recommended as " a beautiful specimen shrub
or tree" for zones (9) 10 to 11. Invasive throughout the Southeast, Elaeagnus
pungens (thorny elaeagnus) is lauded by Dirr for its toughness and ability
to grow "anywhere," both characters that contribute to it being a problem
in natural areas.
I am aware of the fact that Dirr's books are reference manuals for woody
landscape plants, not treatises on the ecological interactions between our
native flora and the many plants introduced through cultivation, but this
highly influential author's near-inattention to the issue of invasive species
is unfortunate. One is hard pressed to even find the term "invasive species"
in a Dirr publication. This is, perhaps, a reflection of how sticky this
issue has become, his choice an unspoken declaration of neutrality in the
perceived war between plant conservationists and the nursery industry.
In the first section of Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates, "Reflections
on Garden-making in Georgia," Dirr writes "There is balance in nature that
translates to the garden." My hope is that the author, and every great plantsperson
like him, recognizes the role that ecologically-informed landscaping might
play in retaining that balance.
Eco-politics aside, this book is still worth including in any botanical
library. In fact, all three books in the aforementioned trilogy should be
fixtures in the collections of herbaria, universities, and any individual
with even a passing interest in the cultivation and identification of woody
landscape plants. - Christopher T. Martine, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary
Biology, University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Rd., U-3043, Storrs,
Dirr MA. 1978. Photographic Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes,
Dirr MA. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Fifth edition. Stipes,
Dirr MA. 1999. Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs. Timber Press, Portland,
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. Invasive plant list
(http://www.fleppc.org/, 19 October 1999). Florida Exotic Pest
Swearinger J. 2002. Alien plant invaders of natural areas (
http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/b.htm , June 2002). National
An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Clematis. Toomey, Mary, and Everett Leeds.
2001. ISBN 0-88192-508-X (cloth $US59.95. 426pp. Timber Press, 133 SW Second
Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204. _ In recent years, gardeners and horticulturists
have embraced the cultivation of Clematis. This widespread, diverse
(> 1000 species and cultivars) genus in the Ranunculaceae is well-suited
to planting in gardens in the temperate zone, and the range of flower colors
and sizes have broad appeal. Among several gardeners' guides to Clematis
published in recent years, this book is one of the most comprehensive
and lavishly illustrated.
The book is divided into two sections. Part I describes the history and
botany of Clematis, and appropriate methods for cultivation, pruning,
propagation, and treatment of diseases. Most of this information is focused
on growing Clematis in Europe (especially Britain), as the authors
are major players in the British Clematis Society. They do, however, include
a chapter on Clematis in North America (by Maurice Horn and Linda
Beutler). Maps illustrating the hardiness zones of both North America and
Europe are also provided. The detail on cultivation etc. is thorough,
and this book likely will serve as the benchmark for future publications
on cultivation of this genus. The brief chapter on history and botany is
stronger on the former than the latter; emphasis is placed on cultivars,
cultivar groups (based on flower-size and whether or not they flower on new
wood or old wood), and pruning groups. The "botany" of Clematis includes
only rules of nomenclature and general characteristics (leaf arrangement
and shape, flower parts) of the family and genus. The weakness of this part
is illustrated by the statement that "all hybrids are cultivars", following
(by two sentences) the statement that hybrids can occur naturally in the
wild. Nonetheless, Part I is an indispensable reference for the home gardener
and professional horticulturalist.
The meat of the book, however, is Part II. Occupying nearly 75% of the
book, this part details nearly 600 species and cultivars of Clematis
. They are arranged alphabetically by species or cultivar name, and for each
is provided a concise description, including flowering/pruning group, synonomy,
origin (geographic for species, parentage for hybrids and cultivars), habit
and life form, height, description of flowers and leaves, flowering time,
cultivation requirements, and hardiness zone. Each is also illustrated with
a photograph, usually a close-up of the flower, but occasionally of a group
of flowers or the whole plant scrambling on an appropriate structure (fence,
rose-bush, etc.). For someone planning a garden and seeking appropriate
colors and textures, this catalogue is invaluable.
Overall, An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Clematis lives up to its
advance billing. It is an elaborate and exhaustive reference for horticulturalists
and gardeners. The photographs are exquisite and show off Clematis
in all its variety. This book will complement coffee tables and garden workshops
equally well. - Aaron M. Ellison, Harvard Forest, PO Box 68, Petersham, MA
Mints: a family of herbs and ornamentals. Lawton, Barbara P. 2002. ISBN
0-88192-524-1 (Cloth US$27.95) 272 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133 S.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527. - Barbara Lawton clearly did
a fair amount of research for this book. It begins with a chapter on the
history of the Lamiaceae, with a survey of mints in sacred texts, herbals
and even Shakespeare. One rather bizarre section treats the so-called language
of herbs, a bit of Victorian arcana in which the particular flowers included
in a bouquet carried hidden meanings. The second chapter gives a brief synopsis
of ethnobotanical, culinary and ornamental uses of mints. As a former publications
editor at the Missouri Botanical Garden, Lawton drew upon the library's collections
for a number of line drawings and illustrations that are reproduced throughout
the book. Most of the drawings are quite good, but the variety of sources
results in a stylistic inconsistency that may be bothersome to those readers
who are more horticulturally oriented. Sixty-one color plates are included.
Overall, the photographs do an admirable job of conveying the beauty and
diversity of the family. A few, however, are either out of focus or do such
a poor job of showing any useful detail that they should have been excluded.
Typical of Timber Press issues, the volume itself is quite handsome: attractively
bound, with good quality paper and a pleasant heft.
That's the good news; now for the bad. I found the organization of the
book irritating. Chapter 7, titled "The botany of mints", consists of a mere
four pages. It gives the number of genera and species contained in the family
and briefly discusses plant terminology. The author also includes here a
brief explanation of binomials. This information belongs in an introductory
chapter, not buried in the middle of the book. A disappointing omission throughout
the book is that of authorities for the plant names. A six-page chapter on
garden pests and diseases is so general and superficial that it should have
been left out entirely. Three chapters discuss various members of the family
as herbs, ornamentals and weeds. All the plants described in these chapters
are again discussed in Chapter 8, the largest chapter in the book and the
one of most interest to gardeners interested in the family. Included here
are 67 of the approximately 251 (according to Mabberley, 1997) genera in
the Lamiaceae, with brief descriptions of one to several species or cultivars
of presumed horticultural interest. It would have been a good deal less redundant
had the descriptions in the three earlier chapters (herbs, ornamentals and
weeds) been combined with the individual entries of Chapter 8.
A couple of statements required citations. One (p. 67) claims "scientific
proof" that the scent of lavender
is linked to the libido. A second (p. 78) refers to "modern studies" which
verify the therapeutic qualities of sage.
