PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 48, NUMBER 2, 2002
The Botanical Society of America:
The Society for ALL Plant Biologists
ISSN 0032-0919 - Electronic version ISSN 1537-9752
Reflections (Ray F. Evert) ........................................................................................................................42
Some Practical Bioethics for Botanists (Arthur W. Galston)
News from the Society
Conference Update, Botany 2002
BSA Moves Headquarters to Missouri
Botanical Garden ......................................................................47
Thomas Morley, Plant Taxonomist, 1917-2002 ...........................................................................48
N. Andrews, Jr., Paleobotanist, Educator, Explorer, 1910-2002 .....................................
Rick, Plant Geneticist, 1915-2002 ..................................................................................50
Elected to National Academy ............................................................................................51
moves to Missouri Botanical Garden ............................................................................51
Chicago Botanic Garden Science
Initiatives Receive $400,000 from Bureau of Land Management ........52
Claude E. Phillips Herbarium Receives
Significant Book Donation .......................................................52
Plants: Global Issues, Local Challenges .............................................................................53
Engineering and the Intrinsic Value & Integrity of Animals and Plants
Trigger Plant Society ..................................................................................................54
University, General Studies ................................................................................................55
Research Associate, Monsanto ...............................................................................55
of Graduate Studies Program, New York Botanical Garden .............................................55
Position, University of Burgundy ............................................................................56
Position, University of California, Davis .................................................................56
Botanical Garden Senior Herbarium Assistant ................................................................56
Research Intern ..............................................................................................................57
in Human Affairs Course ...................................................................................................57
Barneby Award ........................................................................................................58
for Botanical Gardens and Arboreta .................................................................................58
Book Reviews ....................................................................................................................................59
Books Received .................................................................................................................................74
BSA Logo Items ................................................................................................................................76
Editor: Marshall D. Sundberg
Send address changes to:
Department of Biological Sciences
Johanne Stogran, Business Manager
Emporia State University
Botanical Society of America
1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, KS 66801-5707
1735 Neil Ave.
Telephone: 620-341-5605 Fax: 620-341-5607
Columbus OH 43210-1293
Plant Science Bulletin
Editorial Committee for Volume 48
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Univ. of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 681823
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and
University of California
Riverside CA 92521-0124
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Andrew W. Douglas (2005)
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
Douglas W. Darnowski (2006)
Department of Biology
Chestertown, MD 21620
At a recent department meeting, one of my faculty colleagues complained:
"We used to be a teaching institution, but now the only thing that seems
to count is research." That old dichotomy is rearing its ugly head again
_ teaching vs. research as competing interests. This perception is longstanding
and widespread, across the range of institutions from two-year campuses
to major research universities. Yet most of us can probably think back
to our student days and identify at least one of our mentors who excelled
at both. How appropriate that our upcoming conference, Botany 2002 -
Botany in the Curriculum: Integrating Research and Teaching,
is focusing on the complementary nature of these two aspects of the work
that many of us do! And what could be more appropriate for this issue of
Plant Science Bulletin than to hear from two of our most distinguished
Ray F. Evert was President of the BSA in 1986. I remember my surprise
to have Ray in the audience the first time I presented a paper in the teaching
section. This was about the time of the second edition of Biology of
Plants (when Ray was brought on as co-author). I already knew his reputation
as a botanical researcher, but I was just beginning to recognize his stature
as a teacher of botany. I asked Ray to reflect on these two aspects of
his career for this issue, to help set the stage for our August meeting
Shortly after Ray accepted my invitation, I was please to receive an
inquiry from another of our distinguished members. Arthur W. Galston was
President of our Society in 1968 (and author of the text that introduced
me to plant physiology as an undergraduate). In his note, Art expressed
his appreciation for Lee Kass' article on "Ethics in Science" (Plant
Science Bulletin 47(2):42-48) and wondered if we as a Society couldn't
continue this dialogue on a regular basis. I asked him if he would make
the next contribution. I think you will see in it a challenge to integrate
bioethical concerns into the research, teaching,
and especially service roles of our work as botanists in academe, government,
On January 11, 2001, I "retired" after forty-seven and one-half years
of teaching, research, and service in academia. I reflect upon those years
with deep satisfaction and seriously doubt that there is a better life
than that of a university professor. How lucky can one be? During those
years I was paid to do something I thoroughly enjoyed—interacting with
bright young men and women and with research colleagues world-wide.
As a student myself, I was fortunate in having marvelous role models:
professors and mentors of great integrity and stature who were committed
to excellence in all of their personal and academic endeavors, and who
regarded teaching as both a privilege and responsibility of the faculty.
Excellent teaching and excellent research were regarded as mutually supportive
When I first joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, Madison,
it was common practice for older faculty members at meetings of the College
of Letters and Science to eulogize the College and its mission: to provide
a quality liberal arts education for all of its students, while at the
same time pursuing creative research and providing public service. That
mission was encompassed in the Wisconsin Idea: The boundaries of the University
are the boundaries of the State. As a fledgling member of the faculty,
it was quite clear what I should aspire to be.
It is difficult to know which I enjoyed more, teaching or research.
I would never have wanted to pursue one to the exclusion of the other.
I already miss having daily contact with students in classroom and laboratory
settings. How can one grow old in thought or spirit when continually being
stimulated by the youthful enthusiasm and creative ideas of young people?
(Not that I consider myself an oldster by any means!)
Although I have enjoyed a fairly successful research career, I feel
my greatest contribution has been made as a teacher through the classroom
and via a textbook. I thoroughly enjoy spreading the good news about plants
and looked forward each spring semester to teaching Botany 130, Introductory
Botany. During the first lecture session of Botany 130, I acknowledged
that many of the enrollees undoubtedly thought they were in for a boring
course, but quickly assured them that by semester's end most would find
Botany 130 their favorite course. More importantly, their perspective,
appreciation, and enjoyment of the world about them would have broadened
substantially. Judged from the course evaluations, my prediction proved
true time after time. Most of the undergraduate botany majors at UW Madison
come from our introductory courses, all of which are taught by dedicated
faculty members, who also are accomplished researchers, with infections
enthusiasm. I would be remiss not to acknowledge the enormous role played
by our teaching assistants in these courses. It is they who conduct the
laboratory sessions, which I regard as the most important component of
any botany course. Hence, the success or failure of the course rests to
a large extent in the hands of the teaching assistants.
The influence a teacher has upon his or her students reaches far beyond
the classroom and subject matter. Students often look to their professors
for encouragement and advice; for example, not to give up, not to drop
out of school, that he or she has what it takes to succeed. Some time later
you receive an invitation to a graduation party from a student you gave
such advice and encouragement to four years earlier, or an autographed
photograph inscribed "To the best coach I ever had," from a UW graduate
and former member of the Badger football team in a Philadelphia Eagles
Much of my inspiration as a teacher has emanated from my research. How
exciting it is to have been the first person to look upon or discover an
object or phenomenon. That excitement carries over into the classroom,
and one's students can sense it. I cannot imagine anyone sustaining himself
or herself for very long as an effective teacher without a strong commitment
to both teaching and research. My research on phloem and leaf-structure
relationships included fruitful collaborations with colleagues from Canada,
Germany, Sweden, Greece, Israel, South Africa, and Brazil. Such broadening
experiences add to one's effectiveness as a teacher of both undergraduate
and graduate students.
As a mentor to graduate students, research becomes a form of teaching.
This is especially true with plant anatomy, for example, when mentor and
student sit side-by-side studying the student's latest preparations—tissue
sections on microslides or thin sections on grids—with light or electron
microscope. As a graduate student I was the recipient of Katherine Esau's
wisdom, knowledge, and insight during such sessions. In this manner I learned
how to study my preparations, to find objects that might escape most viewers,
and to interpret correctly developmental sequences. Of course, during such
sessions, the conversation often wandered form botanical topics.
During my tenure at Wisconsin, I had the pleasure of serving as major
professor for twenty-five Ph.D. students, and a fair number of M.S. students—as
many as eight at one time. What fun. There never was a dull moment. With
their varying personalities and backgrounds (from Pennsylvania to California,
India and Thailand), these young scholars added vibrancy to the laboratory.
All were bright, highly self-motivated, industrious, talented, and innovative—a
recipe for accomplishment. Indeed, together we were able to accomplish
far more than any one individual could hope to in a lifetime. We learned
from each other in the process. We were all teachers and critics, especially
when practicing our presentations for Botanical Society meetings.. With
few exceptions, all of these good people served as teaching assistants
while at Wisconsin (several winning distinguished teaching awards) and
went on to university teaching/research careers.
During the past decade much as been written about the necessity to promote
excellence in teaching and to recognize teaching as a co-equal of research
in hiring and promotion at research universities. From my own observations,
it appears that many "non-research" colleges and universities must also
address this issue. What progress, if any, has been made in this regard
is not clear.
In an address delivered on November 5, 1990, during the Presidential
Young Investigator Colloquium on U.S. Engineering, Mathematics, and Science
Education for the Year 2010 and Beyond, Dr. Charles M. Vest, President
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, stated in part "…let me begin
with one simple statement. Professors should profess. It is hard
to think of anything more illogical than to become a university professor
if one does not want to teach. So if you do not want to teach, you should
immediately look for another job."
- Ray F. Evert, Katherine Esau Professor, Emeritus, Department of Botany,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
SOME PRACTICAL BIOETHICS FOR BOTANISTS
Like scientists in all fields, botanists are being called upon these
days to judge many scientific problems and public programs not only in
terms of their scientific quality and feasibility, but also with reference
to their ethical acceptability. For example, the question of whether we
should use genetically modified crops (GMC's) produced by transgenic
methods has elicited strong statements not only from individual scientists
but also from a large number of scientific organizations. It should also
not be surprising that politicians, public servants of various kinds and
ordinary lay citizens are also weighing in with their opinions, which are
frequently at odds with those of the scientific community. While scientists
from different countries tend to have similar opinions on questions like
GMC's, which have a scientific basis, the opinions of laypeople on such
matters often reflect their local culture and mores more than science.
Thus, while Western Europeans, who live in societies in which about 20%
of the people are connected with agriculture, tend to oppose GMC's, in
North America, where only 2% of the people are farmers, most tend to favor
GMC's. This difference may also reflect the fact that while much of American
agriculture occurs on very large, highly industrialized conglomerate farms,
much more of European agriculture still occurs on relatively small holdings
owned by individual independent farmers.
Thanks to the excitement generated by the cloning of animals
and the possibility of the development of similar techniques for humans,
we are getting used to the idea that we should not do everything that we
know how to do. We need first to consider whether our action would violate
some basic principle that we hold dear or, alternatively, whether it might
cause more harm than good. Our decision on such matters reflects whether
we follow a Utilitarian mode of analysis (basing our decision on the probable
consequences of our actions) or a Kantian mode (based on our duty to act
according to universal, generally applicable principles). Countries such
as the United Kingdom and Sweden have moved to ban the reproductive cloning
of humans, while permitting research on the therapeutic cloning of stem
cells to replace defective cells of the body. This Utilitarian solution,
which may favor progress in medicine, is in accord with the opinion of
most scientists. The United States, on the other hand, has moved to discourage
both types of cloning out of the Kantian concern that all cloning involves
the destruction of embryos or embryo-like clusters of cells, and that permitting
one form of cloning will lead inevitably to the other. Such action is interpreted
as violating the principle of respect for the sanctity of the life of all
individuals, even potential individuals.
Some ethical problems arise from consideration of whether inaction is
preferable to awkward or inconvenient action, even when appropriate action
would probably result in avoidance of harm or to obviously beneficial results.
For example, what should you do if you become aware that a commonly employed
chemical, about which you have detailed knowledge, is harmful to public
health or to an ecological system? Further, what if speaking out on this
matter would possibly alienate some powerful people who are in a position
to benefit you or organizations to which you belong? Again, it will be
helpful to refer to a specific case.
A recent issue of Science (Volume 296, No. 5567, pp.447-448,
2002) reports that the popular herbicide atrazine, at concentrations commonly
found in the environment, converts male frogs into hermaphrodites. At concentrations
as low as 0.01 parts per billion, many of the amphibians developed both
testes and ovaries, and at somewhat higher concentrations, testosterone
levels in males dropped 10-fold, to levels characteristic of females. By
this action, atrazine may be responsible for the recently noted global
decline in the population of amphibians. If true, this finding might also
have serious implications for human physiology. Since about 27 million
kilograms of this chemical are applied annually to corn and other crops
in the United States, some of it finds its way into surface water and groundwater,
and might thus be consumed by humans. Could this possibly be related to
the declining sperm counts reported among human males? Should individual
botanists or botanical organization take any action about this situation?
Atrazine is already banned in many European countries. One might expect
that this fact, plus the newer knowledge cited above, might provoke some
action from American botanists and their professional organizations, because
of their familiarity with the nature and action of herbicides. On the other
hand, agricultural chemical companies, including the manufacturers of atrazine,
have sometimes supported scientific research and organizations of botanists.
What to do? How can we balance personal welfare against the public good?
Clearly, scientists and their organizations find it easiest to act ethically
when it clearly benefits them to do so. Thus, while they are happy to join
the public battle to increase the federal allocation of money on behalf
of botanical research, and to debate with those who oppose the genetic
modification of crop plants, they may be less enthusiastic about opposing
governmental or private entities whose financial support they both enjoy
and covet. Bioethics does not point the way to any particular answer, but
a proper ethical analysis should clarify the major issues at stake.
Another interesting dilemma surrounded the use of Agent Orange, which
United States Armed Forces used so extensively as a defoliant during the
Vietnam war. More than 70 million liters of this herbicide, containing
more than 50 million kilograms of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, were sprayed over
more than 4 million acres of countryside in the largest chemical warfare
operation in history. There was, of course, a valid military objective
used to justify its use: to defoliate the tree canopies hiding enemy activities
on the Ho Chi Minh trail below, and to kill mangroves lining the estuaries
below Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) which served as hiding places for enemy
troops firing on our patrol boats. Whatever its military value, this campaign
produced extensive ecological damage, little of which has since been ameliorated.
Also, because all preparations of Agent Orange were contaminated with
several dioxins, especially TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-para-dibenzodioxin)
which is teratogenic and possibly carcinogenic to rodents, primates and
probably humans, it is likely that there are considerable public health
consequences as well. We knew when we sprayed it that Agent Orange had
never undergone toxicological tests to justify its use over densely inhabitated
areas, yet several attempts at the time to get plant scientists to register
a protest were unsuccessful. This was understandable because we were at
war (albeit an unpopular one). Only the AAAS (American Association for
the Advancement of Science) responded by the formation of a Herbicide Assessment
Commission, whose reports led the National Academy of Sciences in turn
to launch its own later study.
After the atomic bomb was exploded over Hiroshima, killing and maiming
many thousands of people, a victorious United States responded to immediate
medical needs by forming an Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Similarly,
we helped in many ways to foster reconstruction of post-World War II Europe,
and will probably do the same in Afghanistan when that country is stabilized.
Yet we have never given substantial humanitarian aid for postwar recovery
in Vietnam, presumably because we were not victorious in that war. In 1995,
a full two decades after the end of the war, full diplomatic relations
were established between the United States and the Socialist Republic of
Vietnam, and very recently an agreement on trade was negotiated. Last month,
the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (part of NIH) and
its counterpart organization in Vietnam organized an international conference
in Hanoi to examine the ecological and health consequences of the spread
of Agent Orange and dioxin in Vietnam. A Memorandum of Understanding proposes
a joint research program, two-way visits of personnel for research and
training, and grants of money by the U.S. to facilitate the joint programs
and the purchase of instrumentation. American botanists could play a large
role in helping to understand and ameliorate the extensive ecological damage
to upland forests and stands of mangroves.
It would seem ethically appropriate for relevant committees of American
scientific organizations to keep an eye on developments in this area, and
also to keep abreast of the undesirable side effects of some of the many
organic substances used in horticulture and agriculture.
- Arthur W. Galston, Eaton Professor Emeritus, Department of Molecular,
Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8103
News from the Society
Botany in the Curriculum: Integrating Research
The Botanical Society of America (BSA) will hold its annual meeting
at the Pyle Conference Center on the University of Wisconsin, Madison campus
from August 2-7, 2002. In addition to the BSA, four other professional
societies will participate in the Botany 2002 conference, including the
American Fern Society (AFS), the American Society of Plant Taxonomists
(ASPT), the Canadian Botanical Association / L'Association Botanique du
Canada (CBA/ABC), and the Phycological Society of America (PSA).
