A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.


Editor: Meredith A. Lane, McGregor Herbarium, University of Kansas, 2045 Constant Ave., Lawrence KS 66047-3729 PH: 913/864-4493, FAX: 913/864-5298or-5093, E-Mail.:

Editorial Committee for Volume 40
Clifford W. Smith (1994), Dept. of Botany, University of Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822
Donald S. Galitz (1995), Dept. of Botany, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58103
Robert E. Wyatt (1996), Dept. of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
James D. Mauseth (1997), Dept. of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78713
Allison A. Snow (1998), Dept. of Plant Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210

Table of Contents
News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
More 1993-1994 Young Botanists
Moving? Please Notify the Business Manager
What Your BSA Dues Do for You
New Corresponding Members
Dinner for All Botanists
Corresponding Members: Current Status and Call for Nominations
Travel Assistance to Latin American Botanical Congress
BSA Science and Engineering Fair Awards
Reports from the Committees
Reports from the Sections
PSB Needs New Editor
White House Releases National Science Policy Report
National Science Foundation Announces Special Competition
A Strategy for Reviewing Books for Journals - B. Gastel
Mycologists Online
Call for Assistance
In Memoriam
Educational Opportunities
Funding Opportunities
Positions Available
Symposia, Conferences. Meetings
Book Reviews
Books Received

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

More 1993-1994 Young Botanists

The Society wishes to honor the following Young Botanists who accidentally were left off the list in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN 40: 37 because their nominations were lost in mailing:


Are you moving? Have you just moved?

Don't forget to write! Last year the Business Office spent over $200 sending returned AJB s to members who had moved without sending notification. You are an important part of the BSA and we do not want to lose track of you! Be sure to include your phone, fax and e-mail address (if available). To save the Society money and assure uninterrupted mailing of your publications and other important BSA information, write, phone, fax or e-mail to:

Kim Hiser, BSA Business Manager at the address in box below:
ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293


What your BSA dues do for you:

Since 1989, individual members of the Botanical Society of America (BSA) have been paying annual dues of $22.50 (student members) or $55 (regular members). Although a dues increase of $5 (students) or $10 (regular members) per year was approved at the 1994 Annual Meeting and will go into effect with Volume 82 (1995) of the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, BSA membership is still one of the best bargains around.

Among the benefits BSA members receive are twelve issues of the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY (which published 1513 pages in the 1993 volume); four issues of the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN; a copy of the Abstracts for the Annual Meeting; a membership Directory and Handbook; and assorted mailings from the Society. The actual cost to the BSA for producing and distributing these publications and other items is approximately $80 per member. Members submitting accepted manuscripts also receive up to 8 free pages per year in the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, pages which incur editorial charges of $135 per page without Society membership.

In addition to BSA publications, members' dues support a full-time Business Manager and her office at Ohio State University; activities of the 19 disciplinary and geographic Sections of the BSA; awards for the best high school botany projects at the International Science and Engineering Fair; travel awards to major international botanical meetings (e.g. the 1993 International Botanical Congress in Japan, the 6th Latin American Botanical Congress in Argentina [see elsewhere in this issue for details]; and representation on their behalf in the Council of Scientific Society Presidents and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Finally, member dues are also supporting a major society initiative, the BOTANY FOR THE NEXT MILLENNIUM study, which was undertaken to assess the current status of botany in the U.S. and future opportunities and directions for the discipline into the next century.

All in all, members of the Botanical Society of America can take pride in the many varied activities of their Society. These activities benefit BSA members directly as well as plant biologists who are not BSA members. For what are really very modest dues, BSA members are having an impact beyond their own Society, and members can make a further impact by encouraging colleagues to join the BSA.

- Judy Jernstedt, BSA Treasurer



Four persons were elected to Corresponding Membership by the membership at the Annual business Meeting on Tuesday, 9 August in Knoxville, Tennessee. With three deaths this past year, and the four new members, there are currently 48 Corresponding Members. Please see the Call for Nomination of Corresponding Members for an analysis of distribution of current members. The new members and their areas of expertise are:
Pieter Baas (Netherlands): structure and development; systematic, phylogenetic and ecological aspects of wood anatomy.
Dianne Edwards (Wales): paleobotany; systematic and structural studies of early land plants from the Lower Devonian.
Ghillean Prance (England): systematics; monographic and floristic studies of tropi- cal angiosperms, economic botany.
Winfried Remy (Germany): paleobotany; broad based fossil studies including game- tophytes of Rhynia.


The Dinner for All Botanists was held on 10 August 1994 at the Hilton Hotel, Knoxville, Tennessee. After President Grady Webster introduced persons seated at the head table, the botanists attending the banquet were treated to a an excellent roast beef dinner. Following dessert, President Webster made the awards detailed on pages 83-84 of this issue.

After the awards, President Elect Harry T. (Jack) Horner addressed the audience and provided a guided tour of the crystals that may be found in plants and fungi. Dr. Horner had marvelous photographs of the remarkable diversity of crystalline structures and the many organs that produce them. He made allusions to animal systems in noting that the kidney stones that plague humans are similar in structure to the crystals that may be found in plants. The many examples that Dr. Homer provided made us all aware of the great complexity and diversity that eludes the casual observer and pointed out the value of the careful attention to detail that scientists can bring to the study of structure and function.

After Dr. Homer's presentation, outgoing President Webster formally turned the gavel and responsibility of conducting the business of the BSA over to incoming President Homer.


Dr. Christopher Haufler (left) outgoing Secretary, and Dr. Greg Anderson (right) outgoing Past President of the Society, share a pleasant moment at the Dinner for All Botanists. Photo by Kim Hiser. ~


CORRESPONDING MEMBERS: Current Status of and Call for Nominations

According to the BSA Bylaws, "Corresponding Members are distinguished senior scientists who have made outstanding contributions to plant science and who live and work outside the United States of America" (emphases added). The number of such persons is limited to 50. Corresponding Members are granted life membership in the BSA and enjoy all the privileges of regular Active Members. The current members (plus Carlos M. Herrera and Armando T. Hunziker elected in 1993, and Pieter Baas, Dianne Edwards, Ghillean Prance and Win fried Remy elected in 1994), and past honorees (now deceased) are listed on page 66 of the BSA MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY AND HANDBOOK.

It is now time for members to think about who you wish to nominate for consideration in 1994. There are currently 48 members, so there are two slots open. The nomination should consist of: a curriculum vitae of the proposed candidate, a detailed explanation of the qualifications and achievements of the candidate, and at least three (eight to ten support letters are usual) letters of support. It is preferable for nominations to be made without knowledge of the nominee. Nominations should be completed by 1 March 1995 to be considered for award of corresponding membership in August of 1995. Please send completed nominations to: Grady Webster, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
The current distribution of Corresponding Members is as follows:


Thus, the Corresponding Member Committee especially encourages nominations of distinguished female plant biologists, and persons from under-represented areas and disciplines.

Over the past year and a half we have been attempting to verify addresses of current Corresponding Members. We have not-been able to reach the following persons. If you know their correct current address please send it, or have them directly contact: Ms. Kim Hiser, BSA Office, Plant Science, 1735 Neil Avenue, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210-1293. Corresponding Members with in- adequate addresses include: Joji Ashida, Japan; Roger A. Buvat, France; Mikhail Kh Chailakhyan, Russia; Jack Dainty, Canada; Zygmunt Hejnowicz, Poland; Andzei L. Kursanov, Russia; Robert W. Schumacher, USA; William T. Stearn, England; Armen Leonovich Takhtajan, Russia; Andre M. Lwoff, France.

The Corresponding Members Committee consists of the Past-President and two most recent former Past-Presidents (Webster [chair], Anderson, and Culberson).
- G. J. Anderson



The Botanical Society of America has allocated $2,000 to reimburse travel to the VIth Latin American Botanical Congress to be held in Mar del Plata, Argentina in October of 1994. Awards will be made on a competitive basis, with preference given to BSA members and/or Latin American botanists living in the U.S. A maximum of $250 per person will be granted. Members of the BSA may apply by writing a one page letter explaining why they wish to attend, the importance of the research to be presented, and financial need. The original letter of application (there are no forms) and four copies should be sent to Kim Hiser, BSA Business Office, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1293, by 15 October 1994. Awards will be determined by an ad-hoc com- mittee and announced by 1 December 1994.

Botanical Society of America awards prizes at International Science and Engineering Fair

On May 8-14, 1994, the International Science and Engineering Fair was held in Birmingham, Alabama. Approximately 930 high school students from the United Sates, its territories and 17 other countries participated. Sixty-two students presented botanical research, the seventh largest discipline represented. The Botanical Society of America awarded three cash prizes on the amounts of $250, $100 and $50. Each winner also received a copy of BSA's CAREERS IN BOTANY booklet and their schools received a one-year subscription to THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. This year's winners were:

First: Isaac S. Bruck, Cary High School, Cary, NC: "Discovery and Characterization of Novel Anti-Plant Tumor Compound"

Second: Cliff, Haugen, Larimore High School, Larimore, ND: "Ecological Parameters for Drought Stress Remediation on Mined Land Reclamation"

Third: Christina M. Bourgeois, Shorecrest Preparatory School, St. Petersburg, FL: "Alteration of Microscopic Algae by Pollutants in Freshwater"

Six members of the Botanical Society served as judges for the Fair: Dr. William Bowen (Jacksonville St. University), Dr. Robert Boyd (Auburn University), Dr. Curt Peterson (Auburn University), Dr. James White (Auburn University at Montgomery), Dr. Malcolm Davis, Dr. Joseph O'Kelley, and Dr. Larry Davenport (Samford University) who served as the Chair of the judges.


Left to right: Dr. Larry Davenport, BSA representative., with Isaac S. Bruck, Clif P. Haugen, and Christina M. Bourgeois, winners of BSA awards at the Intemational Science and Engineering Fair.