I presume this book was written with gardening enthusiasts (and possibly
plant collectors) in mind. As such, it would have been very nice to have given
a few sources for some of the more horticulturally obscure plants included
in the book. A few genera can be found easily at nurseries, and many of the
species of herbal use should be easily obtained through seed catalogs. I
checked a couple of random plant nursery websites and could find no entries
for several less well-known genera (e.g. Eremostachys, Cedronella
, Sideritis, Meehania). I can't imagine how your average gardener
would find some of these plants. Still, if there are gardeners or plant collectors
out there with a particular love for Labiatae, this book represents probably
the most comprehensive horticultural guide to the family. - Jan Barber, University
of Missouri, St. Louis.
Mabberley, D. J. 1997. The plant book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Good source for "herbal" mints
Good source for some of the more unusual genera (Dracocephalum,
Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook. 6th Ed. Horst, R.K. 2001.
ISBN 0-7923-8663-9 (Hardcover, US $299.95). 1008pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands. First published over 50 years ago, Westcott's
Plant Disease Handbook is newly revised for the 6th time, under
the guidance of R. Kenneth Horst, who oversaw the 4th and 5
th editions as well. The "Westcott" from the title is from Dr. Cynthia
Westcott, 1898-1983, who first compiled this encyclopedic work. She received
her Ph.D. in Plant Pathology from Cornell University in 1932. She later bought
a garden that she described as `'equipped with all the common plant diseases.''
She experimented with chemical sprays as well as more natural means of garden
maintenance. Then, Dr. Westcott set up "practice" as a plant doctor, making
"house calls" to clients' gardens, as needed, during the growing season.
She went on to produce several books on garden pests and diseases, including
the Plant Doctor, the Gardeners Bug Book, and the Plant Disease Handbook.
The changes made since the last edition, 1990, include an update in the
chemical and pesticide regulations, and taxonomic changes in bacteria, fungi,
nematodes and viruses. New host plants and new diseases on new host plants
have been added. However, photographs, both black and white and the color
section, have been retained from the 5th edition.
The general arrangement is essentially the same as in previous editions.
The Handbook contains just four chapters. The first chapter discusses chemicals
and their application, and the second chapter is a presentation on plant pathogens.
Then the next nearly 500 pages cover over 2400 plant diseases followed by
chapter four, containing a list of 1200 host plants for another almost 400
pages. The diseases are grouped according to their common names in alphabetical
order. Treatments are listed when known. Host plants are listed by their
common name along with their diseases, which, in many cases, refer back to
a detailed entry in chapter three. Geographical locations (mostly by state)
are given for the extant of the plant and/or disease. Color photographs display
34 key diseases in addition to black and white photographs of other pathogens.
There are also numerous other illustrations augmenting the text.
Additional supplemental material includes a list of Land-Grant Institutions
and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Glossary, Bibliography and a comprehensive
index. The 75 page index is the adhesive that holds the whole Handbook together.
Common and Latin names of host plants, diseases and their Latin pathogens
are to be found in the index. The index provides both fast and easy
access to the contents of the Handbook. This exhaustive and comprehensive
Handbook is a must-have for the academic reference collection supporting a
plant science program. Although aimed at the non scientist, this is still
a practical and valuable tool for the serious gardener, plant scientist, landscapist
and anyone involved with plants. Its longevity is proof of it effectiveness
for the practitioner. - Peggy Dominy, Sciences Librarian, Hagerty Library,
33rd & Market Sts., Philadelphia, PA, 19104
Faust, J.L. (1983). Dr. Cynthia Westcott Dead; Rose Expert and Pathologist
(Obituary), New York Times, March 24, 1983 v132 p44(N) pB10(L) col
5 (8 col in).
Harvey, J. and Ogilvie, M.B. (2000). Westcott, Cynthia. Biographical Dictionary
of Women in Science. Routledge, New York, 1499 pp.
Kinkhead, E. (1952). Physician in the Flowerbeds. New Yorker, 28, 26-43.
Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology. David J. Gibson. 2002.
ISBN 0-19-850562-0, (paper, US$45.00) viii+344 pp. Oxford University Press.
- Until now, we have had several excellent textbooks of plant population ecology/biology
(e.g., Harper 1977, Falinska 1998, four editions of the Silvertown's book)
and many useful textbooks of applied statistics for ecologists (e.g., Crawley
1993, Scheiner & Gurevitch 2001). However, what has been missing was
an organic connection of these two kinds of resources: a rigorous primer
and assessment of the methodology used in observational and experimental
studies of current plant population ecology. Gibson's book fills this gap.
The book is organized into three major parts: (1) What is plant population
ecology? (18 pages), (2) Planning a study (99 pages), (3) Doing the study
(176 pages). In the first part plant population ecology is defined, its history
briefly summarized, and its goals outlined. To illustrate the scope of plant
population biology, four case studies are here introduced and followed through
several of the following chapters of the book. This is a nice approach. Starting
with Sarukhán's classic studies of buttercups, through demographic
variability of rare Silene regia, biological control of invasive
Senecio jacobaea, to herbivory effects on Raphanus sativus
, the reader is led to ask many important questions: Were the methods appropriate
for addressing the research objectives? Were there other variables that should
have been measured? Are there obvious sources of error in the applied methods?
Are the results relevant for addressing the broader issues?
The second part, dedicated to planning, will be a useful reading for all
ecologists. How to ask relevant questions? How to formulate hypotheses? What
should be measured? How to design experiments and observations? How to avoid
pseudoreplication? These are just examples of questions that are discussed
here. Elizabeth John wrote a separate chapter on many useful statistical
methods. This is one of the best user-friendly introductions to statistics
I am aware of. Statistical correctness and weaknesses of all four case studies
are briefly commented at the end of this chapter.
The third part represents the real core of the book. It is somewhat less
coherent, but is packed with an incredible amount of information: from the
survey of biotic and abiotic experimental treatments, through measurements
of relevant environmental variables and plant traits, to useful ecophysiological
measurements, molecular markers, elements of growth analysis, germination
tests, spatial patterns, life tables, matrix models, cellular automata, and
individual-based population models. Tables summarizing advantages and disadvantages
of discussed methods are extremely useful. Inevitably, coverage of some topics
is only sketchy. Nevertheless, this chapter itself will provide material
and references for one semester of teaching and discussions.
There are only a very few critical comments I can make. The first is a
herbaceous and temperate bias of the book. Of coure, it is much easier to
study populations of herbs (all four case studies), small shrubs, and tree
seedlings than demography of large trees. Also, the majority of plant population
studies have been conducted in temperate regions. However, when José
Sarukhán returned from Bangor to Mexico, a new fascinating discipline
was born: tropical tree population ecology. Useful introductions are provided
by Martínez-Ramos and Samper (1998) and Turner (2001). I would expect
somewhat more on methods for studies of interspecific competition (for example
an introduction to the reciprocal yield models - Suehiro and Ogawa 1980).