In addition to the regular program, Botany 2002 will include a special
Forum focusing on botanical education and outreach. The Forum will begin
on Friday evening, August 2, with early registration and a light reception.
The main Forum program will occur on Saturday, August 3. The program will
include a Keynote Address by textbook author Dr. Neil Campbell titled "Botany
Education in our Schools and Colleges: An Optimistic Forecast," and an
array of one-hour sessions. Although some informational sessions will be
included, the program will primarily include interactive panel and roundtable
discussions as well as breakout groups focusing on a range of topics. Individual
sessions will be grouped within six topical themes, or `threads,' that
span the Forum program. These include "Emphasizing Botany across the Curriculum,"
"Designing Investigative Laboratories," "Engaging Undergraduates in Research,"
"Developing Effective Teaching and Mentoring Skills," "Supporting Effective
Teaching and Learning," and "Reaching Out beyond the Ivory Towers." The
Forum is sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the
Council on Undergraduate Research, Project Kaleidoscope, and the Deep Gene
Research Coordination Network.
On Sunday, August 4, sixteen hands-on workshops will be available as
two-hour, half-day, and full-day events. This diversity will allow attendees
in participate in multiple workshops, and/or participate in field trips.
Two workshops are sponsored by the NSF and the Deep Gene Network, and these
are free to registrants. All workshops are first-come, first-served.
Twenty one field trips are planned as full-day, half-day, and multi-day
events, and these will visit a diverse set of sites and cover a broad range
of topics. In addition, five local/companion tours will be available during
The Scientific Meeting will begin on Sunday evening with a Plenary Lecture
by Dr. Martin Apple, President of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents,
titled "Scientists' Obligations in the 21st Century." The Plenary
Lecture will be followed by an All-Society Mixer.
The scientific sessions will begin on Monday morning, August 5, and
continue through Wednesday afternoon, August 7. These will include numerous
contributed paper sessions, a conference-wide poster session, and thirteen
topical symposia, including the Plenary Symposium, titled "Evolution: Highlighting
Plants." In addition, a BSA Special Lecture will be presented by Dr. Peter
Raven, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, titled "Plants and People
in the 21 st Century." The scientific program will also include
several other special addresses, including a PSA Special Lecture by Dr.
Sylvia Earle, National Geographic Society, titled "Diving into the History
and Possible Future of Plants in the Sea," as well as the Economic Botany
Luncheon Lecture by Dr. Hugh Iltis, the BSA President-Elect's address by
Dr. Scott Russell, and the ASPT President-Elect's address by Dr. Lynn Clark.
Several registration options are available. It's possible to register
for the full conference, the educational Forum only, or the Scientific
Meeting only. Early registration fees are good through July 1 and then
fees increase until August 1, and then again for on-site registrations.
Housing options include campus dormitories, conference centers, and hotels.
Please visit the conference web site for more information about registration,
full details about the educational and scientific programs, and to read/search
the more than 700 abstracts (http://www.botany2002.org/
BSA MOVES HEADQUARTERS TO
MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN
A decision has been reached by the Executive Committee, on behalf of
the Council of the Botanical Society of America, to relocate the BSA headquarters
to the Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG) in St. Louis, MO, during the summer-fall
The BSA will move into the Commerce Bank Center for Education, a MBG
facility made possible by gifts from the William Kemper Foundation and
Commerce Bank. The 58,000 square-foot building is to be renovated on Shaw
Boulevard. The Center also will contain the Garden's expanded Education
Division and its Stupp Teacher Resource Center, which will focus on enhancing
math and science literacy for St. Louis school children.
The advantages of locating the BSA headquarters at MBG are numerous
and include exciting opportunities for interaction and collaboration with
other non-profit organizations devoted to research, education and outreach
in plant biology. The Missouri Botanical Garden and the St. Louis area
offer to the BSA excellent facilities, stimulating colleagues, a beautiful
setting, and the opportunity to collaborate on new initiatives to advance
botany locally, nationally and internationally.
"The location of the BSA on our [MBG] campus should strengthen the mission
of both organizations and is another step in making St. Louis a world center
for work in the plant sciences," said Dr. Peter H. Raven, director of the
Missouri Botanical Garden. In addition to the BSA, MBG has completed an
agreement with Sequoia Sciences, a San Diego plant sciences firm, who will
expand its operations into the Commerce Bank Center for Education.
The Missouri Botanical Garden encompasses a 79-acre world-class garden
and the Monsanto Center, which houses its research division, the 5.7-million
specimen herbarium, and the highly valued research library. The Garden
is the coordinating center for the Flora of China project and plays a key
role in the Flora of North America and Flora of Mesoamerica projects, among
others. The Center for Plant Conservation, a national coalition of leading
botanical institutions dedicated to preventing the extinction of native
plants, is based at the Garden. The Garden operates the Center for Conservation
and Sustainable Development, Gateway Center for Resource Efficiency, Litzsinger
Road Ecology Center, and the 2,400-acre Shaw Nature Reserve. Washington
University, Saint Louis University, and the University of Missouri-St.Louis have collaborative research programs with the Garden and interact
closely with botanists there and in the projects they conduct in 30 countries
on every continent. The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis
focuses on research in genetics, chemistry, cell biology, genomics and
biotechnology. All of these institutions and organizations are working
together to establish the "Bio-belt" in and around St. Louis, with the
early emphasis on botanical science in its broadest and most encompassing
Photo courtesy of the University of Minnesota Archives
Thomas Morley, Plant Taxonomist,
Dr. Thomas Morley, Professor Emeritus at the University of Minnesota,
died Saturday, February 2, 2002, at his home. He was 85.
Morley received his A.B. (1940), M.A. (1941), and Ph.D. (1949) degrees
in botany at the University of California, Berkeley. A scholar's son, his
father, S. Griswold Morley, was the president of the Modern Language Association
of America during the 1950s. Morley was predeceased by a sister, and is
survived by her children and a brother.
Tom Morley joined the Botany Department (now Plant Biology) in the fall
of 1949 to share in the teaching of taxonomy with Gerald Ownbey (then Curator
of the herbarium). He was successful in helping recruit such distinguished
faculty as Eville Gorham. After advising several graduate students, including
Kingsley Stern, Lawrence C.W. Jensen, and Barbara Delaney, he retired in
Morley was a specialist in the genera Mouriri and Votomita
(tropical trees of the Melastomataceae) and he described several new species
in these groups from central Amazonia, where he conducted field work around
Manaus and Belem, Brazil. During his tenure at the U of MN, Morley also
developed an extensive, firsthand knowledge of Minnesota's native flora.
He revised and updated Frederic Clements' original Guide to Spring Flowers
, which is now used as a standard spring text. And he co-authored (with
Gerald Ownbey) the Vascular plants of Minnesota: A checklist and atlas,
another seminal work for the state.
A strong advocate for the preservation of nature, Tom was a charter
member of the Minnesota chapter of the Nature Conservancy and served on
the board during the 1970's. He was also active in the Minnesota Native
Plant Society, having a special concern for rare plants and serving as
an early champion of buckthorn eradication in Minnesota natural areas.
He enjoyed canoeing and was a generous contributor to the Friends of the
Boundary Waters Wilderness..
In retirement, Tom Morley maintained an office adjacent to the herbarium
(of the Bell Museum of Natural History) in the Biological Sciences Building
on the Saint Paul campus of the University. He was a familiar face around
the department—remembered for his habit of walking to work each day across
the expanse of experimental fields, even in the coldest of Minnesota winters.
His daily routines contributed to the rhythm of life at the University,
including his climbing the eight flights of stairs to his office, which
he performed until the very day before his death. A soft-spoken and kind
man, he will be missed by his colleagues.
The family asks that memorials be sent to the Lake Itasca Forestry &
Biology Station, University of Minnesota Foundation, 200 Oak Street NE
(Suite 500), Minneapolis MN 55455.
Henry N. Andrews, Jr., Paleobotanist,
Educator and Explorer, 1910-2002
Dr. Henry N. Andrews, Jr. 91, Professor Emeritus at the University of
Connecticut and member, National Academy of Sciences, died March 3, 2002
in Concord, NH. He had lived in Sanbornton, New Hampshire since his retirement
Henry was born in Melrose, MA June 15, 1910 and graduated from Melrose
High School. He received his BS in Food Technology at MIT in 1934. He then
spent a year taking courses in "things he was interested in" (plants and
paleontology) under the guidance of Professor Ray E. Torrey at the University
of Massachusetts. This led him to become acquainted with Edgar Anderson,
who offered Henry support for graduate study at Washington University.
He received his MS and PhD degrees in 1937 and 1939, respectively, from
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., under the direction of Dr. Robert
Woodson. During that time he also studied at Cambridge University with
H. H. Thomas and worked at the British Museum of Natural History. He also
studied fossil plants in Belgian coal mines, supported by a Gelgian American
Educational Foundation fellowship. While at Washington University, Henry
met Lib (Elisabeth Ham), whom he married in 1939.
Henry was appointed instructor at the Henry Shaw School of Botany at
Washington University in 1940, where he established a dynamic and productive
research program. He also joined the Missouri Botanical Garden staff as
paleobotanist (1947-1964) and served for about five years as assistant
to the director. He became the administrative head (The Dean) of the Botany
Dept. at Washington University, and also served as a temporary staff member
of the U. S. Geological Survey. He was a Fulbright lecturer at Poona University,
India. Twice a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow, Henry
also received a special Guggenheim award for exploratory research that
led to his Arctic expeditions. Henry left St. Louis in 1964 to become Head,
first of Botany (1964-67) and then of the Systematics and Environmental
Section of the Biological Sciences Group at the University of Connecticut
(1967-1970). He retired in 1975. He was elected to the National Academy
of Sciences that same year.
Henry made major contributions to the study of Upper Carboniferous coal-ball
plants in his earlier years, then shifted to investigating Devonian plants.
Along with his students, Professor Andrews studied representative taxa
of nearly every major plant group present in the Upper Carboniferous, often
presenting a first modern description and assessment of their
significance. Similarly, he published ground-breaking papers on first
Late, then Early Devonian plants from the US and Canadian Arctic. Henry
truly enjoyed natural history and exploration. He was a superb writer and
educator. He published numerous papers and authored or co-authored four
books, including a popular account about plant fossils, Ancient Plants
and the World They Lived In (1947), a paleobotany text Studies in
Paleobotany (1961), a profile of paleobotanists entitled The Fossil
Hunters (1980), and, with P.G. Gensel, Plant Life in the Devonian
(1984). Henry also prepared a comprehensive account of fossil ferns for
the Traité de Paleobotanique , ed. E. Boureau (1971). He
compiled and published two volumes of the Index to Generic names of
Fossil Plants as part of his work with the USGS. In both his teaching
and his writing, Henry demonstrated the love of exploration, curiosity
and wisdom that marks his work and made his presentations about paleobotany
and natural history memorable for students, colleagues and laypersons alike.
Henry was a member of the Botanical Society of America (recipient of
the Merit Award, 1966, Chairman of the Paleobotanical Section), a Fellow
of the Geological Society of America, a Fellow of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Torrey Botanical Club (and
assistant editor for several years), The New England Botanical Club, Sigma
Xi, The Palaeontological Society, and the International Organization for
Palaeobotany (served as Secretary and Vice-President). He also was an Honorary
member of the Paleobotanical Society of India and a charter member of the
Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering. He was recognized on several
occasions for his volunteer service, involving the interpretation or preservation
of natural or historical areas/sites by the State of New Hampshire.
Henry and his wife Lib were well known for their wonderful hospitality
wherever they lived, be it Missouri, Connecticut, New Hampshire, India,
or England. They generously and graciously shared their knowledge, wisdom,
and resources, hosting and helping colleagues, foreign visitors, students,
friends, and family, thus touching the lives of many in numerous ways.
Henry is survived by two sons, Hollings T. Andrews of Gainesboro, TN
(a botanist) and Henry N. Andrews III of Westfield, NJ; a daughter Nancy
Andrews Adams of Sanbornton, NH, grandchildren Eric N. Andrews and Heather
A. Pippin, a great-grandson, and cousins, nieces and nephews.
Charles Rick , Plant Geneticist,
Charles Rick, a plant geneticist, long-time BSA member, and botanist
recognized by many as the world's leading authority on the biology of the
tomato, died Sunday, May 5, in Davis. A professor emeritus at the University
of California, Davis, he was 87.
His family is planning a June open house in his honor for friends and
colleagues. In accordance with his wishes, no formal services will be held.
Something of a modern-day Charles Darwin and Indiana Jones combined,
Professor Rick was equally at home in the classroom, greenhouse, laboratory
and field. His research expeditions took him from the Galapagos Islands
to high in the Andes, where he criss-crossed rugged terrain to collect
hundreds of wild tomato species. These wild species contained a wide range
of genetic variation that was missing from the modern domestic tomato.
During his career, he made landmark contributions in the areas of plant
genetics, evolution, genome mapping and archiving the seeds of tomatoes
and related plant species. In 1967, he was elected to the National Academy
of Sciences, one of the highest honors for research scientists. "Among
his colleagues, Dr. Rick was considered the quintessential scientist,"
said UC Davis professor John Yoder, chair of the Department of Vegetable
Crops . "His passion was learning and discovery, not fortune or fame.
He had a contagious enthusiasm for biology that impacted and motivated
all who knew him."
Born in 1915 in Reading, Pa., Charles Rick grew up working in orchards
and participating in nature studies through the Boy Scouts. He earned a
bachelor's degree in horticulture in 1937 from Pennsylvania State University,
where he met and married Martha Overholts. The couple then moved to Cambridge,
Mass., where he earned a doctoral degree in genetics from Harvard University
He came to UC Davis in 1940 as a faculty member in the vegetable crops
department, launching a career that would span more than 60 years.
A colleague soon suggested that Rick investigate what was wrong with
"bull" tomato plants, vines that seemed to pour all of their energy into
vegetative growth without producing any fruit. At first, the proposed project
struck Rick as "a damn fool thing to think about," he admitted in later
years. But he became convinced that the problem merited investigation and
went on to discover a host of genetic conditions in the sterile tomato
plants. He was able to identify the genetic causes for flower infertility
and define several single-gene mutants that are now used to provide commercial
hybrid tomato seed.
His studies led him to construct a genetic "linkage map" that pinpointed
the locations of many mutant or variable genes on each of the tomato's
12 chromosomes. It was the beginning of his pioneering effort to map the
tomato's entire collection of genes, now known as its genome. Professor
Rick's early work laid the foundation for molecular maps that today make
the tomato genome one of the best-mapped plant genomes. His efforts to
identify the genetic basis of resistance to the nematode — a tiny worm
pest — made it possible to develop nematode-resistant tomato varieties.
Because the tomato has been so well characterized genetically, it now serves
as a research model for plant scientists and can be more readily modified
for commercial use.
In addition to his contributions to building a better understanding
of the tomato as a crop, Professor Rick also made important contributions
to the field of plant evolution. His research helped advance the understanding
of the relationship between the geographic distribution of plant species
and their ability to crossbreed with each other. His work also helped clarify
the impact of flower structure on a plant's ability to crossbreed with
other species. And his research on structure, crossability, native habitat
and geographic distribution helped explain the evolutionary relationships
among various tomato species.
In 1949, Professor Rick co-founded the Tomato Genetics Cooperative
to encourage tomato researchers to communicate their findings and exchange
information. He took sole responsibility for publishing the cooperative's
report from its beginning in 1951 until 1981.
Perhaps one of his greatest contributions was in establishing and serving
as curator for the Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis. The center
is the largest known collection of tomato seeds in the world. Professor
Rick devoted countless hours to collecting, cataloging, maintaining and
distributing seeds from wild species and genetic stock. Many primitive
varieties and wild species that were collected and maintained at the center
are now extinct in their native habitats. Furthermore, many of the unique
mutant tomato stocks developed by researchers throughout the world would
have been lost without Rick's efforts to archive them. His tireless
efforts were recognized in 1990, when the center was renamed the Charles
M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center.
Professor Rick's legacy can also be found in several generations of
plant geneticists whom he mentored. His students went on to lead major
research institutes, serve as ministers of agriculture and work as faculty
members at universities on every continent.
Over the years he received a host of prestigious awards. They included
the BSA Merit Award in 1976, Alexander von Humboldt Award in 1993, the
Filippo Maseri Florio World Prize for Distinguished Research in
Agriculture in 1997 and induction to the American Society of Horticultural
Sciences Hall of Fame in 1998.