Reports from Committees:

Discussions were initiated with the B SA President for the Committee to organize a follow-up symposium on a topic of conservation and public policy interest (the theme of this year's AIBS meeting) for the 1995 BSA meeting in San Diego. In addition, the Committee provided suggestions to the AIBS on issues to be addressed at the 1994 meeting. Members of the Committee are in the process of preparing a column to run in the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN on issues of conservation interest, perhaps in the format of an opinion/editorial piece, followed by responses. The Committee has recommended to the President that the BSA join the Association of Systematics Collections (ASC), a group that promotes management, funding, and educational programs for herbaria and other systematic collections. ASC has a cooperative agreement with the National Biological Survey for partnership in the Survey's collection and monitoring activities. Membership in ASC for an organization like the BSA is $100.00 per year.
- Rebecca Dolan, Chair.

Corresponding Members
The committee reviewed the qualifications of four individuals who had been recommended by sections as Corresponding Members of the BSA [see announcement of new corresponding members, page 72 of this issue]. Dossiers on two additional individuals arrived late and will be considered by next year's committee. The Committee also provided a break-down of current Corresponding Members and their expertise as well as a listing of the individuals from whom we had thus far been unable to obtain verification of contact [see this breakdown and list on page 73 in this issue].
- Gregory J. Anderson, Chair

Darbaker Prize
No prize was awarded this year because no nominations had been received. Next year's committee should publicize the award more widely.

Dr. Kenneth Curry (University of Southern Mississippi), a member of the Education Committee, was instrumental in arranging the participation of the judges for the 1994 International Science and Engineering Fair in Birmingham, AL. [See story on the Fair in this issue.]

Next year's International Science and Engineering Fair will be in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In order to present awards at this fair BSA will need to renew its participation in the ISEF for $250 for another three years. In addition, the ISEF has raised the minimum amount of cash awards to $500. In order to participate we must raise all of our awards to at least this level. The Committee suggests that BSA offer two awards next year; one for $700 and one for $500. Each school should continue to receive a one-year subscription to the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. All of the students who present botany projects should receive a copy of Careers in Botany. A final expense of the participation in the ISEF is the cost of the judges travel to the Fair.
- Bruce Kirchoff, Chair

The committee deliberated bye-mail and considered some 50-60 persons for two offices. From a slate of three candidates for each office, the membership elected Barbara Schaal as President and Darleen DeMason as Secretary.
- Gregory J. Anderson, Chair

Membership and Appraisal
Membership levels have held relatively stable at around 2700 over the last several years. There is no good reason why we can't get close to 3000 members. About 300 members are lost each year, but equal numbers join annually. We need to slow our losses and at least keep up the rate of new membership. A letter including a membership application was sent to selected individuals in most US Horticulture and Agronomy Departments last years


A handful of new members (10-15) joined in response to this effort. Plans for 1994-1995 include: 1) development of new streamlined brochures and posters for dispersement to the local membership coordinators. The new posters will contain a slot at the bottom so that updated membership information can be included each year. 2) Initiation of a South American letter writing campaign. There are less than 20 members in this huge continent. 3) Polling of former members asking them why they didn't renew membership. Hopefully guilt will override financial constraints.
- Jim Hancock, Chair.

Merit Awards
Awards were made at the annual Banquet [see story on awards, page 83 of this issue]. The Committee calls on Sections to consider carefully which of their members should be recommended for a BSA Merit Award.
- Shirley C. Tucker, Chair

Pelton Award
An awardee has been selected and that the award will be presented at the banquet. Because funding for this award is available only once every two years, there will be no Pelton Award next year.
- Elizabeth Lord, Chair

Special Papers Editorial
Twenty-four papers have been solicited or volunteered over the past year. Currently five are either in press or are accepted pending revisions. One paper is currently being reviewed. A draft of an additional manuscript has been forwarded to me for a "friendly" preliminary review. Several others are due in the coming year.
- Darleen A. DeMason, Chair


Reports from the Sections:

Bryological & Lichenological
The Section CO-sponsored (with the American Bryological and Lichenological Society) a diversity of activities at the Knoxville meetings, including two days of field trips in the Cumberland Plateau and Southern Unaka Range in the region. In addition to contributed papers sessions, two symposia have been organized and two student travel awards were made. The A.J. Sharp award was made at the meetings last year and will be judged and presented again at these meetings.
- Karen Renzaglia, Chair

Developmental and Structural Section
Developmental and Structural Section sponsored a symposium, "Dynamics of stem growth", and a special lecture, "Germination constraints in maize with the endosperm mutants ShrunkEn-2 and sugary enhancer". In addition, section sessions this year consisted of 45 contributed papers and 8 posters. The section includes 467 members.
- Judy Verbeke, Chair

Ecological Section
At the Knoxville Meetings the Ecological Section sponsored four symposia and cosponsored four Eco- logical Society symposia. A total of 68 contributed papers, in four sessions, and 33 posters were presented. There were 19 submissions for Best Student Paper Award. The awards for Best Student Paper at the 1993 meeting were presented to Donald Bailey and Jeffrey Walck at the 1994 BSA banquet in Knoxville.
- Kathleen Shea, Chair

Economic Botany
Because many economic botanists attended an Economic Botany meeting in Mexico City, only three papers are being presented at this year's BSA meetings. New officers were elected whose terms will begin after this year's meeting.
- Brian Boom, Chair

The Section organized 18 contributed papers at the Knoxville meetings as well as a symposium on the genome organization of polyploid crops. Section dues were instituted to sustain the PLANT GENETICS NEWSLETTER.
- Donald Hauber, Vice-Chair

The Section sponsored a symposium on Charles Bessey at the Iowa meetings and a special lecture by Mary P. Winsor on, "Gilmour's demes, or, who should speak of species" at the Knoxville meeting.
- Laurence J. Dorr, Secretary-Treasurer

Microbiological No Report

Paleobotanical Section
The Paleobotanical Section had a program for the Knoxville meetings with fifty-one papers presented over three days. The Section also sponsored a field trip to Paleozoic localities in Tennessee and Kentucky. The Section currently has 247 members (173 regular members, 21 emeritus regular members, 28 affiliate members,


Needs a new Editor to begin with Volume 42 (January 1996)

Are you interested in desktop publishing? Would you like to correspond with botanical colleagues in many disciplines about books, articles and matters of interest to the BSA? Are you looking for a meaningful way to serve your Society? Need more information? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, please communicate your interest to the current Editor. (address, phone, fax and e-mail are on the front cover of this issue)


8 emeritus affiliate members, and 17 honorary members). The Bibliography of American Paleobotany for 1993, edited by Steven R. Manchester (University of Florida), is being distributed to members at these meetings and will be sent to non-attending members and 38 institutional subscribers in September. Copies will be provided for the BSA archives and the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN when they are available.
- Charles P. Daghlian, Secretary-Treasurer

Phycological No report

In spite of significant apathy, a contributed papers session was organized for this year's meeting. The section is still seeking ways to encourage more participation and involvement of plant physiologists in BSA activities.
- Henri R. Maurice, Chair

Phytochemical No report

Pteridologlcal Section
This year was one of considerable activity in the Pteridological Section. We sponsored, in conjunction with the American Fern Society, three field trips, a day of contributed papers (22), two symposia ('The Use of Molecular Data in Evolutionary Studies of Pteridophytes" and "The Homosporous Fern Ceratopteris as a Simple Plant Model System"), a poster session, and a special meeting on rare and endangered pteridophytes at the Knoxville meeting. A special meeting on "Rare and Endangered Pteridophytes of North America" was also held after the contributed paper session. Member- ship stands at 163 as of June 30 according to BSA records. Volume 6 of the Annual Review of Pteridological Research has been published under the auspices of the Pteridological Section and the International Association of Pteridologists.
- David S. Conant, Secretary

The 855 BSA members affiliating with Systematics make it the largest section, representing 34% of the Society's membership as of30 June 1994. At the meeting in Knoxville, there were 12 contributed paper sessions containing 172 papers and two symposia were organized. The report from the Section to the Botany for the Next Millennium project is presently being completed. The Section's budgetary allotment for 1994-1995 is $1000, and discussions on how to most efficiently use these funds took place at the meeting in Knoxville. One suggestion was to initiate a best student paper award. The logistics and details of this proposal will appear in a future issue of the PSB. Members who have comments, questions or concerns, should feel free to contact me.
- Rob Wallace, Chair, (1-515-294- 0367;

Membership in the Teaching Section has declined a little. At this year's meeting there will be one session of contributed papers. The Teaching Section symposium has been scheduled late in the day so it will not to compete with other sessions. The annual service award will be presented at the BSA banquet-Donald Galitz, Secretary -Treasurer

Tropical No report

The Mid-Continent Section of the Botanical Society of America met with the 70th annual meeting of the SWARM Division of AAAS in Durango, Colorado, May 22-26, 1994. A contributed papers section attracted 20 papers. Gina M. Lipari, University of Northern Colorado, and Steven Mayes, Texas Tech University were judged winners of a Mid-Continent Section, BSA, Outstanding Paper Award for research presented by a graduate student The section also sponsored a special evening lecture, "Chromosomes and Evolution", by Raymond C. Jackson that was followed by a mixer. The section will meet next year in Norman, Oklahoma, with the 71st annual meeting of the SWARM Division of AAAS.
- H. James Price, Chair

Northeastern No report

The Pacific Section has 250 members and met at San Francisco State University with the Pacific Division of AAAS. The program included an illustrated lecture on "Common and uncommon plant communities of central California" presented by Rodney Myatt and a symposium entitled "Enhancement of seed germination and establishment
- David Bilderback, Chair

The annual meeting of the section was held in conjunction with the association of Southeastern Biologists Annual meeting during April in Orlando, Florida, and featured the traditional breakfast with members of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society. A workshop on Isozyme Electrophoresis, Hardy-Weinberg, and Plant Mating Systems was sponsored by the section and presented by Dr. David E. McCauley of Vanderbilt University as part of the section's teaching update activity. Ken McLeod finished his term as Chair and I was elected as Chair for 1994-97.
- Joe E. Winstead



Vice President Al Gore released the Administration's policy statement, "Science in the National Interest", at a White House ceremony on August 3, 1994. This report calls for an investment in science as a national priority, and links scientific research and education to our national goals and to the future well-being of our country. The report identifies science as "an endless and sustainable resource with extraordinary dividents", and emphasizes that "our scientific strength is a treasure which we must sustain and build on for the future".