It would be helpful if net assimilation rate (NAR) were mentioned as an alternative
term for unit leaf rate (ULR, p. 214) and "diffuse competition" as an alternative
for "competitive intensity" (p. 225). In the context of transition matrix
models, I am not really happy with statements like "fi =
rate of reproduction (fecundity) for an individual in age class i"
(p. 283), or "fecundity is limited to the rightmost element on the top row
that represents the seeds produced by flowering plants…" (p. 284). In the
last case, for example, this particular element represents only the mean
number of seeds per plant that will be present as dormant seeds one year
later (se Fig. 8.17 and Caswell 2001). As the author defines fecundity as
"total seed production per year" (p. 220), the above statements could be
misleading. For any time step, " fi" is usually a product
of seed production per plant and seed survival into some other category.
Many misunderstandings are still associated with construction of transition
matrices in plant population biology (Rejmánek 2000). I assume that
only one arrow, not two, should go from "Seed" to "ass"(p. 283).
These are just minor problems. Gibson produced a remarkable book! I expect
that one whole generation of students will profit immensely from its reading.
- Marcel Rejmánek, Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of
California, Davis, CA 95616.
Caswell, H. 2001. Matrix Population Models, 2nd ed. Sinauer, Sunderland.
Crawley, M.J. 1993. GLIM for Ecologists. Blackwell, London.
Falinska, K. (ed.) 1998. Plant Population Biology and Vegetation Processes.
Polish Academy of Science, Kraków.
Harper, J.L. 1977. Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, London.
Martínez-Ramos, M. and Samper, C. 1998. The life history patterns and
forest dynamics: a conceptual model for the study of plant demography in
patchy environments. J. Sustainable Forestry 6: 85-125.
Rejmánek, M. 2000. On the use and misuse of transition matrices in
plant population biology. Biological Invasions 2: 315-317.
Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J. (eds.) 2001. Design and Analysis of Ecological
Experiments, 3n ed. Oxford University Press.
Silvertown, J. and Charlesworth, D. 2001. Introduction to Plant Population
Biology, 4th edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Suehiro, K. and Ogawa, H. 1980. Competition between two annual herbs,
Atriplex gmelini C.A. Mey and Chenopodium album L., in mixed cultures
irrigated with seawater of various concentrations. Oecologia 45: 167-177.
Turner, I.M. 2001. The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge
André Michaux in Florida: An Eighteenth-Century Botanical Journey.
Walter K. Taylor and Elaine M. Norman; 2002; ISBN 0-8130-2444-7 (Hardbound)
246 pp., 30 photographs, 16 maps. $40.00 University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
_ Although the name André Michaux has shrunk to a footnote for most
American biologists, this book of painstaking scholarship should provide
insights into his poorly known explorations in Florida in 1788. It begins
with a biographical sketch of André Michaux, including a review of
his extensive botanical explorations in eastern North America, followed by
a discussion of the political and social conditions in Florida during the
late 18th century, and then a detailed account of his explorations
in northern Florida with his son André François.
After his intrepid botanizing expeditions in the Middle East from 1782
to 785, André Michaux's reputation as a botanical exploration was so
outstanding that on his return from Persia he was selected as King's Botanist
to the newly independent United States. With his son François André,
he arrived in New York in November 1785 for a sojourn that would last for
eleven years. Michaux's primary mission was to collect living native American
plant material and send it to France, where plants of economic importance
could be propagated. In 1793, with Thomas Jefferson's encouragement, he proposed
to the American Philosophical Society an expedition west to the Pacific Ocean—which
would have anticipated the expedition of Lewis and Clark. Unfortunately,
the arrival of the Ambassador of the French Republic, "Citizen" Genet, sidetracked
those plans, and Michaux—no doubt regretfully—had to settle for a trip west
According to the review of botanical exploration in Florida by Richard
Wunderlin, Bruce Hansen, and John Beckner (in Wunderlin & Hansen,
Flora of Florida, volume 1, 2002), the first significant botanical observations
in Florida were made by John and William Bartram in 1765—1767; William Bartram
returned to Florida in 1773—1776 for more extensive travels. In the summer
of 1786, Michaux visited both Benjamin Franklin and the Bartrams, who showed
him their famous garden and told them about their explorations in the Carolinas
and Florida. The prodigious energy of the elder Michaux appears to have been
matched by his political and social skills that allowed him to establish
contacts in Philadelphia, New Jersey, Virginia (where he met George Washington)
and South Carolina. It is especially striking to read of his treks into rugged
poorly mapped country in winter months when most botanists would have been
content to retire to shelter and wait for spring. Michaux's expedition to
Florida in 1788 lasted only three months before he returned to his base in
South Carolina. His trip was
at least partly inspired by hearing about the travels of the Bartrams through
the southeastern U. S. to Florida, and the vivid descriptions of the vegetation
that Bartram would soon publish in his classic book of 1791.
André Michaux in Florida covers the Florida expedition in
much greater detail than the few pages devoted to it by previous writers.
The first two chapters provide a succinct account of the late eighteenth century
botanical milieu, in both France and the United States, and of the travels
of the Michauxs in the eastern United States during the eleven years 1785-1796.
Chapter three includes an interesting narrative of the political and social
changes in Florida during the last quarter of the Eighteenth Century, when
it was first—from 1763 until 1783— controlled by Great Britain, and then
for the rest of the century by Spain. The Michauxs arrived in St. Augustine,
the capital, only three years after the Spanish takeover, to find a curious
amalgam of British settlers still hanging on in their plantations, while
in the vicinity of St. Augustine there were settlements of colonists, mainly
from Minorca, brought in by the Spanish government.
The three months of the Michaux sojourn in Florida in 1788 are covered
in Chapter Four, beginning with an original English translation of Michaux's
journal based on the transcription (in French) published by C. S. Sargent
in 1889. The journal entries have copious annotations that specify localities
in the journal and suggest identifications of species collected or observed.
Photographs of specimens in Michaux's herbarium and collecting localities
help to give a vivid picture of the plants and landscapes encountered on the
trip. Maps (many antique) of most of the places visited are given in detail
(some readers might think excessive detail) in Chapter 3. The main text concludes
with the Epilogue based on Michaux's journal entries in his final notebook.