Although officially retired from UC Davis in 1985, Professor Rick remained
active in the field of plant genetics until the age of 85, when health
difficulties interfered with his greenhouse and laboratory work. Usually
sporting the trademark cloth fishing hat that he wore in both formal and
informal settings, he was known as a modest person, full of amusing anecdotes.
He had a passion for traveling, the arts, meeting new people and enjoying
foreign cultures. He was preceded in death by his wife, Martha, and
is survived by his daughter, Susan Rick Baldi, and son, John Rick, who
are academics at Santa Rosa Junior College and Stanford University. He
also leaves three grandchildren and one great-grandchild.
A scholarship fund is being established in Professor Rick's memory that
will help support South American students and scholars interested in promoting
biodiversity in the Andes. Contributions should be made payable to the
Charles Rick Scholarship Fund and sent in care of Professor John Yoder,
Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California, One Shields Ave,
Davis, Ca. 95616-8687.
- photo and article courtesy of Pat Bailey, U.C. Davis DATELINE.
Doebley Elected to National Academy
BSA member John Doebley, Department of Botany, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, was elected to membership in the National Academy of
John received his PhD at Madison, in the laboratory of Hugh Iltis, before
completing post-doctoral work at North Carolina State University. He has
held faculty positions at Texas A&M University and the University of
John Pruski was hired in the fall of 2001
by the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO) as an Assistant Curator. As an Assistant
Curator with a specialty in the Asteraceae (Sunflower family), his main
responsibility is to coordinate, edit, and write treatments of the Asteraceae
for the Flora Mesoamericana, including the web version of the Flora. Previously,
Pruski wrote the Asteraceae for the "Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana" (Vol.
3: 1997, Missouri Botanical Garden Press), was a coauthor of "Index To
Specimens Filed In The New York Botanical Garden Vascular Plant Type Herbarium"
(1985, Meckler Publishing), and he was an Associate Editor of the journal
Brittonia from 1983-1993. Formerly, he was employed by the United States
National Herbarium of the Smithsonian Institution (US) from 1992-2001 and
by the New York Botanical Garden from 1982-1992. Potential contributors
to the Asteraceae in Flora Mesoamericana may contact Pruski directly at
(phone) 314-577-0832 and (email) email@example.com
John F. Pruski
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 U.S.A.
office phone: + 1-314-577-0832
Asteraceae Coordinator of Flora Mesoamericana
Chicago Botanic Garden Science Initiatives
Receive $400,000 from Bureau of Land Management
The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
has awarded the Garden's Department of Conservation Science and the Institute
for Plant Conservation Biology a total of $400,000 for use in conservation
The two separate grants include $300,000 for the development and implementation
of a conservation internship program to assist BLM with Endangered Species
Act consultations, and $100,000 to investigate3 genetics of threatened
plant species in the Great Basis states of Oregon, Idaho, Utah and Nevada.
The Department of Conservation Science and the Institute for Plant Conservation
Biology advances scientific research and teaching about the importance
of conserving endangered plants and ecosystems. The Institute's work operates
with several national and international organizations, including the Center
for Plant Conservation (CPC), and international coalition of more than
30 botanic gardens and arboreta whose goal is to research and protect rare
plants within their regions, and the Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA),
a public/private partnership of 15 federal agencies and more than 175 non-federal
Through its affiliation with PCA and CPC, the Garden will apply the
$100,000 grant to genetics research of plant species of Penstemon
and Eriogonum living in the Great Basin states. The results will
serve as models for developing seed transfer guidelines for use in restoration
and rehabilitation projects.
The $300,000 grant will be applied to the development of a Conservation
and Land Management Mentoring Program, which begins this spring. The Chicago
Botanic Garden, working in cooperation with BLM, will promote the conservation
of threatened, endangered and sensitive species, and the management of
their habitats on public lands. The Garden is recruiting nationally for
20 interns to participate in the program. Interns will possess bachelor's
degrees and may be pursuing master's degrees or careers in environmental
science and conservation biology. Interns will receive training from Garden
scientists, and spend five months in BLM field offices working hands-on
in the areas of endangered species planning, conservation and monitoring.
"This program is designed to give students the theoretical background,
as well as hands-on research and stewardship experience, which is necessary
to conserve biodiversity," says Dr. Kayri Havens, director of the Department
of Conservation Science and the Institute for Plant Conservation Biology.
"The interns will work with BLM's endangered species biologists surveying,
monitoring or collecting information on any of the 306 species listed under
the Endangered Species Act that occur on the 264 million acres of public
land managed by the Bureau of Land Management," said Peggy Olwell, manager
of BLM's Endangered Species Program.
For additional information visit the Garden's Web site at http://www.chicagobotanic.org
Claude E. Phillips Herbarium Receives Significant
Dr. Robert F. C. Naczi, Curator of the Claude E. Phillips Herbarium
at Delaware State University, has reported two significant book donations.
The first is the international book collection of Dr. Fred and Mrs. Mary
Hough. "Dr. Hough was an eminent pomologist at Rutgers University who introduced
many new apples and other fruits to cultivation in this country. His wife,
Mary, collected books on local floras and medicinal plants in their trips
to Russia, Eastern Europe, China, and Brazil. Most of these books cannot
be valued," says Dr. Naczi, "because they appear to be the only copies
in the western world. The most significant books are those on fruits of
the world, such as Ampelografia SSSR, a six-volume work on the grapes of
Russia. This work was hand-carried out of Russia by the Houghs during the
Cold War, and it is currently not listed in public libraries in North America,
Western Europe, or Japan, so it is a real treasure in our collection."
"The other donation is part of the life-long collection of botanical
and horticultural books from Dr. Arthur O. Tucker, Research Professor at
D.S.U. Current valuation of the books donated in 2001 exceeds $10,000,
so this is a significant gift. Dr. Tucker donated so many books that this
gift represents the core of our library." The book collections are open
to researchers by appointment, as is the collection of plant specimens
in the Herbarium, by contacting either Dr. Naczi at 302-857-6450 or Dr.
Susan Yost, Educator, at 302-857-6452.
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
INVASIVE PLANTS: GLOBAL ISSUES, LOCAL CHALLENGES
October 27-30, 2002
Congress Plaza Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
The School of the Chicago Botanic Garden and the Garden's Institute
for Plant Conservation Biology will present an international research symposium
titles "Invasive Plants _ Global Issues, Local Challenges," from Sunday,
Oct 27 through Wednesday, Oct 30, 2002, at the Congress Plaza Hotel, Chicago.
Considered by scientists as one of the foremost threats to biodiversity,
invasive species affect the world's environment and economy. According
to researchers, invading non-indigenous species in the United States cause
major damages and losses, adding up to more than $138 billion annually.
About 42 percent of the species on the Threatened or Endangered Species
lists are at risk primarily because of invasive species.
The symposium, one of several in the Chicago Botanic Garden's Janet
Meakin Poor Research series, will provide leading international plant scientists
and land managers with a forum for dialogue on issues related to invasive
species, as well as an opportunity to strategize for improvement and debate
methodology for reducing threats of invasivd plants around the world. Three
days of programming will feature keynote speakers, concurrent sessions
and workshops, as well as poster presentations and exhibits. A tour of
the Chicago Botanic Garden's research facilities, natural areas and display
gardens will be offered.
Program updates, including information on keynote speakers, session
abstracts and registration information, is available at http://www.chicagobotanic.org/symposia
, or by calling 847.835.8261. To submit a session or poster proposal,
send an email to Kay Havens, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Plant Conservation
Biology, Chicago Botanic Garden, firstname.lastname@example.org
, or call 847.935.8378.
The Garden's Institute for Plant Conservation Biology, housed at the
Chicago Botanic Garden, extends the Garden's conservation mission to contribute
to the preservation of global biodiversity through the study and dissemination
of information about endangered native plants and communities in the upper
Midwest. The Janet Meakin Poor Research series is partially endowed by
the friends of Janet Meakin Poor, a Chicago-area conservationist and landscape
designer dedicated to preserving natural habitats.
GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE INTRINSIC VALUE
AND INTEGRITY OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS
Wednesday 18th to Saturday 21st September 2002 Royal Botanic Garden,
*Prof. Holmes Rolston III, Environmental Ethicist, Department of Philosophy,
Colorado State University
*Donald Bruce, Church of Scotland Science Religion & Technology
*Craig Holdrege, Contextual Biologist, The Nature Institute, New York
*Prof. Howard Davies, Theme Leader "Genes to Products" Scottish Crop
Research Institute, Dundee
*Ruth Richter, Plant Morphologist, Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion,
*Dr. Henk Verhoog, Bioethicist, Louis Bolk Instituut, Netherlands
*Dr. Harry Griffin, Assistant Director (Science), Roslin Institute,
*Timothy Brink, Development Manager, Demeter Standards UK
*Mike Radford, Animal Welfare Lawyer, Department of Law, Aberdeen University
*Christina Henatsch, Biodynamic Plant Breeder, Kultursaat, Germany
*Ton Baars, Senior Scientist, Animal Husbandry, Louis Bolk Institute,
*Prof. Clive Spash, Socio-economist, The Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen
*Dr. Bruce Whitelaw, Molecular Geneticist, Roslin Institute, Edinburgh
*Dr. Johannes Wirz, Contextual Biologist, Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion,
Who should attend?
This multidisciplinary workshop has no single target group of professionals
in mind. Instead we intend it to be of interest to people whose work or
life brings them into contact with genetic engineering and its products
or is likely to in the near future. People in the following subject areas
among others will find this conference relevant: farming, pharmaceutical
production etc in genetically modified (GM) animals and plants, environmental
ethics, bioethics, marketing the products of GM organisms to the consumer,
public perception of biotechnology; animal welfare, sustainable and organic
agriculture policy making, opposing or supporting genetic engineering,
plant/ animal breeding, rural development socio-economics and governmental
& EU policy making. The focus on the science on the last day of the
conference aims to involve organismic biologists and molecular geneticists
interested in the epistemological development and social impact of their
For more information please see the workshop web page: http://www.anth.org/ifgene/2002.htm
or contact Ifgene UK co-ordinator:
David Heaf, Hafan, Cae Llwyd, Llanystumdwy, LL52 0SG, UK.. Tel/Fax:
Booking 2 April to 16 August 2002
The Third International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the
Monocotyledons and the Fourth International Symposium on Grass Systematics
and Evolution will be hosted by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden on 30 March-5
April 2003. Topics will include morphology, anatomy, development, reproductive
biology, molecular biology, cytology, genomics, genetics, biochemistry,
paleobotany, phylogenetics, classification, biogeography, ecology, and
data integration. Sessions will be devoted to particular groups within
monocots and will provide a rare opportunity for researchers in diverse
fields to interact, share ideas, and form collaborations. Visit http://www.monocots3.org
International Triggerplant Society
The International Triggerplant Society is now forming to promote the
study of triggerplants (Stylidium; Stylidiaceae). These gems from Australia
have a violent and actively resettable mechanism of pollination from which
they get their common name. There are even gladular hairs which may point
to carnivory—an ongoing study in Doug Darnowski's lab. Not quite endemic
to Australia, the genus includes over 200 species with flowers raging in
size from a few mm to an inch long. Colors include white, pink, purple,
and yellow, with plants growing from the coldest alpine plateau in Tasmania
to the steamiest tropical lowlands near Darwin. Information on triggerplants
and on joining the society may be obtained at http://www.triggerplants.org
or by emailing 1) Doug Darnowski (USA) at email@example.com
or 2) Greg Bourke (Australia) at firstname.lastname@example.org
. The Society will be based in Australia with webhosting and editing
of its Bulletin in the USA.
East Tennessee State University Biological Sciences Department, http:www.etsu.edu/biology
invites applications for a tenure-track ASSISTANT PROFESSOR position, beginning
01/01/03. Ph.D. required by start date, post-doctoral experience preferred.
Research specialization in any area of plant biology using modern research
approaches; plant development especially encouraged. Demonstrable commitment
to teaching and research required. Teaching duties include an advanced
course in plant development, plant biology, and participation in general
biology majors sequence. Will be responsible for developing active research
program to include B.S. and M.S. students. Applicants with broad botanical
training are especially encouraged.
Send curriculum vitae, transcripts, statements of teaching and research
interests, and 3 letters of recommendation by 08/30/02 to: Dr. Cecilia
McIntosh, Search Committee, Biological Sciences Dept., ETSU Box 70703,
Johnson City, TN 37614. Phone (423) 439-5838. Fax (423) 439-5958. E-mail:
College of General Studies. We require a teaching generalist with an
active research program. Ours is a rigorous two-year program with team
taught courses in physical and biological sciences. Professors take full
teaching responsibility for a group of 120 freshmen or sophomores in year-long
introductory courses which include weekly laboratories. New faculty are
supported by master teachers in an intensive learning environment. We hope
to complement our current faculty with a chemist and/or organismic biologist.
Contact Dr. Samuel Hammer at (617) 353-2915 and send letter, short discussion
of teaching philosophy, most recent refereed publication, CV and three
current letters of reference to: Search Committee, Division of Natural
Sciences, College of General Studies, Boston University, 871 Commonwealth
Ave., Boston, MA 02215.
POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATE
Function: Research & Development
Req Number: mons-00000241
Location(s): St. Louis MO
A two-year postdoctoral fellow position is available immediately for
developing, implementing, and applying advanced microscopy techniques to
elucidating the ultrastructure of plants, seeds, weeds and other biological
systems. Additionally, the selected individual is responsible for developing
new methods to improve the sample preparation protocols of biological systems.
The selected candidate will interact with multifunctional groups of scientists
working on biotechnology projects.
The position requires a Ph.D. in plant biology or a related field with
experience in advanced electron and light microscopy techniques. A strong
background and extensive experience in TEM, high-resolution cryo-SEM, and
confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques are essential. Experience
with gene transformation in plants is a strong plus. The following key
competencies are desired: highly motivated and interested in developing
new imaging technologies; good interpersonal, verbal and written communication
skills; innovative and seeking opportunity to improve existing techniques
and processes. To respond to this job contact: http://www.monsanto.com/monsanto/people
/job_openings/default.htm Monsanto values diversity and is
an equal opportunity affirmative action employer.
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAM
The New York Botanical Garden
The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) is seeking to hire a Director of
Graduate Studies to operate its large, multi-institutional graduate studies
training program, involving the education and training of Ph.D and Masters'
students in systematic and economic botany. The Director participates in
all aspects of the program and is a mentor to students as they prepare
for careers in botanical sciences. Specific duties and responsibilities
of this job include: administer the NYBG Graduate Program, involving building
and maintaining academic relationships with City University of New York,
Cornell, Columbia, New York University and Yale; advise current and prospective
students in the various programs, and advocate for their interests both
within NYBG and their respective universities; teach graduate level courses
in an area of interest to the NYBG research program and coordinate curriculum
development; represent the NYBG at professional meetings, and recruit students
for the program; work with the Development Office to raise support for
student fellowships and the program; and, although primarily an administrative
position, the person is expected to maintain a research program as time
Qualifications for this position include a Ph.D in botany or related
field; teaching experience in a university setting; demonstrated administrative
skills; superior interpersonal skills; demonstrated research skills, including
an international research program and publications record; knowledge of
Spanish and/or Portuguese is desirable.
Applicants should submit their letter of application, curriculum vitae,
and the names of four letters of reference to: Human Resources Department,
The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458 or e-mail to HR@nybg.org
; fax 718-220-6504.
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF of BioScience
The American Institute of Biological Sciences, a non-profit scientific
association (http://www.aibs.org), seeks an Editor-in-Chief
to join the staff of its peer-reviewed monthly publication, BioScience,
in Washington DC. Responsible for the acquisition, selection, and peer-review
of scientific manuscripts on a broad range of biological topics. Requires
a Ph.D. in a scientific discipline commensurate with the AIBS mission and
prior experience in scientific journal editorial operations. The successful
candidate will be a team-oriented leader/innovator who thrives in a fast-paced
environment, welcomes challenges, and seeks growth beyond the status quo.
This is a full-time salaried position. Benefits include healthcare and
retirement plan. Send cover letter, resume, and salary requirements to:
Executive Director, attn. Editor Search, AIBS, FAX; 202-628-1509,
email@example.com , 1444 Eye St. NW,
Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005. Closing date: when filled.
POST DOCTORAL POSITION
Mechanisms of Pierce's disease transmission in grape vines.