"Science in the National Interest" calls for a "strong commitment to investigator-initiated research and merit review by scientific peers". The theme that permeates the document is that pushing back the frontiers of knowledge will produce unanticipated benefits. The policy presented in this report stresses the need to tap scientific talent from every part of our diverse population as well as the need to raise the scientific literacy of all Americans.

The document proposes a series of actions to meet five broad goals for world leadership in science, mathematics and engineering:
* Maintain leadership across the frontiers of scientific knowledge.
* Enhance connections between fundamental research and national goals.
* Stimulate government, industry, and academic partnerships that promote investment in fundamental science and engineering and effective use of physical, human, and financial resources.
* Produce the finest scientists and engineers for the twenty-first century.
* Raise the scientific and technology literacy of all Americans.

The 31-page policy document, as issued by President Clinton's National Science and Technology Council, is available through the Science and Technology Information System at the National Science Foundation (send an e-mail request to


Retirement of taxonomic specialists, shifts in academic recruitment and staffing, and reductions in graduate training all conspire to diminish the knowledge that is needed to answer what the National Science Board has labeled a global biodiversity crisis ("Loss of Biological Diversity: A Global Crisis Requiring International Solutions", NSB 89-171). The rate of "extinction" among professional taxonomists led a National Science Foundation task force to call for enhanced training in taxon-specific expertise ("Adapting to the Future: Report of the BBS Task Force Looking to the 21st Century", NSF 91-69).

In partnership with academic institutions, botanical gardens, freshwater and marine institutes, and natural history museums the National Science Foundation seeks to enhance taxonomic research and help prepare future generations of experts. NSF announces a Special Competition, Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy (PEET), to support competitively reviewed research projects that target groups of poorly known organisms. Projects must encourage the training of new generations of taxonomists and translate current expertise into electronic databases and other formats with broad accessibility to the scientific community.

Projects designed for 5 years of effort are encouraged, with yearly budgets not to exceed $150,000 (direct plus indirect costs), or $750,000 total. Group Proposals could increase the budget according to the number of Principal Investigators involved. Standard components of taxonomic monography - species description and diagnosis, geographic distribution, scientific nomenclature, identification keys, illustration - are expected in all projects; training of two students and computerization activities are also required. NSF anticipates making 10-20 awards in Fiscal Year 1995 in this Special Competition, contingent upon availability of funds and quality of proposals received.

Proposals should be submitted for a March 1, 1995 postmark deadline to the address given in the "Grant Proposal Guide" (NSF 94-2, page 2). NSF's "Grant Proposal Guide" provides relevant forms and rules for, proposal preparation. On the cover sheet, upper left comer, write "DEB-PEET (NSF 94-109)" to expedite processing.

Institutional cost-sharing in accordance with standard NSF rules is expected on all projects. Institutional commitment to the employment of taxonomists during and beyond the duration of PEET projects provides, one clear example of partnership in answering the scientific and societal challenge of diminishing taxonomic expertise.

For the PEET Special Competition announcement( NSF 94-109 (new)], contact: Division of Environmental Biology (PEET) National Science Foundation, suite 6354201 Wilson Boulevard Arlington, V A 22230
703-306-1481; fax: 703-306-0367; e-mail:



A Strategy for Reviewing Books for Journals1
Reprinted with permission from BIOSCIENCE 41:635-637, Oct 1991

Barbara Gastel2

"I'm a scientist, not a literary critic," many a biologist may silently protest when asked to review a book for a journal. "How can I be expected to produce a high-quality review?"

How? By drawing on skills and approaches you use as a scientist. Though a literary flair can enliven a review, book-reviewing for scientific journals is not a literary feat. Rather, it entails asking apt questions, gathering information to answer them, and presenting the findings and conclusions clearly - in short, the sorts of things that biologists do every day.

Deciding whether to review the book
Book reviewing is a valuable service, but you can serve readers, authors, publishers, and the journal best by choosing assignments carefully. You and the book must be well matched, the book must be worth reviewing, and you must be able to complete the review on time.

Finding appropriate reviewers often involves successive approximations. Especially if their journals span many areas, book review editors can lack adequate information to identify the most suitable reviewers. Thus, when contacted about writing a review, consider whether you and the book are indeed an appropriate match. Are you sufficiently versed in the subject matter? If so, are you free of potential conflicts of interest? (Such conflicts may exist, for example, if have you written a competing book, if the author was your mentor or student, or if you are preparing a volume for the same series.) If you conclude that you are not a suitable reviewer, suggest other candidates if you can.

Also consider whether the book is indeed worth reviewing. Editors generally try to assign for review only those books of sufficient quality and importance to justify using limited space in a journal. If at any point you feel that the book may not deserve review, contact the book review editor. Even a seriously flawed book can be worth reviewing if it also has substantial merits, or if it is being heavily promoted and thus its limitations should be made known. Sometimes, however, a book merely should retain the obscurity it deserves.

Finally, consider whether you have (or will make) time to prepare the review. By their nature, book re- views, especially in the sciences, should be timely.

And submitting reviews late disrupts the planning of the journal. If you doubt you could meet the deadline, refuse the invitation and suggest other reviewers.

Keep in mind the possibility of proposing a co- reviewer. If, for example, a book is interdisciplinary, collaborating with an expert in another relevant field can yield a stronger review. For some books, coauthoring a review with a colleague whose orientation is more theoretical or more applied than yours also can be of value. When reviewing a textbook, involving a student can add helpful perspective, as well as give the student some useful experience and an initial publication credit.
What about suggesting books for review or volunteering to be a reviewer? Book review editors tend to appreciate such initiatives. Calling their attention to little-publicized but valuable new books can be especially useful. And anything that helps editors expand their pools of qualified, willing, reliable reviewers is likely to be welcome - and to serve the journal's readers.

Identifying questions to ask
Although little information apparently exists about how journal readers actually use book reviews - or even about the extent to which they read them - book reviews have certain recognized functions. A main function, of course, is to acquaint readers with worthwhile books and to inform the readers of those books' strengths and limitations. Another function, especially for reviews in journals of wide scope, is to broaden readers' familiarity with their own and related fields; through reviews that place books in context and convey some of their content, readers can learn indirectly from books. Also, reviewers can help teach readers what characterizes a good book, which in turn can aid them in tasks such as evaluating books for courses and writing books of their own.

To serve these functions, a review should both describe and evaluate a book. Among questions that many reviewers should address, and thus that reviewers should keep in mind, are the following:
* What is the purpose of the book? According to the authors or editors, what does the book aim to do? How worthwhile is this goal? How well does the book accomplish it?
* From what context did the book emerge? For example, does the book reflect the development of a new field? Is it on a controversial topic? Is it based on a symposium? Is it a sequel or part of a set?


* Who wrote or edited the book? What are the qualifications and affiliations of the authors or editors? What are their previous accomplishments? If pertinent, to what school of thought do the authors or editors subscribe?
* Of what does the book consist? What is the scope of the content? How is the content organized? Does the format have any special features? What main points does the book make? What are some noteworthy things it says?
* What are the strengths and weaknesses of the book? How accurate and complete is the information? How sound are any central arguments? Does the book make a substantial new contribution? How readable, and otherwise how skillful is the writing? If the book includes features such as illustrations, a glossary, or an index, of what quality are they? If it lacks such features, is their absence a problem? How well designed and produced is the book? If, for example, the book is a field guide or laboratory manual, does its form suit its function? Is the book reasonably priced?
* How does the book compare with other works? If the book is a second or later edition, how does it differ from its precursor? If it is a textbook, how does it compare with the competition? If the author has written earlier books, how does this one stack up?
* Who would find this book of interest and use? Would the book be of value to specialists in the field? Is it suited for students at given levels? Would it interest policy makers or segments of the public?

By addressing questions such as these, you can prepare a review that fulfills its functions well.

Gathering the Information
During my first stint as a book review editor, I approached a favorite former professor about reviewing a book in his field. "Does this mean," he asked, "that I should read the book?" At the time, I felt amazed at his naivete. But now I realize that I may have been the naive one - for although answering questions such as those above usually requires reading the book thoroughly, sometimes the task requires less or more.

Generally, of course, you should read the book completely and carefully. Consider taking a sandwich approach: scan the book for an overview, then read it in detail, and then scan it again for the big picture. To aid in writing the review, take notes while you read; record, for example, possible points to make, passages to consider quoting, ideas for organizing and wording the review, and items to check for accuracy.

Sometimes reading a work from cover to cover is neither feasible nor appropriate. Rare is the reviewer who would plow through a massive reference text, an encyclopedia of science, or a scientific dictionary. Nor would doing so be valid, as such works are meant to be drawn on selectively. When reviewing such a work, determine its general characteristics and then sample the content. One approach is to sample entries totally at random. Another is to take a systematic sample; for instance, sample some entries in your own subfield (for accuracy and completeness) and in some other subfields (for usefulness to relative outsiders). And a third approach is to consult the' work as appropriate occasions arise and keep a log of the findings. Sampling also can complement traditional approaches to reviewing; for example, you can use it to gather data on recency of references or on adequacy of indexing.

Consulting materials other than the book can strengthen a review. Consider drawing on sources of historical: information, looking at competing and other related' books, and referring to previous items by and about the authors or editors. Doing so can help you more fully, accurately, and effectively show how the current book fits in.

Also, consulting other people can enhance a review. ! If the book is meant at least in part for students, show it to some of them and report their reactions. Ditto if members of the public are an intended audience. If the writing or graphic design strikes you as especially good or bad, see what a colleague in such a field has to say. Supplementing your own reading with the use of such' sources can yield a more complete and useful review.

Writing the review
Having gathered the information for the review, you are ready to write it: Or, more precisely, you are almost ready. Before starting to write, be sure to review the instructions from the book review editor. Check such items as how long the review should be, what sort of heading it should have, and whether it should be double spaced. In writing book reviews as in writing scientific, papers, following the instructions from the journal is crucial to accurate, smooth, and prompt publication.