A significant part (65 pages) of the text of André Michaux in
Florida is taken up by two Appendices. Appendix 1 will be of especial
interest to botanists because it includes a comprehensive list of the plants
observed or collected in Florida by Michaux. The first part of Appendix 1
includes a list (in alphabetical order) of all of the species collected in
Florida by Michaux and by the Bartrams. In the second part, records based
on Michaux's flora are listed in order in the two volumes (which was originally
in the sequence of Linnaean classes, but appears rather confusing to the
modern reader). The records are based not only on citations in the Flora
Boreali-America but also entries in Michaux's journal and notes written
on herbarium specimens. Appendix 2 includes letters, list of plants sent
to France, and other documents, mostly translated into English for the first
The Epilogue includes a description of the notorious shipwreck in 1796
on the coast of Holland where Michaux came close to death and lost the early
part of his journals and his personal effects, but fortunately his herbarium
collection was saved. The annotations following the Epilogue fill in many
details not evident in the abbreviated entries in Michaux's journal (which
he ceased to keep up after 1797). Michaux, resilient as ever, set to work
in Paris writing his two major botanical works: the monograph of oaks (
Histoire des Chênes de l'Amerique) published in 1801 and Flora
Boreal-Americana, published posthumously in 1803. Michaux was fortunate
in having both works illustrated by Pierre-Joseph Redouté, the greatest
of all French botanical artists. Although André Michaux perished in
Madagascar in 1802, his son André François, who had played
a crucial role in seeing his father's works to press, went on to write the
three volumes of Histoire des arbres Forestiers de l'Amerique septentrionale
(1810—1813), soon translated into North American Sylva (1817—1818)
and now regarded as a classic.
On his return to France in 1796, André Michaux attempted to receive
the funds from the government that he had often requested in vain. The political
unrest during the preceding decade no doubt was at least partly responsible,
but the French bureaucracy still deserved condemnation for such cavalier
treatment—reminiscent of the way the Spanish government stiffed the outstanding
New World botanists Sessé and Moçiño, Mutis, and Ruiz
and Pavon . Nevertheless, Michaux not only achieved all that was expected
of him in France, but in less than three years of heroic effort he produced
the first two fundamental botanical treatises on North American plants. Charles
Sargent (in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society,
1889) unfairly concluded from the telegraphic prose of Michaux's Journal
that his "cultivation and literary ability… were not great," and that Achille
Richard was the ghost-writer who put together the book on oaks and the
Flora Boreali Americana. A more nuanced view was provided by Joseph Ewan
in the introduction to the reprinted edition of Flora Boreali-Americana
(Classica Botanica Americana vol. 3, 1974). The preface to the flora
by André François makes it clear that Michaux's manuscript
was not in final form, and required considerable editing, including the efforts
of L.C.M. Richard. In view of the short time Michaux had in France before
his final trip, it is not surprising that he solicited assistance from his
son in preparing the work for publication. There is little if any evidence
to support Sargent's adverse judgement, and it is contradicted by other
indications—such as Michaux's skill in composing letters and his adroit relationships
with leading scientists in France and with the elite in North America (including
Thomas Jefferson and George Washington).
André Michaux in Florida is outstanding for its scholarship
and documentation; the authors have clearly written with meticulous care to
detail. The book is not intended as a popularization, but rather as an account
that documents a neglected part of the extensive travels that established
André Michaux as the first botanist to both explore eastern North
America, make extensive botanical collections, and write the first significant
North American flora and the first book about American oaks. For many readers,
André Michaux in Florida will be most profitably read in conjunction
with the biography by Henry and Elizabeth Savage (André and François
AndréMichaux, 1986). The detail provided by Taylor and Norman
can serve as a model for similarly detailed studies that could be made on
other botanical itineraries of Michaux. André Michaux remains a somewhat
enigmatic figure, renowned for his enterprise and exploring skills, but without
a single known surviving portrait and with his projected memoir of travels
never written. That is a tragic loss, but on the other hand his accomplishments
were significant, not least in training and inspiring his son André
François to extend his work and produce a classic book on North American
trees. The authors of André Michaux in Florida have provided
a critical documentation of Michaux's botanical work in Florida that adds
significantly to the historical record. - Grady Webster, University of California,
A Field Guide to Tropical Plants of Asia. Engel, D.H. and Phummai, S.
2000. ISBN 0-88192-542-X (Paper US$19.95). 280 pp. Timber Press, Inc. Portland,
Oregon. A field guide, to be useful, must be arranged so that someone looking
at a specimen, in the field, can easily find the information that identifies
the specimen. The important word, here, is easily. A Field Guide
to Tropical Plants of Asia comes close to this optimal arrangement. The
Field Guide contains over 300 plants. A photograph of each plant and information
including the scientific name, English common name, a few descriptive details
and the names of the plant, if present, in the languages of five countries
(Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) comprise the main
entry. I suppose that having the common name of the plant in the local language
might help to confirm the identity. More information such as habitation,
geographical range, leaf and flower features and original habitat are found
in the appendix arranged by scientific name.
The guide is arranged into four chapters: Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Groundcovers
& Bedding Plants. Within each chapter, the plants are divided into sections
according to their most prominent feature: flower, fruit, or leaf. In some
cases, of course, a plant may be listed in more than one section. This arrangement
makes for a more natural way of observing a plant than many other field guides,
by quickly reducing the number of pages and images one has to scan to identify
it. Next to its arrangement, the photographs are the guide's second best
feature. They are sharp and as true to color as possible. The photographs
range in size from full page to about 2.5 in. x 2.0 in. They typically show
enough of the whole plant to display its natural habitation. It should be
noted that photographs like these are not easily achieved. On the one hand,
some of these species may only bloom or fruit on the order of years. Just
catching them at the right time is difficult. Secondly, positioning to capture
the optimal in situ photograph is equally tricky. In other words,
the photographs are beautifully presented and a delight to the eye. If nothing
else, one can truly admire the skill and effort that went into producing
this album of work.
Obviously, a guide consisting of about 300 plants does not even close to
the thousands of plant species found in Asia. The title is obviously misleading
here. The authors might have been more helpful had they used some form of
modifier such as "selected" or "common" or "300 most conspicuous" in the
title or subtitle. However, the authors explain they selected plants based
on pervasiveness and noteworthy characteristics. In other words, the plant
one just happens upon and captivated, desires to know what it is. The title
is also somewhat ambiguous in its use of "Asia" as the geographical domain
of the Field Guide. More precisely it covers "tropical" Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam). Some plants actually originate outside
of Asia, i.e. Africa, India and the Americas, but have become transplanted
throughout the tropics.
The guide contains additional material on definitions of the parts of plants,
a glossary, pronunciation guide, bibliography and index. What the guide does
NOT have is a botanical key. Fundamentally, the guide is a photographic
album, albeit beautiful, of some spectacular plants of tropical Asia. This
guide is clearly not intended for the professional botanist, but for the
interested visitor to tropical Asian parks or nature preserves. - Peggy Dominy,
Sciences Librarian, Hagerty Library, 33rd & Market Sts., Philadelphia,
Flavonoids of the Sunflower Family (Asteraceae). Bohm, Bruce A. and Tod
F. Stuessy. 2001. ISBN 3-211-83479-6. (Hardcover EUR 202.40). xiii + 831
pp. 56 figures. Springer, Wien, NewYork. www.springer.at. Publication of
the "Segregation and recombination of chemical constituents in a hybrid swarm
of Baptisia … and their taxonomic implications" by Turner and Alston
(1959) and a subsequent paper by Alston and Turner (1963) demonstrated the
potential of secondary compounds for systematic purposes and initiated a
new subdiscipline in systematics. Fervently pursued for the next 20 or more
years by many practitioners, studies resulted in the accumulation of a considerable
store of secondary compound data. The authors of this volume have been leaders
in the field of systematics of the Asteraceae and chemosystematics during
much of this period. There are few as well qualified to produce such a volume
as Bohm and Stuessy. Their assemblage and analysis of the huge volume of
data for the Asteraceae, a family notorious for its richness in secondary
plant products, is an amazing feat.