A postdoctoral position is available to a qualified candidate who has
recently completed her/his PhD. Candidate will join a team of scientists
at UC Davis studying Pierce's disease in grapes. The project concerns understanding
the infection process and structural pathway of movement of the bacterium,
fastidiosa, in infected grape vines. Qualified candidates should have
experience in the study of plant anatomy and physiology and the application
of various types of microscopy.
Starting date is July 1, 2002.
Contacts: Professor Thomas L. Rost, Section of Plant Biology; University
of California, Davis, CA 95616; Ph. 530-752-0410; Fax 530-752-5410; Email
Professor Mark A. Matthews; Dept. of Viticulture & Enology; University
of California, Davis, CA 95616; Phone: 530-752-2048; FAX 530-752-0381;
University of Burgundy, Dijon, France
A postdoctoral position is available from September 2002 to conduct
research in the area of signal transduction mechanisms of plant defence
responses to pathogen infection. The research will focus on nitric oxide
(NO) signalling and the characterization/identification of nitrosated proteins
(Plant Cell 9: 2077-2091, 1997; Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. USA 95: 10328-10333,
1998; Plant J. 23: 817-824, 2000; Trends Plant Sci. 6: 177-183, 2001).
Applicants should have a strong background in protein biochemistry and
be familiar with protein immunodetection and purification. Salary will
be approx 1800 Euros/month. Send curriculum vitae and three letters of
reference to: Dr. David Wendehenne, UMR 1088 INRA/Université
de Bourgogne, BBCE-IPM, INRA, 17 rue Sully, BP 86510, Dijon 21065 Cedex,
France, Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Missouri Botanical Garden
Senior Herbarium Assistant
Assists curator in ethnobotanical field research and training in Tibet
(NW Yunnan) and potentially elsewhere. Work involves editorial assistance
in writing scientific publications, reports and proposals. Assists researcher
in gathering field data, bibliographic and electronic data, analyzing and
Expedites and facilitates identification, labeling and storage of plant
material entering herbarium. Performs various research activities according
to the nature of the project. At present, the position is funded for three
Qualifications include Bachelor's degree in ethnobotany, botany, anthropology,
or related field. Master's degree and training and experience in Ethnobotany
preferred, along with previous field and herbarium experience. Knowledge
of computer database and management and strong statistical analyses preferred;
population modeling helpful. Familiarity with ethnobotanical literature
preferred. Ability and willingness to travel required. Speaking knowledge
of Chinese/Tibetan would be helpful.
Cultural Research Intern
Queens Botanical Garden (QBG) is seeking a cultural research intern
who will assist the gardener-in-residence in ethnobotanical research among
the many diverse communities of Queens. The intern will be involved in
all aspects of fieldwork including making contacts in the community, interviewing
informants, keeping notes, and creating photographic documentation of their
work. She or he will be involved in the creation of new Garden publications
that will focus on QBG's recent research efforts. Publication responsibilities
will include the writing, design, editing, and printing of brochures and
web-based publications. The intern will help develop and schedule lecturers
for the Garden's public programs and special events. She or he will also
be involved with other QBG projects and events as is necessary. Interns
will represent QBG by providing information and assistance to our visiting
public and community. Individuals must be self-motivated and detail oriented.
In working with QBG's gardener-in-residence the intern will gain the experience
of conducting ethnobotanical fieldwork in a highly diverse area of New
York City. Position available immediately. Compensation commensurate with
* Junior or Senior undergraduate, or graduate student, pursuing studies
in cultural anthropology, ethnobotany, or related field preferred
* Anthropological/Ethnobotanical fieldwork experience highly desirable
* Excellent research skills
* Excellent writing, verbal and organizational skills
* Excellent computer skills (knowledge of Publisher, Quark, and web-based
publishing a plus)
* Ability to work some weekends and evenings
* Fluency in an Asian language or Spanish a plus
Please mail or fax resume and cover letter to:
Queens Botanical Garden
43-50 Main Street
Flushing, New York 11355
Tel 718.886.3800 x224
Plants in Human Affairs
(July 27 - August 17, 2002) on Hawaii's Big Island
The program consists of two courses of three credits each for a total
of six credits. We strongly suggest that students register for both courses,
but a single-course, three credit option is available. This program is
being offered as an academic collaboration between the Kohala Center, located
in Kameula, Hawaii, and the Center for Spirituality and Healing at the
University of Minnesota.
Plants and Civilization, an introduction to the science of ethnobotany
and the role of plants in human affairs and in the rise of civilizations,
will be taught by Kathleen Harrison, M.A. Kathleen has worked in the field
of ethnobotany for over 25 years, and is a co-founder of Botanical Dimensions,
a non-profit research organization dedicated to the preservation, propagation
and study of ethnomedically significant plants and their lore. Botanical
Dimensions maintains a private medicinal plant preserve located on Hawaii's
Big Island. Her course, Plants and Civilization, has been offered previously
at Sonoma State University and has received excellent reviews.
People, Plants, and Drugs: An Introduction to Ethnopharmacology is the
second course in the series and will be taught by Dennis McKenna, Ph.D.
Dr. McKenna has worked in the interdisciplinary field of ethnopharmacology
for over 30 years, and is best known for his interdisciplinary investigations
of the Amazonian psychoactive drink, ayahuasca. His course, People, Plants,
and Drugs: An Introduction to Ethnopharmacology, has been a regular course
offering of the Center for Spirituality and Healing at the University of
Minnesota since Spring, 2001.
Lectures and class sessions will be supplemented with frequent field
trips, and guest presentations by distinguished authorities on Hawaiian
and Polynesian ethnobotany will take maximum advantage of the unique learning
opportunities offered by Hawaii's beautiful Big Island. It should be a
very exciting three weeks! Please come join us.
Note: Enrollment is limited to 20 students, so be sure to register early.
You do not have to be a student at the U. of Minnesota to register. Students
at other schools can receive UMn credit that can be transferred to their
home institution. Non-degree students are also eligible, and can register
through continuing education. Contact Nancy Feinthel (612 624 5166)
for details on how to register.
For more information on how to register for the course, the instructors,
and for a detailed outline of the topics to be covered, visit our web site
www.csh.umn.edu/ and click on the link that reads " What's New"
at the right of the page, then click on "Study in Hawaii" at the bottom
of the "What's New" page. For convenience, a few links are included below
to make it easier to find more information.
Dennis J. McKenna, Ph.D.
University of Minnesota
Center for Spirituality & Healing
Academic Health Center
612 624 0112 Office
Home Office: 651 433 4440
Home fax: 651 433 5104
messages: 612 624 9459
Center for Spirituality and Healing home page: http://www.csh.umn.edu/
Online Information (costs, dates, contacts):
Overview of Course: http://www.csh.umn.edu/Education/CSpH_5000/Hawaii/home.htm
NOTE: To register for the full program online, you must register for
both courses, CSpH 5000, # 90113 - Plants and Civilization for 3 credits,
and for CSpH 5401, # 90115 - People,Plants and Drugs: Introduction toEthnopharmacology,
also for 3 credits. A single $2000 fee covers meals and accommodations
for the entire 6 credit, 3 week long program, but tuition is charged separately
for each course. We strongly urge registrants to enroll for the entire
6 credit program!
More information, guidance on how to register, etc. contact Nancy Feinthel
at the Center for Spirituality and Healing (612 624 5166) or via email
Note: If you are a non-University of Minnesota student, or want to register
for the course through continuing education, please contact Nancy Feinthel
at the address above.
THE RUPERT BARNEBY AWARD
The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Aaron Liston,
currently at the Department of Botany & Plant Pathology, Oregon State
University, is the recipient of the Rupert Barneby Award for the
year 2002. Dr. Liston will be studying the phylogenetic systematics of
Astragalus and Trifolium.
The New York Botanical Garden now invites applications for the Rupert
Barneby Award for the year 2003. The award of US$ 1,000.00 is to assist
researchers to visit The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection
of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit
their curriculum vitae, a detailed letter describing the project for which
the award is sought, and the names of 2-3 referees. Travel to the NYBG
should be planned for sometime in the year 2003. The application should
be addressed to Dr. James L. Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, The
New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Kazimiroff Blvd.,
Bronx, NY 10458-5126 USA, and received no later than December 1, 2002.
Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th.
Anyone interested in making a contribution to THE RUPERT BARNEBY
FUND IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS, which supports this award, may send their
check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Luteyn.
GRANTS FOR BOTANICAL GARDENS AND ARBORETA
The Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust invites applications for grants
for up to $20,000 for teaching and research in horticulture. Not-for-profit
botanical gardens, arboreta, and similar institutions are eligible. The
deadline for applications is August 15,
2002. For guidelines, contact William Louis Culberson, Ph.D., Grants
Director, Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust, PO Box 51759, Durham NC
27717-1759, USA (e-mail email@example.com
; tel. 919-660-7303).
In this issue:
-Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement.
Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome Organization of Wheat's
Progenitor, Triticum dicoccoides . Nevo, E., A.B. Korol, A. Beiles,
and T. Fahima.
- Verne Grant .....................................................................................................................60
-The World of Clovers . Gillett, John
M. and Norman L. Taylor (Michael Collins, Editor). - Michael A. Vincent.......60
-Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behavior
and Floral Evolution . Chittka, Lars and James Thomson
- Johanne Brunet .................................................................................................................................61
-Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment:
Scenarios for the 21st Century . Chapin III, F. Stuart,
Osvaldo E. Sala, and Elisabeth
Huber-Sannwald (eds) - Gretchen B. North......................................................62
-Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate
Biological Data . Podani, Janos - James E. Eckenwalder............63
-Emanuel D. Rudolf's Studies in the History
of North American Botany with an Appendix on the Relationship
Science and Religion . Studkey, R. L. and W. R. Burk (eds) - Jonathan
Lichens of North America . Brodo, Irwin,
Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, and Stephen Sharnoff - Robynn Shannon...............65
-Plant Cell Biology . Hawes, Chris and
Beatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre - Douglas Darnowski..........................................66
-Regulation of Photosynthesis . Aro,
E-M. and B. Anderrson (eds) - Samuel Hammer .............................................67
-Flora of China. Volume 8, Brassicaceae through
Saxifragaceae . Wu, Zheng-yi and Peter H. Raven
co-chairs of Editoral Committee)
- Marcel Rejmanek.........................................................................................67
-Guide to Standard Floras of the World, Second Edition
. Frodin, D.G. - Aaron Liston...........................................68
-Handbook of Northwestern Plants . Gilkey,
Helen M. and LaRea J. Dennis - Mary M. Walker................................69
-Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of
California (6th ed) . Tibor, D.P (ed.) - Jason A. Koontz...................70
-The Orchids of the Philippines . Cootes,
Jim - William Louis Stern............................................................................70
-The Sunflower Family in the Upper Midwest.
A Photographic Guide to the Asteraceae in Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin . Antonio, Thomas and Susanne
Masi - William Burger...............................71
-Trees and Shrubs of California . Stuart,
John D. and John O. Sawyer - James E. Eckenwalder..................................72
-Doing Science: Design, Analysis and Communication
of Scientific Research . Valiela, Ivan - Laura Hyatt...............73
-Gregor Mendel and the Roots of Genetics .
Edelson, Edward - Marshall D. Sundberg...............................................73
Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement.
Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome Organization of Wheat's
Progenitor, Triticum dicoccoides. E. Nevo, A. B. Korol, A. Beiles,
and T. Fahima. 2002. ISBN 3-540-41750-8. (Cloth US $219.00.) 364 pp. Springer-Verlag
New York, P.O. Box 2485, Secaucus, NJ 07096 - -The tetraploid Triticum
turgidum group (AABB) plays a pivotal role in the evolution of wheats.
This group contains a range of forms from wild emmer (T. dicoccoides
or T. turgidum var. dicoccoides) through primitive
cultivated emmer (T.
dicoccum or T. t. var.
dicoccum) to advanced cultivated durum (T. t. var.
durum) and other cultivars with free-threshing grains. The emmer
wheats are also the donors of the A and B genomes to hexaploid bread wheat
(T. aestivum, AABBDD).
Eviatar Nevo and his associates in Israel have spent 30 years studying
wild emmer and its relatives from every standpoint. This book presents
their many findings, both new and previously published, and the findings
The book begins with the cytotaxonomic and cytogenetic background of
Triticum. The archaeology of the cultivated forms is reviewed. The
geographical distribution of T. dicoccoides in the Near East
from Israel north to Turkey and east to Iran is described.
Following this introduction is a large section describing population
variation in wild emmer. Polymorphisms are found in allozymes and various
kinds of DNA: RAPD, microsatellites, and ribosomes. Genetic variability
is common. Furthermore, the frequencies of the variants in many cases are
correlated with environmental variables when plotted on a macrogeographical
or microgeographical scale. The best explanation for the observed variation
patterns in many or most cases is control by natural selection, with or
without the influence of other factors. The authors return to the modes
of selection found to be operating in wild emmer in a final section of
These findings have important practical as well as theoretical implications,
as the authors point out. Much natural variation in domesticated wheats
has been lost in modern cultivation and pure-breeding. But wild emmer maintains
a rich pool of adaptive and preadaptive variations which can be tapped
in the breeding of cultivated emmer and durum and their hexaploid derivative,
A third large section discusses variation in several physiological traits
of emmer such as drought tolerance, salt tolerance, pathogen resistance,
herbicide resistance, protein content of grains, etc. Some of this variation
can be useful in wheat breeding.
A fourth section covers genome organization. The distribution of QTLs
for agronomic traits among the chromosomes of the two genomes is shown,
and genetic maps for molecular markers are presented. It is fascinating
to see homologous genes on partially homologous chromosomes of the A and
B genomes. Also very interesting is a comparison of the chromosomes of
the A genome in wild emmer (AABB) with those in its diploid ancestor T.
urartu (AA). The A chromosomes of wild emmer, unlike their counterparts
in T . urartu , contain scattered segments of repetitive
DNA derived from the B genome. Apparently DNA has infiltrated from B chromosomes
into A chromosomes in tetraploid emmer since its formation. Little infiltration
in the opposite direction from the A to the B genome has taken place. This
process of intergenomic invasion has also been found recently in tetraploid
This book presents a tremendous amount of molecular and physiological
information about wild emmer and places the information in an evolutionary-biological
context. It shows how much can be accomplished by a multidisciplinary approach
to the biology of a single plant species. _ Verne Grant, Section of Integrative
Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712.
The World of Clovers. Gillett, John M.
and Norman L. Taylor (Michael Collins, editor). 2001. ISBN: 0-8138-2986-0
(hardcover book plus CD ROM, US$149.99). 457 pp. Iowa State University
Press, 2121 South State Street, Ames, IA 50014-8300 (www.isupress.com).
— Since the genus Trifolium is my primary botanical interest, I
looked forward to the publication of this book, the authors of which are
some of the world's experts on the genus. I greatly anticipated seeing
color photographs of many of the species I have not yet been able to see
"in the flesh", so that I would be better able to identify them in the
future. Having now seen the product, my excitement for it is a bit muted.
The book is a nice little volume (6 1/8" X 9 1/4"), well and attractively
bound, and printed on glossy, acid-free paper. It begins with an introduction
to Trifolium, and a relatively good set of references. Contents
include good descriptive information for most taxa. The text for each species
includes common names (where there are any), chromosome numbers (when known),
life span, habit, flowering period, reproductive attributes, origin and
distribution, and sometimes additional notes. There are expanded discussions
of leaf, flower, and seed characteristics. Black and white photographs
of plants and seeds illustrate most taxa. Species are discussed in alphabetical
order, and each is presented in a two-page spread that is particularly
attractive for some species, though the treatments vary widely from species
to species. The CD ROM is organized in much the same way, with color photos
of the plants and seeds.
The main strengths of this volume are the succinct descriptions and
the very good seed illustrations. Seed of more species of Trifolium
are illustrated in this volume than in any other source of which I am aware.
This is very important for anyone attempting to identify clover seeds,
especially those in the agriculture industry and agricultural inspectors
checking for seed contaminants.
The main weaknesses of the volume are the lack of keys to species, the
lack of photos of some species, the poor quality of at least some of the
photographs, and the absence of an index. Keys based on vegetative and
floral characters should have been included, as should keys based on seed
characters. Without these keys, the volume is much less useful than it
could have been. Without keys, anyone working to identify clovers is forced
to try to obtain a copy of the last monograph by Zohary & Heller (1984)
and other monographic treatments of smaller groups of the genus published
in journal articles. I also have some objection to the way the author ("authority")
of each name is presented on the page opposite the name, rather than being
given immediately after the epithet. The lack of an index might at first
seem unimportant, but such an index would have been helpful in some cases,
especially for species that were formerly (and commonly) known by names
other than those used in the present volume. For example, how can Trifolium
tridentatum be found if one does not know that it is now called T.
willdenovii? Common names could also have been indexed for those not
familiar with the scientific names.