Also, in book reviewing as in other scientific writing, looking at good models can help. BioScience sends reviewers examples of reviews that it has published. If you are reviewing for a journal that does not do so, track down some sample reviews from recent issues. Not only can such reviews illustrate suitable content and format, they also can aid in ascertaining the usual level and tone' of reviews that appear in the journal.

Before setting pen to paper (or digits to keyboard, or voice to tape), perhaps discuss the book with others. Doing so can help you formulate your ideas and come up with effective ways to express them. It can also aid in determining what readers would want to know about the book. Having discussed the book, you may find the review in essence largely written.

One question that may remain, however, is how to organize the review. Unlike scientific papers, book reviews lack a standard structure; the information can be


presented in any reasonable order. This flexibility can be a plus, especially for reviewers who enjoy the craft of writing. However, lack of a format also can be a problem, delaying the writing of reviews and leading to submission of reviews that are ineffectively structures.

A solution that often works is to structure the book review much like a scientific paper. In other words, adapt the IMRAD format: introduction, methods, results and discussion. A review that is organized in this way can readily address the questions it should.

The introduction section of a book review in this format can take various approaches. One possibility is to start with historical or other background so that readers can place the book in context. Another is to begin with a capsule description and an assessment of the book - in other words, a miniature abstract of the review. A third option is to draw readers in by summarizing some of the most interesting material in the book. Often, a combination of these approaches works well.

If you evaluated the book other than by reading it from cover to cover, the review also should describe the methods used. Sometimes these methods (for instance, sampling the book's content) are most logically presented early in the review, shortly after the introduction section. In other cases, descriptions of methods fit better later in the review. For example, they may be interspersed with observations and conclusions to which their use led.

Somewhat equivalent to a results section is the description of the book. Here you should note such items as the scope, organization, and format of the book; the main arguments presented (if any); and the presence of special features. Either this section or the introduction can be a suitable place to identify the purpose of the book and provide background on the authors or editors.

In describing the book, avoid merely reciting the table of contents. Rather, try to convey the essence of the book. For example, when reviewing a conference proceedings, do not list all the titles and authors; instead, supply a brief overview and then focus on the most noteworthy contributions. The book review section of a journal should not read like Current Contents.

A review should, as previously noted, contain your assessment of the book. Often, much or all of the assessment fits most logically at the end of the review, in a portion analogous to a discussion section. Here you can state the strengths and limitations of the book, compare the book with others, and note the audience for which the book is suited. In book reviews, as in scientific papers, summarizing your main point is generally an effective way to end. Book reviews in some journals, including BioScience, can list references.

In presenting your assessment, strive for balance. A review is not an advertisement, and you owe it to readers to mention any substantial weaknesses. But the word to remember is substantial Avoid the temptation to nitpick. And though scathing reviews are often cathartic to write


and amusing to read, a sarcastic tone rarely serves science (or the community of scientists). If you have criticisms that are too detailed to include but could aid in preparing future editions, consider sending them to the authors or editors of the book, either directly or through the publisher.

Like other scientific writing, book reviews should be clear and concise, without overly specialized jargon. They should contain evidence to illustrate and support their points, but they should not overburden readers with detail. Ideally, they should be interestingly written. If word play or other wit is your style, here is your chance to have some fun - and still earn at least a minor line for your curriculum vitae.

After drafting your review, set it aside. Then come back and edit it. Maybe show it to one or more colleagues; in book reviewing, as in other writing peer review can improve the product. Before submitting the review, check it for accuracy. In particular, make sure that all names are spelled correctly.

If others have published reviews of the book, should you read theirs before submitting yours? Doing so can be helpful, but doing so too early may bias your assessment. One reasonable tack is to draft your review, then scan the others for major points you may have missed, and then prepare your final version.

Last, check your review against the instructions, produce a final copy, and submit the review on time. When editors and readers compliment you on the review, think to yourself, "Of course, it's a fine review. After all, I'm a scientist."

1 Copyright 1991, American Institute of Biological Sciences
2 Department of Journalism, Texas A&M University, College Station TX




Steven J. Wolf at CSU Stanislaus has recently received a grant to establish CSUBIOWEB, a Biological Sciences World Wide Web (WWW) server for the California State University system. Its purpose is to consolidate existing WWW biological sciences teaching and research resources and to create new multimedia teaching materials that can be shared on-line throughout the CSU system and the world. For those unfamiliar with the WWW, it uses hyperlinks and multimedia techniques to make the Internet easier to use and more accessible to those with little knowledge of computers. At the heart of the WWW is Mosaic, a multiplatform, public domain computer program that runs on both Macintosh and Microsoft Windows personal computers, as well as workstations using X Windows. Mosaic is analogous to the graphical user interface (GUI) used by Macintosh and Microsoft Windows computers. Clicking on hyperlinks-terms, images or icons in documents that point to other, related documents, automatically transmits information from one computer to any other WWW linked computer in the world. Memory resident viewers on the client allow the information to be viewed and/or heard immediately, or stored for later use. Information may consist of text, images, movies, sounds, or any combination thereof. In addition to providing multimedia access to the Internet, Mosaic can also be used as a very powerful stand alone, multimedia instructional program (see article in the 12 August issue of SCIENCE).

Virtually every major library, educational, research and governmental organization in the developed world is already accessible via the WWW and additional organizations continue to be added daily. All the software


associated with the WWW is public domain. Therefore, for about $100, the cost of an Ethernet card, most personal computers will be able to access the server. A workshop on CSUBIOWEB and the WWW will be held at the next Association of Biologists using Computers (ABC) meeting at San Jose State University in January 1995. Demonstration materials and information about CSUBIOWEB are currently on-line at the following URL: Contact your campus computer support personnel for information on accessing CSUBIOWEB via Mosaic. E-mail inquiries are also welcomed at


is a world directory of mycologists and lichenologists or researchers studying fungi including lichens, herbaria and collections, and mycological periodicals, who and which are accessible by E-mail. The list is under construction; the most recent list includes more than 200 entries. Please help to update the directory and send your E-mail address to one of the editors: LIZON, Pavel <> Plant Pathology Herbarium, Cornell University, 401 Plant Science Bldg., Ithaca, NY 14853-4203, USA or PARMASTO, Erast <> Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences, 21 Vanemuise St., EE-2400, Estonia. The directory will be posted in the Harvard University Biodiversity and Biological Collections Gopher. The preliminary list is available via E-mail on request.

Call for Assistance

Results of Restoration Ecology Projects We are preparing a textbook on restoration ecology for use in advanced undergraduate courses. We are interested in receiving reports, summaries, or articles about restoration projects for inclusion as case histories in the book. We are particularly interested in projects that have measured success or failure of the plantings, sub- sequent colonization by plants and/or animals, or have used other methods of monitoring performance. We are aware that the results of many restoration projects are not fully reported in the open literature, but in reports to regulatory or supervisory agencies. We will fully acknowledge and cite any data or material used. Con- tact: Steven N. Handel or Joan G. Ehrenfeld, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway NJ 08855-1059 USA, FAX: 11908/445-5870; E-mail:



Michaux Grants
Kathleen Shea and Eric Ribbens
Two BSA members were recently awarded American Philosophical Society Michaux Grants in Silviculture, Forest Botany, and the History of Forest Botany: Eric Ribbens, University of Connecticut, $4200, "Past Growth History as Predictors of Reproductive OutPut." and Kathleen L. Shea, St. Olaf College, $2700, "Genetic Variation among and within Populations of Balsam Fir."

Lois H. Tiffany

Distinguished Professor
On 4 May 1994, Lois H. Tiffany, Chair of the Department of Botany at Iowa State University was named "Distinguished Professor," the highest academic honor at ISU. Dr. Tiffany is the first woman scientist from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences to receive this award. She is a mycologist and member of the Plant Pathology faculty. She was the first person to receive the Weston award for Mycology Teaching and has been inducted into Iowa's Women's Hall of Fame.

The following prizes were awarded on 10 August 1994, at the Dinner for All Botanists given by the Botanical Society of America (BSA) at its Annual Meeting held in Knoxville, Tennessee, in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

BSA Merit Awards - These awards are made to persons judged to have made outstanding contributions to the field of botany. This year two botanists were selected. One of these awards was made to Gregory J Anderson, tropical systematist, authority on Solanum and pollination biology, stimulation teacher, dedicated and effective voice of the Botanical Society as Secretary and President, and whole plant biologistin every sense. The other Merit Award went to Lafayette Frederick, prominent educator, mycologist, tireless promoter of students in science, superlative and inspiring teacher for over 40 years, and outstanding role model for students and faculty.

Samuel Noel Postlethwait Award – The Teaching Section announced three recipients of the Samuel Noel Postlethwait Award for exceptional service on behalf of the Teaching Section of the BSA. Awards were presented to Richard L Franks of the Carolina Biological Company for his series of workshops, “Using Wisconsin Fast PlantsTM in Classroom research” and to Jeanette Mullins and Jan Ballings for their unselfish dedication to the activities of the Teaching Section and for the promotion of the continuing symposium on “Essential Botanical Knowledge at College/University Level.”

Isabel C. Cookson Paleobotanical Award – Each year the Isabel C. Cookson Award is given for the best contributed paper in paleobotany or palynology presented at the annual meeting. This year’s award went to Sharon D. Kalvins of Southern Illinois University for her paper co-authored with Lawrence C. Matten and entitled “The frond of Lyceya hibernica (Lyginopteridales) from the Uppermost Devonian of Ireland.”

George R. Cooley Award – This award is given annually by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for the best paper in plant systematics presented at the annual meeting. This year the award was presented to J. Mark Porter of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, for his paper entitled, “Evolution of pollination mechanisms in Gilia section Giliandra (Polemoniaceae): Inferences based on nrDNA ITS sequence data.”

Margeret Menzel Award – This award is given by the Genetics Section for an outstanding paper presented in the contributed papers sessions of the annual meeting. This years award went to Scott A. Hodges for his paper co-authored by Michael L. Arnold and entitled “Floral and ecological isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens.