The first two sections will appeal to a broader audience for their introduction
to the Asteraceae and to the flavonoids. In section one the biology, distribution,
classification, phylogeny, and biogeography of Asteraceae are summarized in
a succinct, lucid style. Section II provides an introduction to the flavonoids
as taxonomic markers, structural variation (in Asteraceae), biosynthesis,
and biological functions. Here several well-known, mostly non-Asteraceae,
examples of the systematic usefulness of flavonoids, including the well-known
entrospermae/Caryophyllales case study are summarized. Chapter 6 will be
of interest to ecologists, physiologists, and others, as it recounts some
of the numerous biological functions of flavonoids. These sections and throughout
are a rich source of bibliographic citations for the primary, milestone literature
that has shaped our understanding of the family Asteraceae and the flavonoids.
Section III, consisting of 11 chapters, provides an extensive review of
the occurrence of flavonoids in Asteraceae organized by tribe. Largely the
tribal taxonomy of Bremer (1994) is followed since it is the most recent,
comprehensive treatment available, but where appropriate, flavonoid occurrence
is evaluated in the context of other treatments as well. Each chapter is devoted
to a single or in a few cases two tribes that are arranged alphabetically
as are the genera within which makes for easy information accessibility. Flavonoid
data, when extensive for a genus, are treated in tabular form. The referencing
with serial numbers of chemical structures for various flavonoids are helpful
to the reader. The expected caveats concerning interpretation of the data
such as the variable goals and expertise of the investigator and improved
technological advances in isolating and characterizing flavonoids are issued
by the authors. Incompleteness of the data for most taxa represents a major
obstacle in fully evaluating its significance is a theme restated several
times throughout this and other sections of the book.
The efficacy of flavonoids at different taxonomic levels is addressed in
section IV with a chapter each devoted to subfamily, tribal, subtribal, generic
, specific, and infraspecific levels with many examples provided in each
case. An outstanding example provided is that of Tragopogon where
nearly all biosystematic techniques have been applied. In general, flavonoids
for systematic purposes have the most to offer at lower levels in the hierarchy
and that they may help resolve problems involving interspecific hybridization,
species relationships, and the like. Some interesting correlations at higher
levels are evident. Such data take the form of trends and relative percentages
of skeletal types, oxygenation patterns, various adornments, etc. Pivotal
to assessing homology, as the authors noted, is knowing more about flavonoid
The last two sections, V and VI, treat "flavonoids as indicators of the
evolutionary process" and "flavonoids and phylogeny." A number of case studies
are provided showing the contributions and the potential for such data in
understanding hybridization patterns and differentiation among populations.
The challenge, in the authors' view, is a synthesis involving DNA analysis
coupled with flavonoid differentiation in an environmental and genetic context.
Interestingly, in section six comparison flavonoid composition of the Barnadesioideae
and the Calyceraceae, representative of the most primitive Asteraceae and
its sister family, show similarities. Whether this indicates their relatedness
or is linked to the ecological circumstances in which they are found remain
as intriguing hypotheses. Flavonoid data of other potential sister families
such as the Goodeniaceae, Menyanthaceae, and others are also summarily provided.
The presence/absence flavonoid data as the authors note at least at higher
levels in the hierarchy will never be the primary source of data for phyletic
reconstruction. Learning, as the authors note, more "…the genetic and enzymatic
basis of biosynthetic pathways, and the potentials for interconversion of
compounds under different ecological and/or physiological constraints, can
we come to separate phyletic from ecological/genetic dimensions." Following
section VI is an addendum that gives information published or otherwise called
to the authors' attention after the manuscript had been sent to press.
Three separate indices are provided. The chemical index is arranged by
formal name along with their synonyms in many cases. Pages numbers set in
bold type reference pages with the corresponding chemical structures. Immediately
prior to the chemical index is a table giving the common names for flavonoids
used in the volume, their derived common names, and formalized names. Following
the chemical index is the subject index. Chemical structures are similarily
referenced here and a "t" identifies pages containing tabulated flavonoid
information. The taxon index follows the subject index and also contains
the same tabulated information page indicator.
The text is relatively free of errors but a few typos were noted. On page
454 Brickellia shineri was also spelled B. shinneri. The former
appears to be correct. Also, this entry is absent from the taxon index.
Amphiachyris, in chapter eight, is said by the authors to be a Californian
genus of two species. However, neither occurs in California; both grow in
Texas with the range of one extending northward and eastward.
The book is obviously essential for anyone working on the systematics or
other biological aspects of the Asteraceae. The volume is a comprehensive
source of flavonoid data, and it is also contains an excellent compilation
of literature citations. It represents an excellent report on the status of
knowledge in this field and underscores what hasn't and can be accomplished.
Many aspects of this volume as suggested will be of interest to a more general
audience and other specialists such as phytochemists, ecologists, physiologists,
etc. I expect Flavonoids of the Asteraceae to become more useful
as the ever increasing number of macromolecular investigations suggest new
and at times often unsuspected relationships among taxa. - Lowell Urbatsch,
Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,
B. L. Turner, Ralph Alston. 1959. Segregation and Recombination of Chemical
Constituents in a Hybrid Swarm of Baptisia laevicaulis X B. viridis and Their
Taxonomic Implications. American Journal of Botany. 46: 678-686.
R. E. Alston, B. L. Turner. 1963. Natural hybridization among four species
of Baptisia (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany. 50: 159-173.
Generic Tree Flora of Madagascar. Schatz, George E. 2001. ISBN
1 900347 82 2. (Paper US$50.00) 477 pp. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis. - Madagascar has long been a sort of Ultima
Thule for botanists and other naturalists: a remote near-continental island
that still yields continuing surprises after two centuries of exploration.
The appearance of the Generic Tree Flora of Madagascar is the first
important technical botanical manual in English to deal with the Malagasy
The book is highly international in its production: there is a foreword
in English by the Directors of the two sponsoring institutions (Peter Crane
for the Royal Botanic Gardens and Peter Raven for the Missouri Botanical Garden)
and an Avant-Propos en Français by Directeurs Albert Randrianjafty
(Parc Tzimbizaza) and Philippe Morat (Musém d'Histoire Naturelle,
Paris). The Introduction, by George Shatz, is followed by a set of Introductory
Keys to families and genera that appear to be modelled on those in the
Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South
America by Al Gentry (1993)
and Australian Rain Forest Trees by Hyland and Whiffin (1993).