With regard to the illustrations of each species, those for which no
photo is given (47 out of 228 species, or over 20%), such as Trifolium
acaule, T. breweri, T. siskiyouense, and so on) could have been represented
by photos made from herbarium specimens. This would have been much preferable
to a complete absence of any illustration. In other cases, such as those
of T. brandegei, T. latifolium, and T. lupinaster, where
a photo is given in the book, the quality is poor, either because the photo
is out of focus, or the subject is too small to be of any use. The photos
on the CD ROM do make up for the failings of those in the text, but this
is not always the case. The seed photos are far superior, and in the main
very good; since so few are published in other sources (such as Delorit
& Gunn, 1986), this makes up for shortcomings in other areas.
The book is a bit overpriced, given its size and content. However, the
CD ROM can be purchased separately for $99.99, and since all the information
contained in the printed volume is on the CD, and since the photographs
are better on the CD ROM, I suggest that it is the better format to purchase.
— Michael A. Vincent, Curator, W.S. Turrell Herbarium (MU), Department
of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.
Delorit, R.J. & C.R. Gunn. 1986. Seeds of Continental United
States Legumes (Fabaceae). Agronomy Publications, River Falls, WI.
Zohary, M. & D. Heller. 1984. The Genus Trifolium.
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
Cognitive ecology of pollination: animal
behavior and floral evolution . Lars Chittka and James D. Thomson.
2001. ISBN,0-521-781957 (cloth, US $ ) 344 pp. Cambridge University Press,
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011. - Pollination biology
can be studied from different perspectives. While some researchers investigate
pollinator's physiology and proximate causes of behavior, others examine
ultimate causes such as the evolution of floral characteristics in response
to pollinator behavior. Both ultimate and proximate approaches can provide
useful information to the study of pollination biology. To stress the importance
and potential benefits of linking different traditions, this book presents
both approaches side by side. The editors' goal is not to fuse or reconcile
different approaches but to raise consciousness among pollination biologists
about the potential benefits of such a fusion.
This book is comprised of 16 chapters, each written by different authors.
Earlier chapters discuss how color vision, spatial memory, scent, and cognitive
abilities influence pollinator preference and constancy. The first four
chapters are devoted to bees, later chapters discuss hummingbirds, bats,
and beetles, flies, moths, and butterflies (Chapters 7-9). You will learn
about the different phases of bee memory; how bees use colors, shapes,
and patterns to recognize a plant species; and how bees can subjectively
estimate the value of pollen and nectar. Reading these chapters, you will
better appreciate how scent, spatial memory, and other visual cues are
used differentially by distinct pollinators to locate patches of flowers.
The subject matters of later chapters are more eclectic (Chapters 10-16).
Topics include individual variation in pollinator behavior and its implication
on selection of plant characteristics; frequency-dependent foraging behavior
and the resulting frequency-dependent selection on floral characteristics;
pollinator energetics, foraging currency, and efficiency of pollen transfer;
and pollinator-mediated assortative mating and plant speciation; amongst
others. While this book covers a wide range of subjects, the major emphasis
is on pollinators. The effect of pollinators on plant characteristics is
differentially discussed among chapters. When choosing subject for chapters,
the editors selected work that stimulated them intellectually. While this
represents a valid criterion, making better connections between chapters
would have benefited the reader, especially between the last seven chapters.
Interesting ideas are presented throughout the book. It is suggested
that floral diversity in communities may not
result from pollinator preference of specific floral shapes but could
be a way to increase pollinator selectivity. Indeed, data are presented
that indicate how pollinator selectivity increases when floral types differ
in multiple rather than in single traits. One author proposes the use of
the honeybee's round dance as a quantitative measure of that bee's subjective
appraisal of quantity and quality of pollen and/or nectar. It is also suggested
that differences in behavior among individual pollinators may influence
our interpretation of pollinator preference and of pollinator-driven selection
on plant characteristics. It is stressed throughout the book that the concepts
of pollination syndromes, of strong coevolution between pollinators and
floral characteristics, and of plant speciation resulting from ethological
isolation by pollinators, should be used with caution. Different authors
discuss how the overall evidence to support these ideas remains weak. For
example, as pollinators are often generalists, the evolution of floral
traits may not result from close coevolution between specialized pollinators
and their flowers. Alternative explanations to adaptation and coevolution
include phylogenetic history, phylogenetic constraint and chance. It is
suggested that by considering these alternatives we will gain a better
understanding of adaptation.
Despite the presentation of interesting ideas, some of the chapters
are highly speculative, with little empirical evidence provided to support
the ideas. While the presentation of new ideas is crucial to the development
of a field of study, too strong an emphasis on speculations weakens a book.
Is a whole chapter necessary to discuss how predation on pollinators may
potentially influence pollinator behavior and plant characteristics? or
the possible consequences of pollinator-mediated assortative mating for
plant reproductive isolation? This high level of speculation combined with
the lack of continuity, especially between the last seven chapters, weakened
Appealing to different audiences is a difficult task. It requires a
careful selection of subjects and presentation of the subjects at an adequate
level. As a plant evolutionary biologist, I found it difficult to read
through the levels of details presented in some of the early chapters,
for example, the description of the different memory phases of bees, or
the experiments to recognize the pattern recognition used of bees. The
editors' goal was not to fuse or reconcile physiological and evolutionary
studies but to raise consciousness about the potential benefits of such
a fusion. Did the book reach this goal? Despite some weaknesses, this book
represents a positive step in that direction. - Johanne Brunet, Department
of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331
Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment:
Scenarios for the 21 st Century. Chapin III, F. Stuart,
Osvaldo E. Sala, and Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald (eds) 2001. ISBN 0-387-95286-1
(paper US$49.95) 376. pp. Springer-Verlag, 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus,
NJ 07904.—I had an ulterior motive in asking to review this book. As preparation
for a non-majors course called Biodiversity, I wanted a source of solid,
defensible numbers and not another coffee-table book concerning the effects
of global change on biodiversity. Numbers this book delivers, in spades.
Thirty-six contributors from nine countries have put together a comprehensive,
sobering compendium of predictions about the future of biodiversity in
10 biomes and habitats that are and will be variously affected by the components
of global change. The goal of the volume, as most succinctly stated in
the last chapter, is to present biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100.
The data, modeling, and thinking used to develop those scethat both summarizes
the preceding chapters and suggests the directions in which future research
should head. The book has both detailed information and intellectual sweep,
and should thus be useful to researchers and policy planners in the fields
of conservation biology, ecology, and environmental science. Although a
few of the chapters are densely packed, the unified approach and consistency
of presentation also recommend the book to more general readers who want
to learn and teach about the possible fates of biological systems under
different levels of human impact.
After a brief introduction, the second chapter of the book threatens
to overwhelm the unprepared reader with an acronym-heavy but ultimately
informative account of modeling efforts to predict global responses of
vegetation to climate change. For modelers, the chapter might have been
improved by including a systematic (preferably tabular) comparison of what
the various models used as input. For non-modelers, the chapter would have
been improved by fewer acronyms and larger maps (which in gray scale and
in their published size are indecipherable). In this regard, the color
plates at the center of the book are also too small to be effective. However,
the chapter does raise the important point that most models of vegetation
change rely heavily on the use of plant functional types, suggesting that
when and where plants perform according to or differently from their functional
type continue to be valuable research questions.
The third chapter, by Rik Leemans, is one of the most powerful in the
book. The alternative scenarios presented by Leemans illustrate the effects
of intermediate versus low levels of human resource consumption on patterns
of vegetation. Again, the maps aren't visually effective, but the tables
clearly convey the consequences of different resource use with respect
to such variables as vegetation type and percentage of non-domesticated
land. For example, by the year 2100, non-domesticated land in the USA (currently
62% of its total land area) would be 60% under intermediate resource use
and 70% under low resource use; for China, the current figure is 59%, decreasing
in 2100 to 37% under intermediate resource use but 44% under low use. The
chapter's last paragraph contains a sentence that deserves to be quoted
in full: "The often-heard argument that such grim or doomsday scenarios
do not become reality is not because they are unrealistic, but rather that
it is the result of their convincing cases." Leemans himself makes just
such a convincing case.
The following chapters describe the responses of various habitats (such
as soil and moving fresh water) and biomes to five major drivers of global
change: land use, climate, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange (= chiefly
invasive exotic species) and atmospheric CO2. Of these chapters,
two deserve special mention. Chapter 9, Mediterranean-Climate Ecosystems,
by Mooney, Arroyo, Bond, Canadell, Hobbs, Lavorel, and Neilson, is particularly
informative due to its coverage of regions in both northern and southern
hemispheres, allowing comparisons between the relative impact of such drivers
as land use and climate change. For example, coastal California and Chile
have similar vegetation yet different histories of land use and different
amounts of climate buffering due to oceanic area. Thus, future land use
change may have greater impact on Chile, whereas climate change may have
greater impact on California. The unpredictability of precipitation changes
is a large source of uncertainty in future scenarios, yet current projections
of land use, temperature, and biotic exchange all point to Mediterranean-climate
regions as losing a greater proportion of their biodiversity (chiefly plant
diversity) than will other regions considered in the book.
The second biome chapter that stands out is chapter 7, Temperate Grasslands,
by Osvaldo Sala, which also integrates information from both hemispheres
(chiefly North and South America). Sala demonstrates that the five drivers
of global change are likely to have nearly equal impacts on biodiversity
in grasslands. In addition, he offers an intriguing but brief account of
how grazing history on an evolutionary time-scale affects current and future
responses of the vegetation to invasions and other disturbances. With respect
to nitrogen deposition, Sala cites the work of David Tilman that demonstrates
not only the effect of fertilization in reducing plant diversity but also
the likely role of species redundancy in continued ecosystem function in
the face of global change.
After the biomes and habitats have been assessed individually, the final
chapter draws together predictions based on each biome's response to the
five drivers of global change and presents them in bar graphs that are
no less useful for having been published previously. An even more important
element of this chapter is its analysis of possible interactions between
the five drivers, that is, whether they are simply additive (no interaction),
subsumed under the effects of the most important driver (antagonistic interaction),
or multiplicative (synergistic interaction). The three maps reflecting
these three scenarios, which have also been published before, are effective
in color in the center of the book, and less effective in gray scale in
this chapter. As the authors point out, research and modeling efforts should
be devoted to determining the shapes of such interactions, for example,
how nitrogen deposition in a particular biome might magnify the threat
of invasive species. Finally, the book ends on a rather unusual note for
a work that has so successfully demonstrated the value of a comprehensive,
biome-level approach. Noting that management decisions are made at a relatively
fine scale by people who are, for example, responsible for paddocks and
watersheds, the authors suggest that research and policy decisions be directed
at mitigating changes to local biodiversity. This book will provide an
excellent starting place for anyone engaged or interested in such mitigation.
- Gretchen B. North, Biology Dept., Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA..
Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate
Biological Data. Podani, János. 2000. ISBN 90-5782-067-6 (paper,
US $ tk). vi + 407 pp. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. — Like the canonical
Numerical Taxonomy by Sneath and Sokal (W. H. Freeman, 1973), this
book steers an intermediate course between detailed mathematical treatment
of multivariate methods and a brief presentation of highlights appropriate
to some specific set of biological applications. The result is a surprisingly
(and sometimes distractingly) comprehensive review of available methods
in taxonomy and ecology packed into just 400 pages.
Podani makes the claim that he intends the book for a wider biological
audience, but his examples are almost all from the taxonomic and ecological
literature (particularly the latter), and he provides few hints about how
the techniques might be applied more broadly. In this respect, Sneath and
Sokal do a little more, with a 16 page (outdated) chapter on applications
of numerical taxonomy outside of biological systematics. In others, Podani
has more thorough coverage, particularly on the early topics related to
assembly of the data matrix: sampling, data types, and transformations.
His pictorial representations of the latter are especially helpful for
visualizing the effects of the wide range of transformations discussed.
This thoroughness is characteristic of the book: treatment of available
coefficients and procedures is, if not exhaustive, certainly more extensive
than in other recent books on multivariate methods with the word "introduction"
in their title. The advantage of such inclusiveness is that it allows the
author to explore the theoretical foundations of the different coefficients
and procedures and to evaluate their effectiveness.
Podani himself is an innovator in this field and he clearly feels that
the standard approaches adopted in routine analyses could be improved.
On the other hand, why dredge up so many forgotten approaches, some with
no real advantage over more popular ones and a few of them never used by
anyone but their original proposer? Even if an obscure coefficient is better
than the standard repertoire of popular ones, is there much chance of displacing
these? The inclusion of all of these extras adds a little confusion to
the text and might make it harder for the novice to choose among alternatives
were it not for three distinctive elements of the book that go some way
to ameliorating these difficulties. Most conventional are a series of comparative
tables and decision keys that at least help to avoid inappropriate uses
of coefficients and procedures, even if they do not always give detailed
guidance on choices among those that are appropriate. Some of the latter
is provided in "imaginary dialogues" at the end of each chapter, which
expand upon some of these issues and allow Podani to reveal where he has
skated around some difficulties. The third helpful device includes the
literature overviews at the end of each chapter. These provide a very good
entry to classical and contemporary reviews of the topics covered in the
chapters. They also summarize which of the covered coefficients and procedures
are included in selected multivariate software packages. Both of these
elements, the literature and software overviews, are obviously destined
to rapid obsolescence in detail, but they are highly selective anyway and
should retain considerable utility.
Another strong feature of the book is the range of topics covered in
the nine chapters. In addition to the first chapter on sampling and data
types, Chapter 4 on non-hierarchical classification and Chapter 9 on comparative
evaluation of results are also relatively uncommon and welcome additions
to the usual lineup of topics in numerical taxonomy texts. Also a little
unusual is the assignment of matrix rearrangement to its own chapter, while
all ordination methods are included in a single chapter. Rounding out the
contents are chapters on similarity coefficients, hierarchical clustering,
I would have liked to have seen a section on 3 matrix analysis and more
on morphometrics but it is remarkable how much was packed into this slender
volume. Podani did his own translation of his Hungarian original. Although
it is clearly not the work of a native speaker of English, the translation
is fluent and readable with only the occasional striking incongruity. I
like the book, but I am not sure exactly what to recommend it for. It would
be suitable for a graduate course in multivariate systematics or quantitative
ecology, if supplemented by readings of appropriate applications. It can
also serve as a handy place to look up the details of some of the less
frequently encountered coefficients and procedures, especially those published
in the last 20 years (since Sneath and Sokal's summary). I will use it
this way and perhaps, as a result, I will be more inclined to broaden my
analytical repertoire and use some of the additional techniques that Podani
describes so clearly. - James E. Eckenwalder, University of Toronto, Department
of Botany, 25 Willcocks St., Toronto, Ont. M5S 3B2. Canada.
Emanuel D. Rudolf's Studies in the History
of North American Botany with an Appendix on the Relationship between Science
and Religion, R.L. Stuckey and W.R. Burk, eds. 2000. ISBN 1-889878-05-7
(paper, no price given). 376 pp. Botanical Research Institute of Texas,
Fort Worth, Texas, USA. - Emanuel D. Rudolf was born in Brooklyn, New York
in 1927. From his childhood on he developed a passion for books, and for
the study of nature, especially of plants. Following service in the U.S.
Army during WWII, Rudolf earned a B.A in Biology from New York University
and a Ph.D. in Botany from Washington University, St. Louis, MO. The remainder
of his life was spent teaching botany, conducting research primarily in
the fields of lichenology and the history of science, collecting books,
and writing; first at Wellesley College (1955-1961) and then at The Ohio
State University (1961-1992). To quote from the book's Memoriam: "Known
affectionately as `Rudy,' he was a kind, generous and modest gentleman,
who displayed good humor and good will. He was truly a valued friend, respected
colleague, and eminent scholar, who gave much thoughtful counsel to his
students and friends and showed genuine enthusiasm for life, science, and
books." At the time of his death due to an automobile accident in June
1972, Rudolf left behind a collection of 53,000 books, numerous manuscripts
and drafts of manuscripts, and an unfulfilled ambition to write a book
on the popularization of botany. His friends and colleagues R.L. Stuckey
and W.R. Burk, by assembling Rudolf's manuscripts together with new and
thoughtful introductions to each, have fulfilled `Rudy's' ambition.