Ecological Section Award - Each year the Ecological Section of the Botanical Society offers an award for the best student paper presented at the annual meetings. A judging committee evaluates each student presentation and selects a winner based on the quality of the work and the presentation. Two awards from 1993 were presented at the BSA banquet, one to Jeffery L. Walck of the University of Kentucky for his talk, “What is a persistent seed bank in Solidago,” and a second to Donald R. Bailey, of Ohio University for his talk, “Population decline of Larix laricina in central Appalachian peatland.”

Distinguished Paper in Phycology Award – This award is given for the most outstanding manuscript dealing with any discipline of algal research published in the American Journal of Botany in the preceding year. This year the award was presented to Sophie Richerd, Christophe Destombe, Joel Cuguen, and Myriam Valero for their paper entitled “Variation of reproductive success in a haplo-diploid red alga, Gracilaria verrucosa: effects of parental identities and crossing distance.”

Physiological Section Award – Each year the Physiological Section presents the Li-co Prize which acknowledges the best presentation made by any student, regardless of sub-discipline, at the annual meeting. This year’s award went to Michael R. Bynum form the University of Wyoming, Laramie, for his paper entitled, “Rapid and reversible floral movements in artic gentians: Benefits for male and female fitness in an alpine environment.”


Katherine Esau Award - This award is given to the graduate student who presents the outstanding paper in developmental and structural botany during the annual meeting. The award is made from the interest on a gift from Dr. Esau. The award in 1993 was presented to Stuart F. Baum from the University of California, Davis, for his paper co-authored by Thomas L. Rost and entitled, "Analysis of Arabidopsis root development."

A.J. Sharp Award - This award is given for the best student paper presented in the American Bryological and Lichenological sessions. This year there were two honorable mentions. The first to Steven K. Rice of Duke University for his paper co-authored by Peter H. Schuepp and entitled, "The influence of branch and leaf morphology on boundary layer resistance in Sphagnum trinitens and S. recurvum." and the second to, Kevok Leung Yip of Baylor University for the paper entitled, "Ultrastructure of the sporophyte-gametophyte junction in Ephemerum cohaerens." This year's A.J. Sharp Award went to Alison Withey of Duke University for her paper entitled, "Developing a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships of the Spiridentaceae (Musci) based on morphological and molecular data."

Edgar T. Wherry Award - This award is made annually by the Pteridological Section of the BSA for the best presentation during the contributed papers sessions. This year's award went to Robert Joel Duff for his paper co-authored with Edward Schilling and entitled, "Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and evidence of structural rearrangements in lsoetes."

Jeanette Siron Pelton Award - The Conservation and Research Foundation honors the memory of Jeanette Siron Pelton with sponsorship of this award given for sustained and imaginative productivity in the field of experimental plant morphology. This year's award went to Elliot M. Meyerowitz from the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Meyerowitz has combined a genetic and developmental approach to flowering that has profoundly affected the field of plant morphogenesis by discovering regulatory genes that confer identity during organogenesis.

Henry Allan Gleason Award - this award is made annually by the New York Botanical Garden for an outstanding recent publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography. The 1994 award went to Robert L. Dressler of the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, for his book entitled, "Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family." Dr. Dressler's book represents a lifetime synthesis of fieldwork, herbarium research, and literature review of the orchid family.

Jesse M. Greenman Award - This award is given annually by the Missouri Botanical Garden in recognition of the best thesis based on a Ph.D. dissertation concerning the systematics of vascular plants or bryophytes published during the previous year. The 1994 award was presented to Melissa Luckow of Cornell University for her publication entitled "Monograph of Desmanthus (Leguminosae- Mimosoideae)," published as volume 38 of Systematic Botany Monograph. This study is based on a Ph.D. dissertation from the University of Texas, Austin, under the direction of Dr. Beryl B. Simpson.

Lawrence Memorial Award - was established to commemorate the life and achievements of Dr. George H. M. Lawrence. Proceeds from the fund are presented by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation of Carnegie-Mellon University and are used to support travel expenses of a doctoral candidate for research in systematic botany, horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences. This year's award went to Kathleen M. Pryer of Duke University. For her dissertation research, Ms. Pryer has undertaken a phylogenetic and developmental study of the water ferns in the family Marsileaceae. The proceeds of the award will help support her travel in southern Africa.


In Memoriam

Lothar Geitler, Ove Arbo Hoeg, and Susan LeClercq
These scientists were all Corresponding Members of the Botanical Society of America. Anyone wishing to contribute memorial statements about any of them to the PSB are invited to do so.

Mary Elizabeth Cosner
Dr. Mary Elizabeth Cosner died on 22 June 1994 at the age of 35. She received B.S. degrees in General Studies and Horticulture at Capital University and Ohio State University. Mary Beth completed a masters degree in Botany in 1988 at Ohio State working on allozyme variation in Coreopsis. In 1993 she received her Ph.D. also at Ohio State. Her dissertation research, which was funded by an NSF Doctoral Dissertation Grant, focused on characterizing very complex structural rearrangements in the chloroplast genomes of the angiosperm family Campanulaceae. While at Ohio State, Mary Beth received several honors, including the prestigious University Presidential Fellowship and the Butler Award for the outstanding graduating Doctoral student in Plant Biology. She was a postdoctoral fellow in Biology at Indiana University at the time of her death. Mary Beth will be missed by everyone who knew and interacted with her. She was a very important member of both of our laboratories and she leaves many good memories for all of us. Her honesty, good sense of humor, and willingness to help others benefited everyone.

A fund has been established in Mary Beth's name to honor graduate students in Plant Biology at Ohio State University. Contributions should be made out to the M. E. Cosner Memorial Fund and sent to either of us.-Daniel J. Crawford, Department of Plant Biology, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus OH 43210; Robert K. Jansen, Dept. of Botany, University of Texas, Austin TX 78713.


Educational Opportunities

Graduate Research Assistantships
University of Hawaii

The University of Hawaii seeks outstanding candidates for its NSF Graduate (Ph.D. or M.S.) Research Training assistantships in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. For application information and materials, contact Kenneth Kaneshiro (Chair) or Rosemary Gillespie (Associate Chair), CCRT, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 409, Honolulu, HI 96822. (808) 956 8884, e-mail: gillespi@uhunix.uhcc.hawaiLedu. Deadline: Feb. 1 1995. Assistantships commence August 1995.

Minority Internship
Smithsonian Institution

Internships, offered through the Office of Fellowships and Grants, are available for students to participate in research and museum-related activities for periods of nine to twelve weeks during the summer, fall, and spring. U.S. minority undergraduate and graduate students are invited to apply. The appointment carries a stipend of $250 per week for undergraduate and $300 per week for graduate students, and may provide a travel allowance. Deadlines: For Summer (to begin after June 1 - February 15; For Fall (to begin after September 1) - June 15; For Spring (to begin after January 1): October 15. For applications and/or information, please write: Smithsonian Institution, Office of Fellow- ships and Grants, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7000, Washington DC 20560, USA, or e-mail: siofg@sivm.sLedu.


Funding Opportunities

Research Fellowships
Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Fellowships are awarded to support independent research in residence at the Smithsonian in association with the research staff and using the Institutions's resources. Under this program, senior fellowships of three to twelve months, predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships of three to twelve months, and graduate student fellowships of ten weeks are awarded. Proposals for research in areas including Biological Sciences may be made. Deadline: January 15, 1995. Postdoctoral Fellowships are offered to scholars who have held the degree or equivalent for less than seven years. Senior Fellowships are offered to scholars who have held the degree or equivalent for seven years or more. The term is 3 to 12 months. Both fellowships offer a stipend of $25,000 per year plus allowances. Predoctoral Fellowships are offered to doctoral candidates who have completed preliminary course work and examinations. The term is 3 to 12 months. The stipend is $14,000 per year plus allowances. Graduate Student Fellowships are offered to students to conduct research in association with research staff members of the Smithsonian. Students must be formally enrolled in a graduate program of study, have completed at least one semester, and not yet have been advanced to candidacy if in a Ph.D. Program. The term is 10 weeks; the stipend is $3,000. Awards are based on merit. Smithsonian fellowships are open to all qualified individuals without reference to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or condition of handicap of any applicant.. For more information and application forms, please write: Smithsonian Institution, Office of Fellow- ships and Grants, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7000, Washington DC, 20560 USA, or e-mail: Please indicate the particular areas in which you propose to conduct research and give the dates of degrees received or expected.

1995 Michaux Grants
The American Philosophical Society announces the 1995 competition for research grants in forest botany (specifically, dendrology), silviculture, and the history thereof. Grants range from $1,500 to ca. $5,000. Eligible expenses include travel, $65 per diem toward the cost of room and meals, and consumable supplies not available at the applicant's institution. Applicants are normally expected to have the doctorate, but proposals may be considered from graduate students who have completed all degree requirements but the dissertation. Deadline: February 1, for decision in May. When writing for application forms, briefly (100 words or less) describe the proposed research and budget. No telephone requests, please! Michaux Fund Grants, American Philosophical Society, 104 S. 5th Street, Philadelphia PA 19106-3387.

Positions Available

Article Writers
Gale Research, Inc.

Quality writers are needed to contribute articles to the Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Designed for high school students and general readers, the encyclopedia will be comprised of entries ranging from 100 to 4,000 words and covering basic terms and concepts from all scientific disciplines. Candidates with scientific back- grounds and previous publishing experience highly preferred; must be able to explain technical concepts to a general audience. Contributors required to do their own research. Please send writing sample and resume to: Bridget Travers, Gale Research, Inc., 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094.