The keys lead to unusual genera as well as to families, and depend more
heavily than usual on vegetative characters. Keys to genera within families,
however, tend to be of a more traditional, more or less synoptic format. A
particularly valuable feature is that nearly all genera (471 of 490) are
illustrated with both floral and vegetative details. The generic descriptions
are brief but sufficiently informative; in monogeneric families they are understandably
abbreviated. In addition to the appropriate references in the Flore de
Madagascar, recent works are cited under each family, although older
treatments such as those in Das Pflanzenreich are not mentioned. The
impressive documentation in the book includes a glossary of terms and index
to scientific names, vernacular names, and sources of the illustrations (the
majority taken from the Flore de Madagascar)..
Madagascar—shielded by isolation, tropical diseases, and hostile tribes—
was poorly explored for centuries after the first Portuguese visit in 1500.
Botanical studies were largely carried on by French scientists, beginning
with Chevalier Etienne de Flacourt. During seven years (1648—1655) in the
French colony at Fort-Dauphin, working under scarcely imaginable logistic
challenges, Flacourt created the first Madagascar herbarium, and may have
been the first botanist to assign collection numbers to his specimens. His
Histoire de la Grande Isle de Madagascar (1658) includes an appendix
that represents the first floristic work on the island. After a hiatus of
more than a century, noted botanists including Commerson, Sonnerat, and du
Petit-Thouars made trips to Madagascar. However, although they were followed
in the 19th century by others, notably Goudot and Boivin, when
Alfred Russell Wallace published his classic Island Life in 1880,
for the Malagasy region he relied almost entirely on data from Baker's
Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles. By this time British botanists
were also active in Madagascar; a British missionary, Richard Baron, collected
extensively in the interior of Madagascar and published the first comprehensive
checklist, Compendium des plantes malgaches (1901-1906). The last
work of the great French plant systematist, Henri Baillon, appeared in the
Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madgascar. The general
flora of Madagascar, begun in 1936 by H. Humbert and collaborators, Flore
de Madagascar et des Comores, is still incomplete; although 80% of the
families have been covered, the earlier treatments are now of course out
of date. Humbert also has provided the most detailed review of botanical
exploration in Madagascar (in Comptes Rendus IV Réunion AEFAT 1961
). The only modern forestry guide is Palms of Madagascar by J. Dransfield
and H. Benntje. The generic tree flora by Schatz fills therefore fills a
The prototype of the Generic Tree Flora of Madagascar was an unpublished
manuscript of the great French forester and botanist René Capuron,
who in 1957 circulated mimeographed copies of Essai d'Introduction de
la Flore Forestière de Madagascar. The high diversity of the Madagascar
flora is indicated by the fact that the Generic Tree Flora treats
490 genera of treees, 161 of which are endemic—a remarkable statistic scarcely
matched in any comparable region of the woreld. Even more striking is the
large number and endemicity of the species: 4,220, of which 96% are endemic.
The graph of generic diversity by family is also remarkable: although the
Leguminosae have the largest number of genera (as usual in most tropical
areas), the Euphorbiaceae exceed the Rubiaceae and the Sapindaceae rank fourth,
while families such as Sapotaceae and Asteraceae are insignificantly represented.
Most neotropical botanists will be startled to find that the Solanaceae are
represented by only two genera. These anomalies are no doubt due to the divergence
of Madagascar as a fragment of Gondwana that has developed in isolation for
much of the Cenozoic.
The Generic Tree Flora of Madagascar is not only an effective tool
for identifying trees in Madagascar, but it also opens a window on the remarkable
diversity of the island continent. It is likely that the 161 endemic genera
will be unfamiliar
to most readers, but they include such charismatic genera as Takhtajania
, the only Afro-Malagasian genus outside of Australasia, which was not described
until 1978. The cactiform Didieriaceae are represented by four genera, of
which Allaudia and Didieria are well known to succulent fanciers.
Some familiar genera are a bit difficult to locate because of their recent
taxonomic reassignment due to cladistic studies. Examples include Adansonia
, the baobob tree, which has been moved from Bombaceae to Malvaceae; the
eponymous Flacourtia, now with the willows in Salicaceae; and several
genera of Capparidaceae now under Brassicaceae.
Some readers may find the bibliography inadequate: besides the citations
under individual families, there is scarcely a single page of general references
following the introduction. However, for those wishing to look further, there
is an interesting biogeographic essay on the Internet by George Schatz:
Malagasy/Indo-austrolo-malesian Phytogeographic Connections (
). The bibliography to the Internet article includes important books such
as Flore et Végétation de Madagascar by J. Koechlin et
al. (1972), which provides a well-illustrated review of the various Madagascar
vegetation types in which many of the remarkable endemic genera occur.
The Genera Tree Flora of Madagascar is outstanding among publications
in tropical botany on the basis of its attractive format, useful keys and
descriptions and critical approach to the data. The book is not only indispensable
for professionals who visit Madagascar, but also for armchair botanists who
may never get there. It reflects great credit on the author and furthermore
is a splendid example of international cooperation among botanists and institutions.
_ Grady L. Webster, Herbarium, University of California, Davis CA 95616.
Genera Orchidacearum. Volume 2 (Part 1). Alec M. Pridgeon, Phillip J.
Cribb, Mark W. Chase, and Finn N. Rasmussen, editors. 2001. ISBN 0-19-850710-0.
$120.00. Oxford University Press. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. - As stated
in volume 1 of Genera Orchidacearum, the aim of publication is to
produce a robust and natural account of the orchids at the generic level
and above. Orchids represent probably the greatest assemblage of flowering
plants, and estimates of the number of species range above 20,000 and of
genera 750 or more. Thus the enormity of the task of Genera
Orchidacearum becomes obvious. The entire work, to constitute five
volumes produced over a six-year period, is a tour de force thatbeggars
one's credibility. Yet, we already have the first part of volume 2 in 2001,
volume 1 having been published in 1999.
The introductory essay, "The origin and biogeography of Orchidaceae" by
Mark W. Chase, sets the stage for the alphabetical treatment of 101 genera
of the first 7 tribes in subfamily Orchidoideae. Part 2 of volume 2 will
treat those tribes formerly included in subfamily Spiranthoideae, now subsumed
in Orchidoideae. Remaining volumes will consider subfamilies Vanilloideae
and Epidendroideae. Each generic description includes synonymy, nomenclatural
derivation, characteristics of the genera complete with illustrations (line
drawings and colored pictures), worldwide distribution with maps, as well
as the current state of knowledge covering anatomy, palynology, cytogenetics,
phytochemistry, ecology, pollination, economic uses, and cultural requirements.