The book begins with a thorough and skillful introduction to the `Rudolf
Papers,' i.e. to Rudolf's lifetime contributions to botanical history,
whether published or not. The remainder of the book consists of 38 of Rudolf's
manuscripts, each preceded by a brief introduction, with the papers organized
into nine sections on various topics: Botany in Textbooks, Botany in Children's
Books, Botanical Teaching, Botanical Educators, Botanical Illustration,
Women in American Botany, Writing Shaw's Garden History, Writing Botanical
History, and Relationships Between Science and Religion. The publisher
and printer are to be commended for the production quality of the book,
which is clearly and attractively typeset, and includes a wealth of line
drawings and black and white photographs throughout, as well as a several
pages of color plates of Emanuel Rudolf, his home and collections. The
volume is published in the series Sida, Botanical Miscellany as
The editors have done well to prepare for publication what in some cases
were only partial drafts, fragments, marginalia, and collected references
on a given topic. The introductions by R.L. Stuckey indicate clearly what
Rudolf had completed at the time of his death, and what remained to be
done. In several instances, what is presented as a single paper was actually
cobbled together from multiple abstracts or papers written by Rudolf, with
the editors' intent being to provide a summary of Rudolf's writings on
a given topic. That this approach works as well as it does is a testimony
to the editors' skills. They've produced a very readable and enlightening
entrée to Rudolf's thoughts that only occasionally betrays its lack
of continuity in authorship.
Rudolf's lifetime contributions to botanical history are worthy of such
a handsome memorial collection. Those with interests in the history of
North American botany and/or its popularization in textbooks and children's
books are advised to read this volume. Those who have caught Emanuel Rudolf's
book-collecting bug will want a copy of their own.- Jonathan Frye, Department
of Natural Science, McPherson College, McPherson, KS 67460
Lichens of North America, by Irwin M. Brodo,
Sylvia Duran Sharnoff, and Stephen Sharnoff - Even if you don't care one
whit about lichens, you should buy this book for the photographs alone,
spectacular fusions of science and art. The authors warn that "...the temptation
to start [identifying a specimen] by leafing through the pretty pictures
will be hard to resist." Indeed.
But then, it would be impossible not to care about lichens, ubiquitous
composite organisms of fascinating biology and great ecological importance,
once introduced to them by Lichens of North America. The 14 introductory
chapters of "Part One / About The Lichens" give a beginner's introduction
and cover such topics as morphology, reproduction, physiology, chemistry,
ecology and environmental monitoring, distribution, ethnobiology, and taxonomy.
In "Part Two / Guide To The Lichens" (the bulk of the book) are found keys
to genera and species, genus and species descriptions, illustrations, and
distribution maps. The book is broad in its coverage, though not exhaustive:
more than 1500 "common, conspicuous or otherwise important" species and
subspecies are included (of the approximately 3600 known for North America),
with keys to 1050 of them and more than 800 of them with full descriptions
and color illustrations. The geographic coverage is all of North America
north of Mexico.
Lichens of North America is both well written and well edited, impressively
so for a work of this type and magnitude. Brodo's prose is clear, engaging,
even eloquent, making the text as enjoyable to read as the photos are to
look at. The biology of lichens is presented in an evolutionary and ecological
context, an approach that may seem obvious but should not be taken for
granted. Indications of sound scholarship include every photo being supported
by a voucher specimen, the long list of experts consulted, and the up-to-date
taxonomy. Although the book had been in the making for over a decade, most
modern and even the most recent generic concepts are adopted (e.g., the
Cetraria complex). Organization at every level is logical and just plain
sensible, from the division of the book into two parts to the alphabetical
arrangement of genera and species. All of the species mentioned in Part
One as examples are illustrated in Part Two. Throughout the book there
is thorough cross-referencing, particularly important given that there
is no subject index. Where a term is mentioned in one chapter, the chapter
in which it is fully explained is indicated.
Both the glossary and the keys reference figures. Overall, the glossary
is very complete, although the omission of epiphloeodal is puzzling given
the inclusion of endophloeodal. The genus and species descriptions are
thorough and clear, including (along with the actual description) the name
of the photobiont (where known) as well as information on chemistry, habitat,
distribution, and importance. Under "Comments" one finds mention of similar
species as well as notes on how easy a species is to recognize or how likely
one is to encounter it. The range of each species (or subspecies) is indicated
on a map, much quicker and easier to read than any verbal description of
distribution would be.
For the most part, the key couplets are of the sort that make using
keys a pleasure: pseudocyphellae present vs. pseudocyphellae absent; thallus
pale vs. thallus dark; on rock vs. on bark or wood; apothecial margin yellow
or bright orange vs. apothecial margin black; spores halonate vs. spores
not halonate; thallus PD- vs. thallus PD+ yellow or red-orange. The characters
used in the keys are easily distinguished, such as color, chemical spot
tests, habitat, and number of spores per ascus. Keying out a handful of
specimens in different groups proved the keys as easy to use as they appeared.
Some of what I liked most about Lichens of North America is minor but
I think not trivial. Running genus names at the bottom of the pages in
Part Two was an excellent idea. I enjoyed the bits of poetry and other
brief quotations at the beginning of each chapter (it seems that Thoreau
had quite a bit to say about lichens!). There is much in this book to inspire
further study, with the reader's attention drawn over and over again to
what is not known about lichens. Perhaps most of all, I enjoyed the destruction
of lichen stereotypes. Sure, we were all taught that lichens break down
rock to form soil, but how many of us were taught that some lichens are
actually important in stabilization of existing soil?
The three biggest shortcomings of Lichens of North America are due to
editorial decisions. First, the book should have a subject index, the lack
of which is only partly compensated for by the thorough cross referencing.
Second, author names are not included with taxa names at the beginning
of each description, but are included with the taxa names only in the "Index
of Names." I have not been able to think of any good reason for omitting
author names from the descriptions. It means that if you are keying out
a specimen in order to put a name on a herbarium label or in a manuscript,
your task will not be complete until you have turned to that name in the
index to get the author name(s). Finally, there is no literature cited
section, only "Further Reading and Bibliography," and that organized only
loosely according to the subjects of the introductory chapters. This makes
it difficult to find a reference actually cited or quoted in the text (though
there aren't many of these). Related to this, I did not find full citations
of the works quoted at the beginning of each chapter; a reader might want
to track down the context in which Thoreau wrote, "Nature has a day for
each of her creatures..."
My remaining criticisms are truly minor. In the section on how to use
the keys it is explained that numbers in parentheses following a couplet
number indicate the origin of that choice, a very useful feature when one
is trying to work backwards through a key. According to the text, the originating
lead is given in parentheses for leads originating more than two couplets
away, but in fact this is inconsistently so. For leads originating more
than three couplets apart the originating leads are given consistently(I found only one omission and one error). But for leads originating three
couplets away, the originating lead has been omitted more often than included.
Although in almost all cases the plates in Part Two are located very
close to the descriptions they accompany, it would still be useful to have
the plate numbers referenced in the descriptions, especially for cases
where the plates are in a different order than the descriptions. A few
plates are out of order in Part One, and one plate appears not to be cited
at all. Finally, although both Raven's "Foreword" and Brodo's "Preface"
mention Sylvia Sharnoff's untimely death, the cataloging information on
the back of the title page indicates that she was still living at the time
Lichens of North America is a monumental work of major importance to
our understanding of the biota of North America. The photographs,
introductory chapters, and descriptions are all so well done that every
page is a pleasure to read and look at. Accessible enough for amateur
naturalists, detailed enough for professional lichenologists, this is a
great book for anyone who loves nature. - Robynn Shannon, Dept. Ecology
and Evolutionary Biology, U-3043, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
Plant Cell Biology, Second Edition, edited
by Chris Hawes and Beatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre arrives as one of the many
volumes in the Practical Approach Series by Oxford University Press. This
series provides views of current knowledge and protocols in various areas
of modern experimental biology, and this particular volume meets the goals
of the series, with a few areas that could be improved. This work certainly
does provide a practical guide to various areas of current research in
plant cell biology. A variety of authors present a range of techniques
including flow cytometry, microinjection, and electron microscopy. Throughout,
the book is peppered with useful protocols and informative micrographs,
including some very attractive color confocal images. An introductory chapter
presents the basics of light microscopy to the reader, a chapter which
is preceded by a helpful list of the abbreviations used throughout the
volume. Other chapters cover topics ranging from fluorescent probes to
micromanipulation to electrophysiology, as well as other techniques.
The first edition of Plant Cell Biology was edited by Harris and Oparka
and appeared in 1994. There have been significant changes in the tools
and techniques used by plant cell biologists in that time—for example,
the discovery of GFP was only announced in1994, but in this volume it receives
an entire chapter. This makes sense given the role played by various versions
of GFP for analysis of plant cells live and in real time. Some techniques
previously covered in an entire chapter of the first edition—e.g. DNA-DNA
in situ analysis—now occupies part of a chapter or a chapter renamed
to reflect changes in terminology— in situ hybridization is covered
in its various manifestations, such as RNA-RNA, not just DNA-DNA.
Plant Cell Biology, Second Edition, could use more micrographs, especially
given the practical aim of this work. There are a reasonable number which
illustrate the various techniques presented, but even more would help further
to clarify techniques along with more photographs, as opposed to simple
cartoon views, of experimental apparati. The protocols are well laid-out
in gray-shaded boxes, and these represent an improvement on the protocols
in the first edition in that they are better set off from the text by this
shading. However, the user of the book will require some familiarity with
basic techniques in a given subfield of plant cell biology in order to
use the protocols, as in the pulling and coating of micropipettes for electrophysiological
The protocols presented here may not be sufficient to allow the reader,
even a careful reader, to start doing the experiments using only the book
as a guide. Some practical tips will have to be sought from experienced
users of a given type of experiment. This book offers real value to all
those working in plant cell biology, though access to the first edition
may be important for certain techniques. One book cannot describe all techniques,
especially if a current practical focus is the goal, and though a technique
may not be widely used at the moment, it may return to greater importance
at some future date.
This Second Edition should be found in all libraries of research institutions
and in the personal libraries of plant cell biologists. It will be useful
for obtaining protocols for teaching laboratories, especially advanced
courses, and the introductory chapter of this second edition is an excellent
basic review of modern light microscopy, especially as it applies to plants.
- Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Washington College, Chestertown,
Regulation of Photosynthesis. Volume 11.
E-M. Aro and B. Anderrson, (Eds.) 2001. ISBN 0-7923-6332-9 (Cloth US$226.00)
613 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers. P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The
Netherlands. - This is the eleventh book in a series titled "Advances in
Photosynthesis and Respiration," the first of which was published in 1994.
I would have assumed that the ten previous volumes covered every imaginable
aspect of photosynthetic phenomena but the current volume impresses with
the fact that there is still more to write on the topic. Doubtless, these
are not the last six hundred pages we can expect on the general topic of
photosynthesis. The series editor promises at least five upcoming volumes.
This volume focuses on regulation systems in photosynthetic processes.
Regulation, comprising a very broad set of biological responses, is discussed
within an enormous and sometimes diffuse range of subjects. Predictably,
protein and enzyme activities of chloroplasts are given full play. Genomics,
gene expression, biogenesis, and acclimation modalities are also considered
in detail. The chapters comprise both review articles and primary research
and provide a real treasure of information, but the level may be out of
reach of many readers.
Hundreds of references are cited in more than thirty contributions,
representing what amounts to a gargantuan editorial feat. The book is not,
as the editors suggest, suitable for advanced undergraduates. It is a highly
specialized volume more appropriately aimed at a narrow readership of specialists.
Like me, even professional botanists might find the book daunting without
an avid interest in the finer details of say, electron transport, or a
closely related research program. One wonders whether a new journal might
not have been a better venue than a book series, but perhaps that is a
Along with the scientific precision apparent in these pages there is
a commendable dose of passion. I read to my class of non-major undergraduates
from one of the chapter introductions. The silence among my energetic sophomores
indicated to me that they were transported, for however short a time, by
the sheer magnitude of importance of photosynthesis expressed by the author.
The transduction of light energy into chemical energy in chloroplasts and
photosynthetic bacteria inestimably influences the biogeochemical face
of our planet. Photosynthesis is the most important biological process
in the biosphere and this book reflects some of our growing understanding
of it. - Samuel Hammer, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston,
Flora of China. Volume 8, Brassicaceae through
Saxifragaceae. Wu Zheng-yi and Peter H. Raven, co-chairs of the editorial
committee. 2001. ISBN 0-915279-93-2 (V.8), (cloth, US$85.00) vii+506 pp.
Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
_ This is the seventh volume of 25 projected text volumes (see http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/mss/news.htm
). The taxa treated in the Flora include all native, naturalized, and non-native,
economically important, cultivated vascular plants. The families are arranged
according to a modified Englerian system, consistent with the Flora Republicae
Popularis Sinicae (FRPS). This volume includes eight families currently
assigned by the APG classification to three orders Brassicales (Brassicaceae,
Bretschneideraceae, Morningaceae, Resedaceae), Caryophyllales (Droseraceae,
Nepenthaceae), and Saxifragales (Crassulaceae, Saxifragaceae sensu lato
The Chinese Brassicaceae include 102 genera (eight endemic) and 412
species (115 endemic). This is, of course, a very important family because
of its many crop plants, ornamentals, and weeds. Fruit characteristics
are essential in identification of genera. However, both a key to fruiting
material and a key to flowering material are provided. The largest genera
in China are Cardamine and Draba (both 48 species). The Brassicaceae
are usually very well represented among naturalized/invasive species (Pysek
1998). For example, there are >110 naturalized species (>15% of the Brassicaceae)
in North America (Kartesz and Meacham 1999). Interestingly, there are only
<20 (<5%) naturalized species of this family in China. The rest of
over 100 Brassicaceae weeds in China are native species. The situation
is similar in many other "weedy" families in China. What is the reason?
Is it biology, history, or still insufficient attention to naturalized
species in this country?
The Bretschneideraceae are a family with only one species, Bretschneidera
sinensis, a tree growing in S China, N Thailand, and N Vietnam. At
least six different families from three orders have been considered as
a home for this species. Now, however, it is quite clear that Bretschneidera
together with Akania bidwillii (Akaniaceae) and Tropaeolaceae form
a strongly supported subclade within Brassicales (Rodman 1998, Soltis et
Four other small families are included in this volume: Droseraceae(two
genera and seven species), Morningiaceae (one introduced species), Nepenthaceae
(one species), and Resedaceae (two genera, three introduced and one native
One medium size family _ the Crassulaceae _ has 13 genera and 233 species
(129 endemic, one cultivated and naturalized) in China. The largest genus
here is Sedum (121 species, 91 endemic). The second largest genus
is Rhodiola (55 species, 16 endemic). Obviously, these genera have
the major centers of their diversity in the mountains of China.
The Saxifragaceae are the largest family treated in this volume (29
genera and 545 species, 354 endemic, seven introduced). It is well known
that Saxifragaceae sensu lato is a highly polyphyletic assemblage,
consisting of several separate evolutionary lines. Nevertheless, the family
is treated here as the original Englerian unit, with the same sequence
of genera as in FRPS. The most diversified genus is Saxifraga: 216
species (139 endemic). This means that about 50% of the species from this
large genus grow in China! The second largest genus is Parnassia:
63 species, 49 endemic. (These numbers are in a substantial disagreement
with Mabberley (1998) who reports only 15 species for Parnassia
The Flora of China is an impressive international achievement. The eighth
volume (Vol. 6: Caryophyllaceae through Lardizabalaceae) was just published
and more text volumes are in press. Hopefully, all volumes with illustrations,
which are being published separately, will follow soon. - Marcel Rejmánek,
Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Kartesz, J.T. and Meacham, C.A. 1999. Synthesis of The North American
Flora, Version 1.0. CD-ROM
North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Mabberley, D.J. 1998. The Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of the
vascular plants. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.
Pysek, P. 1998. Is there a taxonomic pattern to plant invasions? Oikos
Rodman, J.L. et al. 1998. Parallel evolution of glucosinolate biosynthesis
inferred from congruent nuclear and plastid gene
phylogenies. Am. J. Bot.