National Science Foundation (NSF) Program Directors
NSF's Division of Environmental Biology (formerly Biotic Systems and Resources) is seeking qualified applicants for Program Director positions in fiscal year 1994. The incumbents to these positions will ad- minister grant programs in support of research in the following areas: Ecology, Systematic Biology, Population Biology, Ecosystem studies, and Research Collections in Ecology and Systematics Programs. These positions will be filled on a 1- or 2-year visiting scientist/temporary basis and are excepted from the competitive civil service. The per annum salary range is $56,627 to $88,255. The visiting scientist receives a leave of absence from his/her employer and salary is set in accordance with NSF's Visiting Scientist program. Applicants must have a Ph.D. or equivalent experience. In addition, six or more years of successful research experience beyond the Ph.D. is required. Some administrative experience is also desired. Applications are also being accepted for future vacancies for these positions. Applicants should submit a Standard Form 171, Applications for Federal Employment, or resume to: National Science Foundation, Division of Human Re- source Management, Room 315, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, V A 22230. Attention: Catherine Handle. Telephone: 703/306-1185 for further information about the NSF application process, or 703/306-1480 for technical details on these specific positions. Hearing impaired individuals should call 703/306-0090. NSF is an Equal Opportunity Employer.



Systematic Botanist
California Academy of Sciences

The California Academy of Sciences invites applications for an Assistant Curator of Botany. Applications are solicited from individuals with primary interest in and commitment to active, collection-oriented research in higher plant systematics and the curation, operation, and development of a major herbarium. Candidates must have a Ph.D., an active research program with demonstrated interest and competence in a particular group of vascular plants, and be prepared to participate in a variety of curatorial, administrative, and public educational activities at the Academy. Applicants should forward a curriculum vitae, description of re- search goals, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three references to: Human Resources, No. ACB, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118-4599. Deadline for applications is 15 October 1994. EOE. General information about the California Academy of Sciences and each of its research departments (including the Department of Botany) is available from the Academy's gopher server at the following address: cas .calacademy .org.

Plant Molecular Systematist
New York Botanical Garden

The New York Botanical Garden invites applications for the position of Plant Molecular Systematist in the Institute of Systematic Botany. Qualifications include a Ph.D. in Botany or Biology, demonstrated excellence in molecular systematics, a strong background in plant taxonomy, and several years of post-doctoral experience. The successful candidate will conduct research in botanical or mycological systematics with an emphasis on employing molecular techniques. Work will involve teaching and advising of students in the Garden's Graduate Studies Program, and publishing research results in peer-reviewed scholarly journals. The individual occupying this position will also be expected to secure grant funds and assist in other departmental and division-wide duties. This position begins April 1, 1995. Excellent benefits. To apply submit a letter stating research interests and goals, vita, and the names of three references to Personnel Manager-MS, the New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10458-5126, USA. FAX:718/220-6504. AA/EOE/M/F/D/V.

Systematic Botanist
The Field Museum

The Field Museum is seeking an outstanding systematic botanist for a career-track appointment in the Department of Botany at the level of Assistant Curator. Candidates pursuing innovative specimen-based re- search in macrofungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes or angiosperms, and who are also making important contributions in a second field such as conservation, ethnobotany, theoretical systematics, developmental biology or population genetics, will be given special attention. In addition to research, responsibilities include curation of relevant collections and participation in public education and exhibit programs, the successful candidate will have a Ph.D., a proven record of scientific achievement and the ability to establish an externally funded research program. Curators teach at local universities and there are opportunities for participating in undergraduate and graduate training. The Botany Department is part of the Museum's Center for Evolutionary and Environmental Biology which includes the departments of Geology and Zoology. Facilities include an herbarium of over 2.5 million specimens (including one of the world's richest collections of neotropical plants), an outstanding library, and molecular systematics and biochemical laboratories. Consideration of applications will begin on October 17, 1994. To apply submit a Curriculum Vitae, a statement of research objectives, names, addresses and contact numbers of at least 3 references, and copies of relevant publications to: Search Committee, Department of Botany, the Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago IL 60605-2496. E-mail inquiries: As an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer we especially encourage applications from women and minorities and we are responsive to dual-career needs.

Viticulture and Enology Professor
University of California, Davis

Nominations and applications are invited for a tenured position available July I, 1995. The appointee will have teaching and student advising responsibilities and will be expected to initiate a research program pertinent to the California grape and wine industry. The monetary award from the Amerine endowment is to support research in this area. The appointment to the Maynard A. Amerine Chair is for 5 years, subject to renewal on review. Qualifications include a Ph.D. or equivalent degree in a discipline relevant to viticulture and/or enology, teaching and research experience in a relevant discipline, and a record of scholarly and academic achievement. Disciplines encompassed by the department include plant and microbial genetics and bio- chemistry, plant physiology, microbiology, chemistry, sensory science, and chemical and biochemical engineering. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae with a list of publications, reprints of publications, statement of research and teaching interests and back- ground in each, and the names and addresses of at least three references to: Ann C. Noble, Search Committee Chair, Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis CA 95616-8749. Applications must be received by November I, 1994. The University of California is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.


Plant Systematist
Colorado State University

Assistant professor in systematics of higher plants, Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523. This tenure-track position involves approximately 40% teaching, 40% research, and 20% service, including herbarium curation, he successful candidate will be expected to develop an independent, externally funded research program in contemporary plant systematics using molecular-genetic techniques to study phylogenetic relationships. The candidate will also oversee curation of the Colorado State University herbarium (CS). Abundant opportunities exist for collaboration with biologists within the department as well as in other departments and colleges at the University and with the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Teaching responsibilities include a course in modern plant systematics and participation in the botany/biology undergraduate and graduate curriculum. A Ph. D. in Botany or a related area is required. Curatorial and postdoctoral experience are strongly favored. Candidates should exhibit potential for independent and innovative research and teaching, and a willingness to cooperate with a broad spectrum of biologists on campus. SALARY: Commensurate with education and experience. Position is available immediately, although the search may be extended if suitable candidates are not found. To apply, send a letter of application with a statement of your teaching and re- search interests, a curriculum vitae, university transcripts, names and addresses of five persons who will serve as references, and no more than three publications to: Secretary Plant Systematics Search Committee Department of Biology Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 telephone (303) 491-7013; fax (303) 491-0649; e-mail: Additional information or answers to specific questions may be obtained from (Dr. F. B. Reeves, Search Committee Chair) via e-mail All materials are due by 15 October, 1994. The search may be extended if suitable candidates are not found. Colorado State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer; protected class members are encouraged to apply and to so identify themselves.

Botanical Research Manager
Australian Royal Botanic Gardens

This is an outstanding opportunity to join the Royal Botanic Gardens and lead the day-to-day operation of the Research Branch of the Research and Herbarium Division. The Royal Botanic Gardens is expanding and diversifying its research activities and you will playa major role in this process. The National Her- barium of Victoria is a major centre of botanical studies in Victoria and the collection of over one million plant specimens is one of the largest and most important collections in Australia. We are looking for an enthusiastic and versatile botanist with extensive research experience, preferably in the field of systematics, to coordinate the overall research activities of the Branch. You will provide scientific leadership to research staff and initiate and develop original research projects related to the objectives of the Royal Botanic Gardens. You will also conduct your own research and make a significant contribution to the research program of the Royal Botanic Gardens. You will have a relevant post- graduate qualification, possess good conceptual and analytical skills, and have experience in project management and the evaluation of research programs at a senior level in a scientific environment. You will have well developed interpersonal and communication skills and an ability to communicate effectively with staff, researchers in other organizations, and the public. The position offered is for a five year term, and the salary is in the range $45,214-$47,866, plus the employer contribution to superannuation. Copies of the duty statement and selection criteria are available from Patricia Quinn, Personnel Manager, phone (61-3-) 655 2300 or fax (61-3-) 655 2350. Additional information about the position is available from Dr Jim Ross, phone (61- 3- )6552300. Please do not direct enquires via email. Applications should be submitted to the Personnel Manager, Royal Botanic Gardens, Birdwood Avenue, South Yarra, Vic. 3141, Australia. by 5pm, Wednesday, 31 August 1994. The Royal Botanic Gardens is an EEO employer and offers a non-smoking workplace.

Administrator - Supervisory Ecologist
National Biological Survey

The National Biological Survey anticipates an opening for the Chief of the Wetlands Ecology Branch at the Southern Science Center, formerly known as the National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette LA. The Center also has field/duty stations in: Corpus Christi TX; Baton Rouge LA; Gulf Breeze FL; College Station TX, and Vicksburg MS. This branch consists of a multidisciplinary group of Ph.D. scientists, biological technicians, and support staff with research activities in coastal and freshwater wetland habitats, global climate change, moist soil management, plant stress, community and landscape ecology, wetland management and restoration, and food web relationships. The Southern Science Center has state-of-the-art laboratory, computer, and GIS facilities in a new building on the cam- pus of the University of Southwestern Louisiana. Minimum Qualifications: Ph.D. or equivalent experience in aquatic, wetland, or plant ecology or related field, administrative/managerial experience, experience in con- tract and grant administration, and a proven record of scientific achievement. Salary $58K+ per annum at the GS-14 level. The Federal Government is an Equal Employment Opportunity Employer. For information con- tact Jan Whitmore at 318/266-8526 (e-mail, National Biological Survey, Southern Science Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette LA 70506.


Georgia Southern Botanical Garden

Georgia Southern University seeks a Director of its Botanical Garden to provide leadership for the next phase of the Garden's development. The ten-acre site will highlight natural habitat gardens focused on native plants. The Director must communicate effectively and have experience with proposal development and. fund-raising. The position is a 12-month administrative appointment. Academic rank and non-tenure track facility status are possible. A masters degree, formal training in plant science and at least 2 years of administrative experience are minimum requirements. Send letter of interest, curriculum vitae or resume, and the names and addresses of three references to Nancy Wright, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro GA 30460-8142. Screening will begin October 15, 1994. The names of applicants and nominees, vitae and other general non-evaluative information are subject to public inspection under the Georgia Open Records Act. Individual who need reasonable accommodations in order to participate in the application process should notify the search chair. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Molecular Systematics Post-Doc
University of Oklahoma

A post-doctoral position is immediately available (start date possibly 1 Jan 1995) for research on the molecular systematics of tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae). The study will include cpDNA restriction site mapping, sequencing of ndhE (cWoroplast gene), and phylogenetic analyses of molecular and morphological data. Subtribal and generic relationships will be examined to test hypotheses regarding phylogeny, character evolution, and biogeography. In addition, issues surrounding combining diverse datasets for phylogenetic analysis will also be intensively explored. This position is funded for a three year period. For additional information, or to apply, please send a curriculum vitae with cover letter to Linda E. Watson, III E. Chesapeake St., Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK 73019. Telephone 405/325-5357; FAX: 405/325- 7702; email:


Katherine Esau Postdoctral Fellowships
University of California

Applications and nominations are invited for Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships and which will be awarded to outstanding young scientists interested in developing careers in structural aspects of plant biology. Esau Fellowships will be awarded for a period of two years to enable successful candidates to work under the mentorship of a University of California, David, faculty member. Applications/nominations should identify an appropriate faculty mentor(s) and include a curriculum vitae of the candidate, reprints of published works, an outline of the proposed research that would be carried out under this program. The name and ad- dress of three references is also required. Requests for information regarding the fellowships and guidelines for applications can be made by contacting the Dean's Office, Division of Biological Sciences at 916{752- 6764. All application materials should be forwarded to Dr. William 1. Lucas, Chair, Faculty Advisory Committee, Esau Fellowships Program, Dean's Office, Division of Biological Sciences, university of California, Davis CA 95616. Fellowships will be awarded on a bi-annual basis; deadlines for this on-going program are June 1 and December 1. The University of California is an equal opportunity employer.