Artificial keys to subtribes and genera appear throughout. Generic names
and binomials are followed by authors' names with pertinent literature citations.
Treatments of each genus are completed by a list of relevant taxonomic literature.
Orchidoideae are predominantly terrestrial herbs well represented in northern
temperate and tropical areas of both Old and New Worlds, but particularly
so in Europe, tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, temperate Australia,
North America, and temperate South America. Floral features, especially in
some of the bizarre, fantastic elements of the Australian genera, are beautifully
captured in the fine dissections portrayed by the several illustrators involved
in the project. Colored pictures are remarkable for their clarity and representation,
mostly of plants in situ. Each group of plates is accompanied by a
schematic numbering system associated with the legends. In addition to the
taxonomic literature accompanying each generic treatment, the volume ends
with an exhaustive citation of references, and an index to scientific names
and subject categories.
It would be difficult to wax too sanguine about the accomplishments of
the editors and expert contributors of the various sections of Genera Orchidacearum
. This volume, as volume 1, is destined to be the standard against which
other similar works will be compared. One cannot praise this work too highly
nor to extol its virtues excessively. Genera Orchidacearum, volume
2, part 1 is a masterpiece. One hopes the succeeding volumes will rise to
the excellence of the current book. - William Louis Stern, Department of
Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.
Triggerplants. Darnowski, Douglas W. 2002. ISBN 1-877058-03-3 (paperback)
92 pp. Rosenberg Publishing Pty. Ltd., P. O. Box 6125, Dural Delivery Center
NSW 2158, Australia. _ It is a botanical fact of life that some plants are
inherently more interesting to more people than other plants are. Orchids
and cacti, for example, appeal in some fashion to a greater percentage of
the populace than do sedges and amaranths. This greater appeal is reflected
in the formation of specialized societies, the establishment of businesses
that profit from such interest, and (what interests us here) the publication
of books detailing such plants.
The present volume deals with a group that may not yet have developed the
cult following enjoyed by orchids and cacti, but certainly has the potential
to do so. Triggerplant is the name applied to any of the almost 200 species
of the largely Australian genus Stylidium in the family Stylidiaceae.
Though esthetics are certainly part of the potential appeal of triggerplants
(they are diverse of habit and colorful of flower), their primary "hook"
lies in the feature that gives them their name: their seismonastic gynandrium.
In each flower, the two stamens are fused to the style of the inferior ovary,
forming a curved column-like structure known as a gynandrium. This column
is sensitive to touch; when an insect foraging for nectar brushes against
it, the gynandrium swings down quickly in a set direction, slamming its anther
locules and stigma onto the insect's body. A load of pollen is thus deposited
and/or picked up. Over the course of several hours, this "trigger" resets
itself, moving slowly back to its original position to await another potential
vector. One can well imagine how such a phenomenon, properly demonstrated,
would amuse and delight plant lovers of all ages.
Darnowski indicates (pg. 11) that his main objective in preparing this
book was to foster interest in Stylidium, a genus he feels has not
received as much attention as it deserve. As such, we may fairly evaluate
the book on how well it achieves that goal, on the extent to which it makes
readers want to cultivate the species in their greenhouses or book eco-tourism
holidays Down Under.
All in all, I think it is fair to say that this book goes a long way toward
achieving this goal. When it comes to generating interest and enthusiasm,
it is axiomatic that a picture is worth a thousand words. The liberal use
of high quality color photographs definitely helps the book achieve its goal.
Though a few have some technical flaws with composition, focus, and lighting,
the overall impression created by the photographs is very positive. I wish
I could be as laudatory about the drawings. In any book, there are always
a number of concepts that are better conveyed with line art than with a photograph
(e.g., how the seismonastic gynoecium operates), and so this volume contains
a number of such drawings. Sadly, they are very poorly executed and detract
terribly from the book's mission. Some (e.g., pg. 19) resemble the earnest
efforts of a child, others (e.g., pg. 32) a doodle on a cocktail napkin. The
casually scribbled outline map of Australia (pg. 35) is inexcusable. The
book otherwise has such a polished, professional appearance that I cannot
imagine why anyone would have thought these drawings were a good idea. (For
examples of excellent triggerplant art, see this book's same-named 1958 predecessor
by Rica Erickson.)
Books of this nature generally take one of two tacks. They may steer for
the serious scholar or aim for the popular audience. This book, however, does
an admirable job of sailing a very broad middle course. Yes, it is true there
is no key by which one may identify unknown triggerplants, nor are authors
cited for the binomials. But the book does not pretend to be a taxonomic
monograph and in any case, there is a comprehensive bibliography in which
various taxonomic works are fully referenced. Yes, the author uses some botanical
"jargon" and "Latin" names (the bane of many plant lovers). But he explains
such things carefully and backs up the explanations with a concise glossary
(Appendix I). In a similar vein, this book very nicely addresses the plants
from a horticultural perspective as well as from a natural history perspective.
Exemplifying the former, we have Appendix III, "Suppliers," with names and
addresses of commercial firms from which seeds and plants may be purchased.
As regards the latter, we have Chapter 3, "Where to Find Triggerplants,"
describing vividly the general habitats and specific locales in which excursionists
might expect to see the plants. We are also given much solid information
on the basic biology of the plants, including the fascinating trigger mechanism
and the question of carnivory. As with any good book, the author is quite
honest about the many things not known about triggerplants, questions
we would love to know the answers to, but don't yet.
All in all, Darnowski does an excellent job of pulling together virtually
all appropriate information on these plants. The reader of this book will
honestly feel that he or she has a good well-rounded knowledge of the genus
Stylidium, what it looks like, how it lives, and where it fits in
The Greater Scheme of Things. - Thomas G. Lammers, Department of Biology
and Microbiology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh WI 54901.
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (1
February, May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to
, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
they go quickly! Editor.
The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: The Wood Assemblage.
Goren-Inbar, Naama, Ella Werker, and Craig S. Feibel. 2002. ISBN 1-84217-072-4
(Cloth US$45.00) 120 pp. Oxbow Books, The David Brown Book Company, P.O. Box
511, Oakville, CT 06779.
Alfred Russel Wallace: A Life. Raby, Peter. 2002. ISBN 0-691-10240-6
(Paper US$17.95) 368 pp. Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton,
Alpine Plants of North America: An Encyclopedia of Mountain Flowers
from the Rockies to Alaska. Nicholls, Graham. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-548-9
(Cloth US$49.95) 344 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Anne Ophelia Todd Dowden: A Blossom on the Bough (Catalogue of an exhibition).
White, James J. and Lugene B Bruno. 2002. ISBN 0-913196-74-6 (Paper US$10.00)
48 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.
The Botanical Language: An Interactive Guide to Vascular Plants
. Crowl, Virginia A. 2002. CD . 157 Forest Ave., Hudson, MA 01749-1830.