Soltis, D.E. et al. 2000. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA,
rbcL, and atpB sequences. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.133:
Guide to Standard Floras of the World, second
edition. Frodin, D.G. 2001. ISBN 0-521-79077-8 (cloth US $240). 1100
+ xxiv pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. - "Now when I was
a little chap I had a passion for maps. I would look for hours at South
America, or Africa, or Australia, and lose myself in all the glories of
exploration. At that time there were many blank spaces on the earth, and
when I saw one that looked particularly inviting on a map (but they all
look that) I would put my finger on it and say, `When I grow up I will
go there'." - Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness, ed. Stanley Appelbaum
(1902; reprint, Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1990), p. 5.
Replace "map" with "flora" in the above quote, and you begin to capture
the emotion one feels after browsing for hours in David G. Frodin's masterful
"Guide to Standard Floras of the World." This is not a "telephone book"
reference that one consults for a piece of information and then puts down;
rather it is a work that is rich in botanical history, critical opinion,
and glorious detail.
The book's subtitle "An annotated, geographically arranged systematic
bibliography of the principal floras, enumerations, checklists and chorological
atlases of different areas" accurately describes the scope of Frodin's
work; however it does not begin to convey the wealth of information contained
within its 1100 pages. From the well-chosen quotes prefacing each chapter,
to the copious footnotes, the "Guide to Standard Floras of the World" is
a major contribution to botanical scholarship.
Frodin divides the earth (and its satellite!) into a unique geographic
hierarchy comprising divisions, superregions, regions, and finally "units"
that correspond to the "states, countries of small or medium size, large
provinces, or significant islands or island groups (p. 15)" for which floras
are most commonly written. The bulk of the text is devoted to the descriptions
of the standard floras, defined as the "current scientific work which yields
the maximum information about the vascular plants of a given geographic
unit (p. 12)." Frodin, however, does not limit himself to this rather restrictive
coverage. With the aim of placing the standard floras into a historical
perspective, he covers superseded floras, incomplete works, and many other
ancillary publications. The descriptions of these are briefer, but still
illuminating. References to taxonomic and floristic bibliographies are
also included, as an aid to readers interested in descending deeper into
A typical entry includes the area (km2) of the geographic
unit, the number of vascular plant species, a brief historical account
of its floristic literature, and citation of relevant bibliographies. Ongoing
floristic efforts are also described. This is followed by the descriptions
of the standard floras, with full bibliographic details, a concise description
of their format and contents, and often some commentary. Distribution atlases,
checklists, and works that have partial geographic or floristic coverage
(e.g. woody plants) are subsequently described.
Most entries are accompanied by footnotes, which contain a significant
amount of information. For example, the treatment of Division 1 (North
America _ north of Mexico) covers 99 pages, the notes fill another nine.
I found myself reading the footnotes alone, for the fascinating historical
details and biographical facts included.1 It is clear that Frodin
delights in what can be described as "botanical gossip," and the footnotes
contain references to controversies, idiosyncrasies, and occasional hearsay
(e.g. footnote 59, p. 717). Where else can one read about the floristic
rivalries in Java and Illinois or the tortuous publication history and
prospects for the completion of various unfinished floras?
Frodin cites published praise and criticism for many of the treated
floras, but when that is lacking, he often adds his own evaluation of the
works. To his credit, Frodin has examined almost all of them personally,
clearly stating when he has not. Some of his strongest criticism is directed
at works that are suspected of being "compiled," that is not based on original
research and observations. In other instances he focuses on deficiencies
of format (e.g. "too much white space" or "absence of illustrations") and
editing lapses. Frodin is not overly generous with his praise, but he does
characterize some works as "classic", "exemplary" or "truly significant"
and points to others (e.g. California's Jepson Manual) as particularly
successful formats that should be emulated.
The bibliographical and historical accounts are prefaced by three introductory
chapters. The first describes the scope and structure of the work. The
second chapter, "The evolution of floras" gives a fascinating account of
the genre from the Renaissance to the present day (the 4th century
Chinese text that is considered to be the oldest surviving flora is described
under China). The third, "Floras at the end of the twentieth century: philosophy,
progress, and prospects" should be required reading for all involved in
floristic endeavors. Frodin stresses the fundamentally conflicting goals
facing the flora writer: providing a means of plant identification accessible
to all users vs. encyclopedic coverage of the plants of a region. His discussion
of past and present failures and successes, and the differing challenges
faced in temperate and tropical realms, is particularly insightful.
The book concludes with geographic and author indices, and two appendices
that illustrate Frodin's passion for the process of information retrieval.
One reviews the bibliographies, indices and library catalogs that cover
the world floristic literature, and their relative utility in his own compilation.
The other provides the abbreviations of serials cited. Consistent with
Frodin's approach throughout the book, commentary is included, when "deemed
necessary." Finally, a five page addenda fills in a few bibliographic omissions
through 1999 along with "significant additions to the literature" published
Frodin notes the popularity of the first edition (published in 1986)
with reference librarians, and it is easy to see the reason for this. In
its ability to recommend floras for any region of the world, this book
is unequalled. In this capacity, it is useful to both librarians planning
book purchases, and botanists planning excursions and expeditions. Furthermore,
anyone who uses a flora can increase their appreciation and understanding
of the genre by reading the introductory chapters and historical accounts.
— Aaron Liston, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State
1 Following Frodin's approach, I will place my only criticism
in a footnote: Cross referencing the notes to their original page would
greatly assist browsers like myself.
Handbook of Northwestern Plants, revised
edition. Gilkey, Helen M. and LaRea J.Dennis.2001. ISBN 0-87071-490-2 (paper),
494 pp. Oregon State University Press, 101 Waldo Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-6407.
-- This is a newly revised edition of a classic field guide to Washington
and Oregon plants. Dr. Helen Gilkey," professor of botany and curator of
the herbarium at Oregon State University, first published "A Spring Flora
of Northwestern Oregon" in 1929, intended as she said "for botany students
and individuals willing to use keys and learn basic scientific terminology".
In 1947, she revised the work as a "Handbook of Northwest Flowering Plants"
creating a year-round flora to appeal to a wider audience. A second edition
appeared in 1951. In 1967 she and co-author, LaRea J. Dennis (then assistant
curator of the herbarium) published a new edition with a new title "Handbook
of Northwestern Plants" since it now included ferns and fern allies. Dr.
Gilkey died in 1972, and further revisions of this book were done by LaRea
Dennis in 1973 and 1980 to include many changes in nomenclature. In 1999,
when the 1980 printing went out of print; this new edition was published
to have the nomenclature conform to the latest scientific literature.
As in previous editions the geographic area covered "is roughly that
of the rather natural floristic unit from the summit of the Cascade Range
to the coastline of Washington and of Oregon as far south as the Umpqua
Divide, about the southern limit of Lane County Oregon". The flora of northern
Washington is excluded. It would have been helpful if an endpaper map was
Obviously, from the number of editions and revisions this book has been
through, botanists, naturalists and interested laymen have found its keys
workable and its coverage of species, while not entirely comprehensive,
is adequate to make this very useful in the field. Not every species or
genus is illustrated but there are usually one or two line drawings on
each page. For illustrations of every species there is now the 5 volume
Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest by Hitchcock et al. to turn to.
Other floras covering this area are old and out of date; and recent popular
guide books, though well illustrated with color photographs, do not cover
enough species, or a large enough geographical area to make them practical.
The type faces selected make the book pleasant and easy to read; the
keys to families, genera and species are simple with a minimum of technical
language. Thirty years ago I lived in Idaho and botanized for twelve years,
an easterner learning the western flora. I knew of the existence of this
handbook, but did not obtain a copy at that time. If I were returning to
the Northwest again I certainly would have a copy in hand and recommend
it to anyone traveling to that part of the country. - Mary M. Walker, 14
Chestnut Street, Concord, MA 01742-2609.
Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of
California (sixth edition) . CNPS. 2001. Rare Plant Scientific Advisory
Committee, D. P. Tibor, Convening Editor. California Native Plant Society.
Sacramento, CA. 388pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-943460-40-9. $29.95+s/h. CNPS,
1722 J St, Suite 17, Sacramento, CA 95814, 916-447-2677, 916-447-2727 (FAX)—"For
over 30 years, the CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants of California
has served as a forum for regular review of the status of rare plants by
a broad body of field botanists and scientists, and as a means of bringing
this critical information to the attention of our regulatory agencies as
well as the concerned public."—David Tibor, CNPS Inventory Editor. This
statement describes the purpose of the Inventory of Rare and Endangered
Plants of California, one of CNPS's more important publications. This sixth
edition is an update of the 1994 fifth edition with a much improved, easier
to read format. The improvements are immediately obvious when you have
the two editions side-by-side. Anyone working on the flora of California
would want to have this book handy because it contains a wealth of information
besides the lists of rare plants. For readers outside of California, several
chapters would serve as terrific guides for other native plant societies,
conservation groups, or state agencies in handling and developing rare
plant data, policy, and research. This edition is better organized with
some chapters moved from appendices to the main part of the text to improve
flow. Most of the chapters are the same as those found in the fifth edition,
but all have been updated. New additions include a chapter on rare Californian
bryophytes by J. R. Shevock and an appendix that lists plants by common
name. The chapters are organized into the sections Introduction to Rarity,
State Level Policy, Federal Level Policy, and CNPS Guidelines and Policy.
These are followed by the Inventory, the heart of the book. Each rare species
is listed alphabetically with a summary of information including, scientific
and common names, family, rarity codes (CNPS, R-E-D, CA state, and Federal),
counties where each plant is found, a list of the USGS 7.5' quadrangle
maps corresponding to range of the species, habitat with elevation, life
form, blooming period, and any other notes on the biology of each species
including threats and the citation for the original description. Taking
a specific case, I compared the entries of Delphinium luteum (a
federally endangered species I study) and in the new edition its entry
reads much more clearly. Unlike in the fifth edition, CNPS now avoids awkward
abbreviations, so readers will not have to flip to the inside covers or
to the text as much to understand the entries.
There are several chapters that have a wider audience appeal. P. L.
Fiedler's chapter on Rarity in vascular plants provides a clear
and concise discussion of the definitions of rarity, the different forms
of rarity, and potential causes of rarity. This chapter, accompanied with
her and J. P. Smith Jr.'s
Bibliography for biology and conservation
of rare plants , provide a wealth of sources of pertinent literature
that covers many aspects of plant conservation including: conservation
biology, floras (but these are specific to California and the western US),
floras of rare plants (again focusing on the western US), legal aspects,
management, rare plant biology, and threats and values. Conserving plants
with laws and programs under the California Department of Fish and Game
by S. Morey and D. Ikeda is specific to California, but the information
in this chapter could be used as a framework for other states or as a comparison
for drafting legislation or missions for equivalent state agencies. J.
A. Bertel et al.'s chapter on The federal endangered species act and
rare plant protection in California is an excellent review of Federal-level
definitions, protections, and processes involved with using the ESA to
protect rare plants. The examples used are Californian plants, but the
information is applicable in all states. In CNPS botanical survey guidelines,
the issues of when a botanical survey is needed, who should do the survey,
how they should do it, and what information should be collected are discussed
and specific recommendations are made. Likewise, CNPS policies and statements
regarding rare plant s discusses the specifics of mitigation, ex
situ conservation techniques, plant collecting for education, collecting
guidelines and documentation techniques, and nonvascular plants. These
two chapters were written with California-specific legislation in mind,
but they would serve as excellent models for developing such guidelines
and policies in other states. Appendix VII is the CNDDB (CA Natural Diversity
Database) California Native Species Field Survey Form that could serve
as a model for groups developing a means for collecting such data. Although
the sixth edition lacks the color photographs of rare plants, the line
drawings by L. A. Vorobik scattered through out the book break up the text
nicely. A digital version also exists (DOS only) for $195, with data updates
($95) required every 18 months.
Although I may be biased, from my involvement in updating data for this
edition, anyone working with rare plants would find parts of this book
useful. If you are running out of space in your personal library, I would
strongly encourage your local library to obtain a copy.—Jason A. Koontz,
Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody
Dr., Champaign, IL 61820.
The Orchids of the Philippines. Jim Cootes.
2001. ISBN 0-88192-516-0 (Cloth US$49.95). Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
_ Author Jim Cootes has an intimate knowledge of the Philippine orchid
flora having visited yearly since 1977 traveling throughout the islands
of the archipelago in his search for plants. In addition, during preparation
of the current volume, he has sought counsel from experts on orchids and
from the orchid literature. All descriptions and photographs were made
from living plants, many grown by the author or observed by him in the
field. Cootes states the purpose of his book is for the identification
of Philippine orchid species: it does not contain descriptions of every
native species. However, there is a checklist complete with binomials and
authors, of all currently known Philippine orchid species.
Readers are oriented by a colored map showing the major islands of the
Philippines chain followed by descriptions of the geography and physiography
of the major islands and island groups. Climatic and floral zones are outlined
with general habitat information. Major species in each floral zone are
given as examples of what readers might be expected to find should they
visit the area. A few paragraphs outlining how the book is to be used completes
the introductory material.
Descriptions of orchids follow in alphabetical order for ease of location.
Each described species is accompanied by a color photograph illustrating
pertinent features for purposes of identification. Descriptions are loaded
with useful information, details of which are seldom found consistently
in similar works. Genera are always followed by fully spelled authors'
names and an indication of the original source of the generic description
is given. The meaning of the generic name is stated, the type of species
given, the number of species noted, and the original place of publication
appears followed by the meaning of the specific epithet. Species descriptions
are thorough, and the habitat and distribution in the Philippines and elsewhere
follow. Commonly there are notes referring to nomenclatural anomalies,
especially interesting floral peculiarities, details of endemism, and observations
on rarity, local distributions, and sometimes pollination syndromes and
A chapter on cultivation requirements completes the formal part of Cootes's
book. There is a one-page glossary of terms, a list of references, and
an elaborate appendix outlining the sections of the Philippine representatives
of the genus bulbophyllum and Dendrobium, these two genera
having the largest number of species among Philippine orchids. An extensive
index to all species mentioned completes the volume.
Cootes's volume is an excellent introduction to the orchid wealth of
the Philippines. It contains information of use to hobbyists and growers
as well as to botanists. The consistency of data is a highlight of the
There are a few "bloopers" to be sure: Grammatophyllum stapeliiflorum
is named for Stapelia because of "the resemblance of the blooms
to some species of cactus" (Stapelia belongs to Asclepiadaceae)
Appendicula buxifolia is reported to have "grass-like foliage,"
instead of Buxus-like foliage. Pictures of flowers would have benefited
by enlargement. But the few slips and photographic problems do not detract
from the overall quality and accuracy of Cootes's efforts that are a genuine
contribution to the orchid literature. - William Louis Stern, Department
of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611.
The Sunflower Family in the Upper Midwest.
A Photographic Guide to the Asteraceae in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Minnesota and Wisconsin. Thomas Antonio and Susanne Masi, 2001; ISBN
1-883362-11-3 (Hardbound, $48.00) 319 pp. The Indiana Academy of Science
and the Chicago Botanic Garden. - - For many of us, finding the specific
name for a local member of the composite family can be a very unpleasant
task. The pocket field guides are too superficial, but the technical manuals
require a careful examination of floral details that most of us would like
to avoid. For amateur botanists, without good dissecting microscopes and
unacquainted with the family's special terminology, this is an especially
vexing problem. Worse yet, these damn comps are so colorful, and such a
significant component of our midwestern landscapes, that they simply cannot
be ignored. Finally, for those first venturing into the mysteries of this
family (and some of the rest of us), here is a book that goes well beyond
the field guides, but does not demand the expertise required to negotiate
the technical literature. Clearly illustrating 150 species in the region,
Antonio and Masi provide us with a colorful overview of our midwestern
The book describes the family in a short introduction; keys, a glossary,
pronunciation guide, listing of rare and endangered species, and references
are in the back of the book. The body of the text covers the many species
—grouped by flower color. Each species is given a double-page spread. On
the left are the common and scientific names, together with a full-page
image of the plant in its environment. The right-hand page gives a short
description, habitat, flowering time, usefulness in the garden, range map,
two or three small photos of floral or vegetative details, and a discussion
that may cover a variety of subjects. Thus, each double-page spread gives
a fine visual presentation of the species, concise and useful information,
and a clear indication of its range throughout the upper Midwest. Both
larger and smaller color photographs are effective in communicating what
the species looks like in life. I cannot imagine a more "user friendly"
approach to becoming aquainted with our midwestern composites.