Greenhouse Manager/Lab Technician
Vassar College

The Department of Biology has an immediate opening for full time technician to manage the biology green- house and prepare laboratories for courses in introductory biology, botany, ecology and evolution. A degree in horticulture, botany or biology and some greenhouse experience are required. To apply, contact Faith Vincent, Personal Representative, Box 41, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Ave., Poughkeepsie, NY 12601- 6198 (phone 914-437-5821). Vassar College is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Field Botanist
New York Botanical Garden

The Institute of Economic Botany of the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) announces a position for Field Botanist (Ph.D or M.Sc. Level) with background in plant taxonomy and field experience within the United States. Duties are to collect, identify and voucher a broad range of plant taxa from the United States and its territories and possessions. Extensive travel is required. Successful applicant will participate in a study that assesses the potential utility of plant extracts in pharmaceutical products, as a part of a collaborative project with scientists from Pfizer, Inc. The NYBG Institute of Economic Botany carries out basic and applied research on the relationship between people and plants. Please send curriculum vitae and names of three references to: Personnel Department- FB, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126. Fax: 718-220-6504. AA/EOE/M/F/D/V


Nursery Manager / Horticulturist
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

This person carries primary responsibility for the operation, care and maintenance of Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden's plant growth facilities. This person also has primary responsibility for production, care and maintenance of all plants grown for the Garden's living collection, research purposes as well as for growing a large portion of plants grown for Garden plant sales. Qualifications: The successful candidate for this position should have a Master's level degree or greater in horticulture or in another plant science AND/OR demonstrated appropriate work experience. Must have extensive knowledge of California native plants and their horticultural requirements and propagation. Must be knowledgeable of the pests and diseases of California native plants grown under nursery conditions and their appropriate biological and/or chemical controls. Must have excellent supervisory skills and communication skills. Must have experience operating, managing, and maintaining greenhouses, nursery facilities, and growth chambers. Must be able to establish, maintain and follow scientific and horticultural protocols. Should also have experience operating, maintaining and managing seed storage facilities. Should have strong departmental leadership abilities. Must possess a State of California Qualified Applicator Certificate, and a California State Driver's License. Must be computer literate, preferably in the X Windows operating system, and in the FoxPro data base program. All applicants must be in good physical condition and be a legal resident of the US. Out of state applicants must fulfill the California specific requirements within six months of appointment to this position. Experience with controlled hybridization methods and techniques and embryo rescue desirable. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden offers an excellent benefits package. The beginning salary for this position is $28,000 per year, and is negotiable dependent on qualifications and experience. Submit resume with salary history and cover letter detailing qualifications for the position by October 31, 1994 to: Director of Horticulture; Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden; 1500 North College Avenue; Claremont, CA 91711. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden is an equal opportunity employer (EEOC) and encourages minority applicants.

Symposia, Conferences, Meetings

Congreso Latinoamericano de Botanica
2-8 October 1994

El Comite Organizador invita a los colegas interesados en las diferentes areas de la Bot3nica a participar del VI Congreso Latinoamericano de'Botacia que se llevara a cabo en la ciudad de Mar del Plata entre los dias 2 y 8 octubre de 1994. En el marco de este Congreso, se podra una vez mas conocer el desarrollo de la Botcinica en America Latina y discutir entre los bot3nicos latinoamericanos y de otras partes del mundo sobre diferentes aspectos que comprenden las distintas areas de esta ciencia. Los idiomas oficiales del Congreso sercin el Espanol y el Portugues. Se prevee traduccion simultcinea Ingles-Espanol para las Conferencias Magistrales y Simposios que asi to requjieran. Los participantes que requieran invitaciones personales por razones de tramites administrativos en sus respectivos proses, podrcin solicitarlas al Comite Organizador. Con el fin de que su nombre sea incluido en nuestra !ista de correspondencia, Ie rogamos el favor de devolver ala mayor brevedad el formulario que se adjuncta a esta Circular. La Segunda Circular sera enviadaa quienes devuelvan el Formulario. Si Ud. desea recibir copies adicionales de esta Primera Circular, puede solicitarlas ala Secretarfa del Congreso. Correspondencia: Dr. Arturo 1. Martinez, Presidente, Ing. Agr. Renee H Fortunato, Secretaria Ejecutiva, VI Congreso Latinoamericano de Botcinica, Institute de Recursos Biologicos, INT A Castelar 1712, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Savannas Conference
15-16 October 1994

Theme: "Living in the Edge." Will be held at Illinois State University, Normal. Information: Dr. Roger Anderson, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal IL 61790-4120 (309/438- 2653 ).

American Society of Pharmacognosy
20-22 Oct 1994

The American Society of Pharmacognosy announces its 1994 Interim Annual Meeting, to be held in San Jose, Costa Rica. The meeting will include both contributed scientific presentations and an international symposium entitled "Intellectual Property Rights, Naturally-derived Bioactive Compounds and Resource Conservation". The official language of the conference will be English, however, simultaneous Spanish translation will be available. Registration prior to July 1, 1994, in $100 U.S.; late registration is $150. Abstracts of contributed papers must be submitted by September 1, 1994, to Dr. Gerardo Mora, Chair of the Scientific Committee. To register or for further information, con- tact Dr. Mora at CIPRONA, School of Chemistry, University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, FAX: 506/ 25-98-66; Phone: 506/24-82-45.


Evolution of Plant Architecture
19-21 April 1995

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, are currently building a new permanent display illustrating aspects of plant evolution. This international symposium is part of the celebration to mark the opening of the Evolution House in spring, 1995. The symposium will be held in the rooms of the Linnean Society and at Kew. The meeting will have four main sessions, each with a keynote speaker: Origins of Plant Architecture, Architecture of Vegetative Structures, Architecture of Reproductive Structures, and Architecture and Biomechanics. For more information, contact: Dr. A.R. Hemsley, Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, WI V OLQ (071/434-4479; fax: 071/287-9364; JOHN@LlNNEAN.DEMON.CO.UK).

Sucrose Metabolism
8-13 May 1995

Contact: Dr. Horacio Pontis or Dr. Graciela Salerno, Fundacion para Investigaciones Biologicas Aplicadas, Casilla de Correos 1348, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina (54-23-74-8257, fax -3357), or Dr. Ed Echeverria, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred FL 33850 USA (8131956- 1151, fax -4631).

Wildland Shrub Symposim
23-25 May 1995

The Shrub Research Consortium in concert with New Mexico State University is sponsoring the Ninth Wildland Shrub Symposium, May 23-25,1995 at the Hilton Hotel in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The symposium theme is "Shrubland Ecosystem Dynamics in a Changing Environment." There will be a mid-symposium field trip to the Jornada Experimental Range/Long Term Ecological Site. Contributed papers are invited. The proceedings will be published by the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. If you would like to present a paper, send a title and abstract by September 15, 1994 to Dr. Jerry Barrow, Jornada Experimental Range, Box 30003, Dept. 3JER, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003- 8003. To receive preregistration materials and information please contact: Katie Dunford, Office of Conference Services, Box 30004, Dept. CCSU, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003- 8004.

Paleobotany / Coal Science Symposium
28 May -1 June 1995

The first W. A. Bell Symposium on Paleobotany and Coal Science, focussing on Euramerica, will be held at the University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia. There will be a limit of about 100 people (including spouses) so please register early. For information contact: Dr. Erwin L. Zodrow, University College of Cape Breton, P.O. Box 5300, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada BIP 6L2 (Fax: 902/562-0119) or Dr. Paul C. Lyons, U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston Virginia 22092, USA (Fax: 703/648-4227.

Plant Growth Substances
14-19 July 1995

15th International Congress, Minneapolis, Minnesota. For further information contact: Gary Gardner, Dept. of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, 305 Alderman Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA, FAX (612)624-3606, e-mail:

IOPB Sixth International Symposium
29 July - 2 August 1995

"Variation and Evolution in Arctic and Alpine Plants." Correspondence: VI IOPB-Symposium, the Bergius Foundation, P.O. Box 50017, S-I04 05 Stockholm, Sweden; fax -+46 8 612 9005.

Chromosome Conference
4-8 September 1995

Information: Dr. MJ. Puertas, Departmento de Genetica, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Rubiaceae Conference
12-14 Sep 1995

The Second International Rubiaceae Conference is scheduled for September 12-14, 1995 in Meise (Brus- sels). For further information you may contact Professor E. Robbrecht, Conference secretariat, National Botanic Garden, Domein van Bouchout, B-1860 Meise (Belgium). Telephone: (322) 269 39 05; FAX (32 2) 2701567.