The Cerrados of Brazil: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical
Savanna. Oliveira, Paulo S. and Robert J. Marquis (eds). 2002. ISBN 0-231-12042-7
(Cloth US$ $74.50) ISBN 0-231-12043-5 (paper US$37.50) 398 pp. Columbia University
Press, 61 West 62nd St., New York, NY 10023.
Clivias. Koopowitz, Harold. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-546-2 (Cloth US$34.95)
384 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon
Columnar Cacti and their Mutualists: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation.
Fleming, Theodore H. and Alfonso Valiente-Banuet (eds.) 2002. ISBN 0-8165-2204-9
(Cloth US$65.00) 400 pp. The University of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid,
Ste. 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
A Dictionary of Genetics 6th ed. King, Robert C. and
William D. Stansfield. 2002. ISBN 0-19-514325-6 (Paper US$ ) 530 pp. Oxford
University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016.
The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change. Smil, Vaclav.
2002. ISBN 0-262-19472-4 (Cloth US$32.95) 346 pp. The MIT Press. 5 Cambridge
Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493.
An Encyclopedia of Shade Perennials. Schmid, W. George. 2002. ISBN
0-88192-549-7 (Cloth US$49.95) 494 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue,
Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Fenugreek: The genus Trigonella. Petropoulos, Georgios A.
2002. ISBN 0-415-29657-9 (Cloth ) 200 pp. Taylor and Francis, Inc., 29 West
35th Street, New York, NY 10001.
Ferns and Fern Allies of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas. Yarborough,
Sharon C. and A. Michael Powell. 2002. ISBN 0-89672-476-X (Paper US$17.95)
128 pp. Texas Tech University Press, Box 41037, Lubbock, TX 79410.
Field Guide to Liverwort Genera of Pacific North America. Schofield,
W.B. 2002. ISBN 0-295-98194-6 (Paper US$25.00) 232 pp. University of Washington
Press, P.O. Box 50096, Seattle, Washington 98145-5096.
Garden Open Tomorrow. Beverley Nichols. 2002 (reprint of 1968).
ISBN 0-88192-552-7 (Cloth US$24.95) 286 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Genetically Modified Crops: Assessing Safety. Atherton, K.T. 2002.
ISBN 0-748-0913-0. (Cloth ) 256 pp. Taylor and Francis, Inc., 29 West 35
th Street, New York, NY 10001.
Geranium and Pelargonium: The genera Geranium and Pelargonium
. Lis-Balchin, Maria.2002. ISBN 0-415-28487-2 (Cloth US$90.00) 318 pp. Taylor
& Francis Books 29 West 35th St., New York, NY 10001.
Lavender: The genus Lavandula. Lis-Balchin, Maria. 2002.
ISBN 0-415-28486-4 (Cloth US$80.00) 268 pp. Taylor & Francis Books 29
West 35th St., New York, NY 10001.
Magnolia: The Genus Magnolia. Sarker, Satyajit D. and Yuji
Maruyama (eds). 2002. ISBN 0-415-28494-5 (Cloth US$75.00) 187 pp. Taylor
& Francis Books 29 West 35th St., New York, NY 10001.
The Natural History of Pompeii. Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. and Frederick
G. Meyer. 2002. ISBN 0-521-80054-4 (Cloth US$175.00) 502 pp. Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211.
Perspectives pour une Geobiologie des Montagnes. Ozenda, Paul. 2002.
ISBN 2-88074-493-8 (Paper 37.40) 208 pp. Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires
Romandes, Centre Midi, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Plant Physiology, 3rd ed. Taiz, Lincoln and Eduardo Ziegler.
2002. ISBN 0-87893-823-0 (Cloth US$104.95) 690 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 407, Sunderland, MA 01375-0407.
Plants. Ridge, Irene (ed). 2002. ISBN 0-19-925548-2 (Paper US$)
345 pp. Oxford University Press, 2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513.
Plants, Genes, and Crop Biotechnology (2nd ed). Chrispeels,
Maarten J. and David E. Sadava. 2003. ISBN 0-7637-1586-7 (Cloth US$87.50)
576 pp. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 40 Tall Pine Drive, Sudbury, MA 01776-2270.
Portraits of Himalayan Flowers. Yoshida, Toshio. 2002. ISBN 088192-551-9
(Cloth US$39.95) 124 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
The Protea Book: A Guide to Cultivated Proteaceae. Matthews, Lewis
J. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-553-5 (Paper US$34.95) 184 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W.
Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Pueraria: The Genus Pueraria. Keung, Wing Ming. 2002. ISBN
0-415-28492-9 (Cloth US$85.00) 290 pp. Taylor & Francis Books 29 West
35th St., New York, NY 10001.
Purshia: The Wild and Bitter Roses. Young, James A and Charlie D.
Clements. 2002. ISBN 0-87417-491-0 (Cloth US$39.95) 280 pp. University of
Nevada Press, Mail Stop 166, Reno, NV 89557-0076.
Quality Improvement in Field Crops. Basra, A.S. and L.S. Randhawa
(eds) 2002. ISBN 1-56022-100-3 (Paper US$49.95) 431 pp. The Haworth Press,
10 Alice Street, Bignhamton, NY 13904-1580.
Stevia: The Genus Stevia. Kinghorn, A. Douglas. 2002. ISBN
0-415-26830-3 (Cloth US$90.00) 211 pp. Taylor & Francis Books 29 West
35th St., New York, NY 10001.
Tillage for Sustainable Cropping. Gajri, P.R., V.K. Arora, and S.S.
Prihar. 2002. ISBN 1-56022-909-9. (Paper US$ 39.95) 196 pp. The Haworth Press,
Inc. 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism, and Environment. Lewontin, Richard.
2002. ISBN 0-674-00677-1 (Paper US$15.00) 136 pp. Harvard University Press,
79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.
Vetiveria: The Genus Vetiveria. Maffei, Massimo. 2002. ISBN
0-415-27586-5 (Cloth US$96.00) 191 pp. Taylor & Francis Books 29 West
35th St., New York, NY 10001.
Woods of the Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon, USA.
Wheeler, E.A. and S.R. Manchester. 2002. ISBN 90-71236-52-8 (Paper US$ 45.00
or EUR45.00) 188 pp. IAWA, co/Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, P.O. Box 9514,
2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
Yearning for the Land: A Search for the Importance of Place. Simpson,
John Warfield. 2002. ISBN 0-375-42086-X (Cloth US$24.00) 291 pp. Pantheon
Books, 299 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10171.
Answer to "Ode to Code" (p133)
Lamiaceae (Labiatae also acceptable)
You may have [time], you can take [time]; sometimes
you'll even tell [time],
[time] is money, you can spend [time]; but can you
really spell me?
Poems are very nice because the words are meant to
But spell me similarly [i.e., thyme], and you'll see
that I'm no lime
[thyme is not a citrus].
So, the riddle refers to thyme which is in the mint
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