However, there are a few caveats. At 26 cm by 19 cm in size, and with
high quality paper, this book is not something you want to be adding to
your backpack; it is heavy. And while a number of additional species are
mentioned in the discussions, and over 300 species are covered in the keys,
a substantial number of native and naturalized species are not illustrated.
But overall, this is a splendid production. The design is clear and consistent,
the photographs (by the senior author) are of outstanding quality, and
the appendices provide ample ancillary information. Every library that
intends to cover the natural environment of the Midwest should have a copy
of this handsome book. — William Burger, Curator Emeritus, Department of
Botany, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605-2496.
Trees and Shrubs of California. Stuart, John
D., and John O. Sawyer. 2001. ISBN 0-520-22110-9 (paper US$22.50) xii +
467 pp. + 40 color plates on 16 unnumbered pp. University of California
Press, Berkeley. — This latest botanical entry in the handy California
Natural History Guide series from UC Press covers just over 300 of the
almost 700 native woody plants of the state and throws in just 7 naturalized
species. Another 50 native species are mentioned briefly in remarks under
related species. In its 400 pages of keys, descriptions, maps, and illustrations,
it replaces some 550 pages in 5 predecessor guides that each treated only
trees or shrubs alone in one of three more restricted regions: southern
California, Sierra Nevada, and San Francisco Bay region. Both authors hail
from Humboldt State University in northwestern California, a region not
previously covered in the series. In the course of condensation, about
150 species treated in the previous books were dropped but 87 new species
were added. Furthermore, descriptions here are fuller and more uniform
than they were in the predecessor volumes and all species represented are
keyed and mapped for the first time in the series.
I cannot say that I am terribly thrilled by these maps, however, which
assign distributions to complete "ecological sections" of a U.S. Forest
Service-derived "ecoregions" map of California, even if they occupy only
a small corner of a section. The largely geophysically based mapping sections,
part of a national hierarchical scheme, replace the more vegetationally
oriented units of earlier plant guides, such as Introduction to California
Plant Life, by Robert Ornduff (California Natural History Guide 35). On
the positive side, these are the first published distribution maps for
many species. Their relatively large size and the pre-established boundary
lines make them unexpectedly easy to read. Having the naturalized species
mapped along with the natives is a rare plus in a woody plant field guide.
The line drawings, covering about two thirds of the included species, are
all new and are generally effective at conveying the appearance of (usually)
fruiting leafy twigs. The 40 color photographs, like those in previous
volumes, contribute to the attractiveness of this guide but do little to
enhance identification since those that are detailed mostly duplicate the
features in the drawings.
If this guide had included all native woody species with the same level
of detail presented here, it would have weighed in at very nearly a thousand
pages — so much for a field guide. Hence some selectivity was essential
or a book of the same size would simply have descended into little more
than name-calling. What guided exclusion? Two categories often included
in tree and shrub books were simply excluded in toto. One of these
categories is that of subshrubs, which figure prominently in Native Shrubs
of Southern California by Peter Raven (California Natural History Guide
15), but are not included in the tally of 700 woody species on which the
estimate of 1000 pages was based. The other category is that of woody vines,
which usually are included in tree and shrub guides and, unlike the subshrubs,
could have been included here with profit and with little added length.
Grape vines of Vitis californica, for instance, are rather conspicuous
woody plants in much of California and have the added interest of a relationship
with the state's major wine industry. For the rest of the omissions, conspicuousness,
in one form or another, appears to be the major criterion for choosing
some species over others. Thus trees fare far better than shrubs, with
only a handful of rare species omitted, and these mostly denizens of the
infrequently visited Channel Islands. Among the shrubs, those of the deserts
are disproportionately ignored — but who can tell those twiggy, dried up
bushes apart anyway? Within the deserts and outside them, more localized
and rarer species are more likely to be left out. About 50 genera of shrubs,
mostly small and mostly from the deserts, are left out entirely. Of the
three largest woody genera in California, the second (Ceanothus,
42 species, 17 included) and third (Ribes, 31 species, 13 included)
largest genera have about the same ratio of included species to the flora
as a whole as the overall ratio for all woody species, while the largest
genus, Arctostaphylos, is short changed with only 13 species out
of 56. Perhaps this reflects the common prejudice that all manzanitas look
There is a price to pay for omission, and that is that, using this book
alone, you can never be sure that you have correctly identified any given
shrub encountered (you are a little safer with a tree). For most of the
genera that are included in the guide, the number of native species occurring
in California is stated, so that you have a sense of what your chances
are, except that you cannot even be certain that you have the right genus.
More than one third of the shrub genera are missing and there is no indication
of these in the keys, nor can you tell which families have genera missing.
In fact, the families are recognized only in the checklist at the end.
The genera (and species within them) are entirely alphabetical and devoid
of familial affiliations within separate gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences.
On the whole, this book is suitable for the general audience for which
it is intended. It has good compromise coverage of the native woody plants
of the state, it is reasonably well-illustrated with nice drawings and
photographs, and the keys are easy to use and are written in plain language
that is tied to an illustrated glossary. It is standard field guide size
and hence handy to take along on walks together with a bird guide. It could
also be combined usefully with California Forests and Woodlands: a Natural
History, by Verna R. Johnston (California Natural History Guide 58). Unlike
most bird guides, this one does not include many of the naturalized aliens
that are most prominent and conspicuous near the urban areas that house
the majority of the people who are going to purchase it. How is the general
user supposed to know whether a given bush is native or naturalized? Despite
this, these users should still be able to identify the majority of the
tree and shrub species that they encounter in any natural area near their
homes. Good job. — James E. Eckenwalder, University of Toronto, Department
of Botany, 25 Willcocks St., Toronto, Ont. M5S 3B2, Canada.
Doing Science: Design, Analysis and Communication
of Scientific Research . Ivan Valiela. Oxford University Press 2001.
ISBN0195134133 paperback 294 pages - Having taught a course in Scientific
Communication for upper level undergraduates, I was very interested in
reviewing this book, both for consideration as a textbook and as a resource
for giving lectures. Valiela, a marine biologist, has assembled an interesting
guide to the doing of science, drawing examples mainly from the environmental
science/ecology literature. The book covers hypothesis testing, statistics,
experimental design, writing, posters, talks, tables and figures, framed
by some essays about the purpose of science and its role in society.
The first section of the book addresses a topic that is usually treated
separately from issues concerning communication: hypothesis testing and
statistics. Selecting this topic to lead the book is a very wise decision,
as it forms the basis for what scientists do. Although these topics are
critical, their treatment is characterized by a sometimes irritating mix
of detail and generality. Although the author points out that "...this
is not a book on statistics, but rather an introduction to principles (not
to techniques) of doing science, " some details are more prominent than
others. For example, explicit formulas for estimating mean squares for
two-way ANOVAs under different model types are sandwiched between a very
cursory discussion of fixed and random factors and an insufficient description
of differences between Type I and Type II errors. The author is to be commended
for including nonparametric and randomizing approaches in his discussion.
The next third of the book is devoted to speaking and writing about
science, both in peer-reviewed papers as well as for grant proposals. The
section on writing provides some important guidelines about streamlining
scientific writing, along with some examples of common errors and some
various ways to revise statements to make them more compelling. Unfortunately,
the section reads more as a list of rules than as an essay on writing.
This section is sprinkled with interesting tidbits about authorship, writing
abstracts, the explosion of written communication, languages, and author
order. The section on visual aids for talks and for the ways to set out
posters is a bit skimpy, as the explosion of digital projectors and the
prevalence of PowerPoint has brought bad design decisions to light more
The final third of the book is devoted to graphical aspects of scientific
communication tables, figures, and critique of examples from the literature.
An entire chapter is devoted to tables, which seems slightly unnecessary,
but is amply compensated for by the excellent treatment of graphical methods
to show data. Especially interesting is the "rogues gallery" of suboptimal
figures, demonstrating graphs that could more effectively communicate their
point. It would be valuable for these figures to be reworked in a better
way, but this might make a good exercise in a classroom setting.
This book is generously sprinkled with interesting and relevant details
and examples. Although it might not make a very good textbook, I will certainly
use it as an important reference for future versions of my course.- Laura
Hyatt, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, State University
of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gregor Mendel & The Roots of Genetics.
Edelson, Edward. 2001. ISBN 0-19-515020-1 (Paper US$11.95) ISBN 0-19-512226-7
(Cloth US$24.00) 105 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New
York, NY 10016-4314. _ Part of the "Portraits in Science" Series, this
book is targeted toward readers in middle school through lower-division
undergraduate. It does a very good job of providing a brief biography that
places Mendel into the perspective of his time and situation and emphasizes
those factors that enabled him to succeed with his science. For precisely
these reasons it is also useful for those of us who teach students at these
levels. It provides a succinct historical background that will help us
relate Mendel's work to our students. For instance, everyone knows that
Mendel was a monk and eventually became abbot of his monastery, but I did
not appreciate the incentives that drove him - - to provide a stimulating
intellectual life freed "from the bitter struggle for existence." As another
example, I knew that he did not pass his teaching certification exams,
but this was several years after he entered the monastery where his primary
assignment was to teach classics and mathematics at a local school. As
a result of this failure he was sent to the University of Vienna for two
years to study natural history and prepare to retake the exams. He studied
plant physiology and cytology with Franz Unger and physics with Christian
Doppler (Doppler effect). He also met Karl Naegeli and began a correspondence
that lasted for years. It was not just the famous pea genetics paper that
Mendel sent to Naegeli and that went unappreciated, but in fact, much of
what we know of Mendel's lifetime of work is based on letters exchanged
with Naeglei. This includes genetics experiments on other plant species
as well as other work in natural history. The final two chapters go beyond
Mendel's life to the rediscovery of his work at the turn of the 20th
century and the discovery of the chromosomal, and ultimately molecular,
basis of inheritance. The book would be good supplemental reading for any
introductory biology course (for both students and instructors!). - Marshall
D. Sundberg, Department of Biological Sciences, Emporia State University,
Emporia, KS 66801.
8263-3. (Cloth US$49.95) 320 pp. National
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed
(1 February, 1 May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to email@example.com
, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this
list because they go quickly! Editor.
Andre' Michaux in Florida: An Eighteenth-Century Botanical Journey.
Taylor, Walter Kingsley and Eliane M. Norman. 2002. ISBN 0-8130-2444-7/
(Cloth US$39.95). 288 pp. University Press of Florida, 15 NW 15th
St., Gainsville, FL 32611-2079.
Artemesia. Wright, Colin W. (ed.) 2002. ISBN 0-415-27212-2 (Cloth
US$65.00) 344 pp. Taylor & Francis Books Ltd. Thompson Publishing Services,
Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE. United Kingdom.
Crop Improvement: Challenges in the Twenty-First Century. Kang,
Manjit (ed). 2002. ISBN 1-56022-905-5 (Paper US$41.96) 389 pp. Food Products
Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
The Cycads. Whitelock, Loran M. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-522-5 (Cloth
US$59.95) 532 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
The Desert Smells Like Rain. Nabhan, Gary Paul. 2002. ISBN 0-8165-2249-9.
(Paper US$16.95) 148 pp. The University of Arizona Press, 355 E. Euclid,
Ste. 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
Dirr's Trees and Shrubs for Warm Climates: An Illustrated Encyclopedia
. Dirr, Michael A. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-525-X. (Cloth US$69.95) 448 pp. Timber
Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
The Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants: The Scope and Adequacy
of Regulation. National Research Council. 2002. ISBN 0-309-8263-3.
(Cloth US$49.95) 320 pp. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue,
NW, Washington, DC 20055.
The Evening Garden: Flowers and Fragrance from Dusk till Dawn.
Loewer, Peter. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-532-2. (Paper US$17.95) 272 pp. Timber
Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. 2002. ISBN
0-521-81128-8 (Cloth US$110.00) ISBN 0-521-00976-6 (Paper US$45.00) 537
pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York,
A Field Guide to Tropical Plants of Asia. Engel, David H. and
Suchart Phummai. ISBN 0-88192-542-X (Paper US$19.95) 280pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Generic Tree Flora of Madagascar. Schatz, George E. 2001. ISBN
1 900347-82-2. (Paper) 477 pp. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri
Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Blvd., St Louis,MO 63110.
Handbook of Plant Growth: pH as the Master Variable. Rengel,
Zdenko (ed). 2002. ISBN 0-8247-0761-3 (Cloth US$175.00) 446 pp. Marcel
Dekker, Inc. Cimmaron Road, P.O. Box 5005, Monticello, NY 12701-5185.
In vitro Plant Breeding. Taji, Acram, Prakash Jumar and
Prakash Lakshmanan. 2001. ISBN 1-56022-908-X. (Paper US$29.95) 167 pp.
Food Products Press, Inc. 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
The Jepson Desert Manual: Vascular Plants of Southeastern California
. Baldwin, Bruce, G., Stevbe Boyd, Barbara J. Ertter, Robert W. Patterson,
Thomas J. Rosatti, and Dieter H. Wilken (eds), Margriet Wetherwax (managing
ed.). 2002. ISBN0-520-22775-1 (Paper US$35.00) 640 pp. University of California
Press, 2000 Center St., Suite 303, Berkeley, CA 94704.
The Lessening Stream: An Environmental History of the Santa Cruz
River. Logan, Michael F. 2002. ISBN 0-8165-1586-7 (Cloth US$35.00)
320 pp. The University of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid Ste. 103. Tucson,
Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology. Givson, David
J. 2002. ISBN 0-19-850562-0 (Paper US$45.00) 344 pp. Oxford University
Press, 2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513.
Mints: A Family of Herbs and Ornamentals. Lawton, Barbara Perry.
2002. ISBN 0-88192-524-1 (Cloth US$27.95) 272 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133
S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Molecular Analysis of Plant Adaptation to the Environment. Hawkesford,
Malcolm J. and Peter Buchner. 2001. ISBN 1-4020000-162. (Cloth US$88.00)
276 pp. . Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht,
Molecular Systematics and Evolution: Theory and Practice. DeSalle,
R., G. Giribet and W. Wheeler (eds) 2002. ISBN 3-7643-6544-7 (Cloth EUR
104.00) 320 pp. Birkhauser Verlag AG, Viaduktstrasse 42, CH-4051, Basel,
Physiology and Biochemistry of Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants.
Prasad, M.N.V. 2002. ISBN 1-402004680 (Cloth US$147.00) 432 pp. Kluwer
Academic Publishers B.V. P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Plant Pathogenesis and Resistance. Huang, Jeng-Sheng. 2001. ISBN
0-7923-7118-6 (Cloth US$230.00) 691 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O.
Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Plants and People of Nepal. Manandhar, Narayan P. 2002. ISBN
0-88192-527-6. (Cloth US$69.95) 636 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.
Plant Roots: The Hidden Half (3rd ed). Waisel, Yoav,
Amram Eshel and Uzi Kafkafi. 2002. ISBM 0-8247-0631-5 (Cloth US$175.00)
1120 pp. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Cimmaron Road, P.O. Box 5005, Monticello,
Plant Viruses as Molecular Pathogens. Kahn, Jawaid A. and Jeanne
Dijkstra (eds). ISBN 1-56022-895-4. (Paper US$59.95) 530 pp. Food Products
Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, New York 13904-1580.
Significance of Gluthathione in Plant Adaptation to the Environment.
Grill, Dieter, Michael Tausz, and Luit J. De Kok. 2001. ISBN 1-40200-178-9.
(Cloth US$87.00) 262 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300
AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Transgenic Plants and Crops. Khachatourians, George G., Alan
McHughen, Ralph Scoraza, Wai-Kit Nip and Y.H. Hui (eds). 2002. ISBN 0-8247-0545-9
(Cloth US$225.00 ) 876 pp. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Cimmaron Road, P.O. Box
5005, Monticello, NY 12701-5185.
Triggerplants. Darnowski, Douglas W. 2002. ISBN 1-877058-03-3.
(Paper) 92 pp. Rosenberg Publishing Pty Ltd. PO Box 6125, Dural Delivery
Centre, NSW 2158, Australia.
Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook, 6th ed. Horst,
R. Kenneth. 2001. ISBN 0-792386-639 (Cloth US$299.95) 1008 pp. . Kluwer
Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
American Journal of Botany back issues
American Journal of Botany back issues from 1914 (volume 1)
are available on the JSTOR web site http://www.jstor.org/
. Articles can be viewed as citations, graphics (scalable high quality
gif images), or downloaded into standard or high quality PDF reprints.
Contents can be browsed or searched. The JSTOR material is subject to a
five year moving wall; more recent on-line copies of the Journal
will remain at http://www.amjbot.org
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