Harnessing Apomixis
25-27 September 1995

College Station Hilton Hotel and Conference Center, College Station, Texas. Information: Dr. David M. Stelly, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2474. (409-845-2745, fax: -4733. E-MAIL:



Book Reviews

In this Issue:
p.92 Plant Cytogenetics. R. 1. Singh (1993) - W. L. Bloom

p.93 Aspects of Tropical Mycology. S. Isaac, et al. (1993) - S. Hammer

p.94 Stable Isotopes and Plant Carbon-Water Relations. 1. Ehleringer, et al. (1994) - N. M. Holbrook

p.95 The Polymerase Chain Reaction. K. B. Mullis, et al. (1994)- A. Liston
p. 97 The Scent of Orchids. R. Kaiser. (1993)- S. Handel

p.98 Arabidopsis: An Atlas of Morphology and Development. J. Bowman, ed. (1994) - J. Z. Kiss
p.98 Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Approach. D. E. Fosket (1994) - N. Sinha

p.99 Introduction to Plant Population Biology. J. Silvertown & J. L. Doust (1993) - G. P. Cheplick
p. 100 La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest. (1994) - H. Young

Plant Cytogenetics - Singh, R.J., 1993. ISBN 0- 8493-8656-x, 391 pp (price not given). CRC Press, Inc., P.O. Box 6123, Ft. Lauderdale FL 3331 Q
In a field changing as rapidly as cytogenetics, a new text is eagerly anticipated, but very rarely seen. The all-encompassing title of this volume, "Plant Cytogenetics" created the hope in this reader that I would find an integration of all the new molecular, electron microscope information, etc., with the large store of more classical light microscopic and genetic information that has long been the mainstay of cytogenetics. In fact, the author of this text focused his attention much more narrowly.

As indicated in the introduction, the author's primary objective is to provide an update of the last two or three decades in "plant cytogenetics." The vast majority of this information is presented in chapter six. This chapter, constituting over half the text of the book, deals with numerical and structural chromosome variation in crop plants, the effects these rearrangements have on transmission genetics and their usefulness in determining linkage patterns. Most of the classical topics of plant cytogenetics, as they were defined in the 1903-1970 period, are dealt with in this chapter. The kinds of chromosome mutations (trans locations, inversions, trisomies, triploids, compensating diploids, etc.) are described and examples of the studies available concerning their origins and effects are presented.

A substantial literature has accumulated since the techniques of induced chromosome banding were first developed in the early 1970s. The array of chromosome banding techniques now available, with new ones appearing regularly, have proven to be a valuable tool for recognizing specific chromosomes and specific regions within chromosomes. These chromosome markers have, in turn, allowed more reliable and accurate study of the relationships between the behavior and structure of chromosomes and genetic linkage and transmission. Of the nearly 50 pages of literature citations in this book, the majority relate to the subject of Chapter 6 and, hence, provide valuable access to this body of research.

The large ma jori ty of work in classical cytogenetics is done using domesticated plant taxa and the author relies heavily on these studies for his examples. References to noncommercial species are mostly incidental. Perhaps it is for this reason that some important topics have not been considered. For example, there is no direct consideration of changes in chromosome number at the diploid level in an evolutionary context. Some cases are described of genetic mutants having new diploid numbers due apparently to centric misdivision, but the potential consequences of such changes are not considered. The term "dysploidy" does not appear and the term "aneudiploid" (p. 263) is used (in reference to a 2n = 38 soybean where the norm is 2n = 40) but this term is never defined and does not appear in either the glossary or the index. In general, theoretical considerations are minimized both in the sense of crop genetics (e.g., given what we know about reciprocal translocations, is it conceivable to produce a true breeding translocation heterozygote with high levels of genetic heterozygosity as an alternative to commercially produced Fl hybrid corn?) and in the sense of plant evolution in general (eg., what is known about the cytogenetics of corn evolution, or chromosome number evolution in the Asteraceae?).


Two chapters are oriented toward methodology. One placed near the beginning of the book presents basic techniques for preparing plant chromosomes for light microscope study, induced banding protocols, etc. The second concerns the effects of variations in cell culture technique in producing chromosomal mutations and is placed near the end of the book. The material presented should be a useful introduction to some of basic techniques for persons just getting into cytogenetics, but the placement of these two chapters provide a disconcerting element to the overall organization of the book.

A number of chapters appear to be an attempt to make the book useful as an undergraduate student text; one of the authors' expectations. For example, Chapter 1 de- scribes the story of Mendel's work and it's rediscovery by Sutton and Boveri as the origin of cytogenetics. It is very brief and fails, in my opinion, to transmit the profound nature of the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance and extraordinary excitement of this early work.

A potentially very important chapter on mitosis and meiosis is far too brief to be a good introduction to these complex cellular events. Roughly five short pages of text are allocated to describing these events. A solid under- standing of the complex chromosomal behaviors involved in meiosis is obviously absolutely critical to even the simplest cytogenetic examples presented in Chapter 6 and given the difficulty that most students have in clearly understanding meiosis, this introduction is not adequate. A substantial enhancement of this chapter would go a long way toward making this book suitable as an introduction to classical cytogenetics.

Still another chapter that seems directed toward undergraduates is that on karyotype analysis. This includes roughly one and a half pages of the barest description of principles and the rest presents a single example - the karyotype of barley, a topic on which the author has made substantial contribution. An important attempt by Fukui and Iijima to develop a computer-assisted karyotype methodology for plants is dismissed as unnecessary if one can produce a "good quality chromosome preparation."

And finally, a chapter is allocated to a glossary. The definitions are typically too brief to be useful for either new or advanced students and often are confusing or out of date. For example, "kinetochore" is considered equivalent to "centromere" and this is certainly not the way these two terms have been used by chromosome biologists in the last 25 years. In general, these chapters appear to me to be inadequate for undergraduate use and of little interest to more advanced workers.

For advanced students who are looking for descriptions of the mechanics of the wide variety of chromosomal aberrations that have been studied in crop plants, this text should be of considerable use. Perhaps the most significant drawback, in my opinion, is the almost complete lack of information from the more recent methodologies of molecular cytogenetics, EM studies of the genome, evolutionary cytogenetics, etc. These fields are all contributing important information toward an under- standing of the genome, how it is structured and how it works. No matter how narrowly any subfield of cytogenetics is defined, it cannot ignore critical information from the other subdisciplines.- W.L. Bloom, University of Kansas, Lawrence

Aspects of Tropical Mycology - S. Isaac, J.C. Frankland, R. Watling, and A.J.S. Whalley, eds. 1993. ISBN 0-521-45050-0 (cloth). Cambridge University Press, The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1 RP UK.
Close to a thousand years of alpha-taxonomy-this is the estimate one of our authors cites as needed for completion of mycoflora for the neotropics alone! The daunting figure is hardly an over- statement within the context of this book, where to paraphrase many of the authors, mycologists are a rare commodity, particularly in the tropics. In inverse ratio to the number of practitioners of tropical mycology, questions surrounding the fungi of the tropics are many. What is a tropical fungus? Are there taxonomic groups that are centered in the tropics? What lifestyles, if any, typify tropical fungi? What phylogenetic positions might they occupy? What are their unique roles in tropical ecosystems?

The problems that impede progress toward under- standing the "Fifth Kingdom" arise as much from the organisms themselves as from external, human-imposed factors in the tropics. This brave volume, which summarizes the proceedings of a symposium of the British Mycological Society in 1992, touches upon all these issues. Most fungi are small,. ephemeral, hidden organ- isms that live most of their lives in the soil or underwater, inside host organisms, or mingled with and virtually inseparable from symbiotic partners. Apart from these organismic limitations, there is a marked human side to the problem. Not least of the difficulties in tropical mycology is confusion over taxonomy and nomenclature. Fungi were collected piecemeal in the tropics, at least until our century. Many names are based on single collections, and synonyms abound. Herbaria and libraries are weakly developed in tropical countries, and poverty and political instability contribute to a poor prognosis for their future. D.L. Hawksworth summarizes the scale of these problems with characteristic wit as well as depth in the closing chapter. Tropical mycology is not likely to overcome the obstacles outlined by Hawksworth without major efforts from the scientific community and the sources that provide its funding. The authors of this volume, most but not all of whom are temperate mycologists, offer their work as well as suggestions for future progress, as a first step.

I found the contributions that focused on particular adaptations, such as litter-trapping fungi of moist forests, to be the most interesting. I wish the book had focused on lifestyle questions such as these, which address them- selves to interactions among organisms and the environment. The biology of the fungi is still rather poorly


understood, and contributions toward that understanding would be most valuable. My supposition is that such a focus might be the useful for all students of the tropics, rather than for mycologists in particular. The taxonomic papers, which focused on particular groups of fungi, treated the tropics with less emphasis. This seems inevitable, since there are few fungal groups that are exclusively tropical. Several authors struggle with very difficult and interesting questions such as fungal biogeography, species questions, and evolutionary processes in the fungi. For example, the brilliant and provocative introduction by tropical mycologist par excellence E.J.H. Corner plays with the question of "natural perfection rather than natural selection."

I was disappointed to not have been offered more on the role of fungi as plant pathogens, which would seem to be especially pertinent in view of the needs of tropical agriculture. Likewise, mycorrhizae were not stressed, although they were given some attention. Fungi in the life of human cultures in the tropics were not given adequate treatment. I would have liked to see more on fungal-insect and fungal-algal symbioses. Fascinating genera such as Cordyceps and Septobasidium were only briefly touched upon, and the array ofbasidiolichens and leaf-inhabiting lichens, both of which are nearly exclusively tropical, was barely mentioned.

There are a few further, minor criticisms. The type- face of this volume, which looks as though it were done on an inadequate desktop system, was ugly and the type was partly effaced on some pages. The reproductions of maps, drawings, and graphs were poor. The chapters were actually papers unto themselves and thus seemed to lack continuity. The inclusion of abstracts of papers and posters was a bit awkward, but I suppose saved space. The book is an important one, and I recommend it highly for biology libraries. It makes a significant contribution to the neglected field of tropical mycology. - Samuel Hammer, Boston University

Stable Isotopes and Plant Carbon - Water Relations - J.R. Ehleringer, A.E. Hall, and G.D. Farquhar, eds. 1993. ISBN 0-12-233380-2 (cloth, no price given) Harcourt Brace, 465 S lincoln Dr., Troy, MO 63379
To assess the carbon and water relations of plants, researchers traditionally have had to use either detailed, instantaneous measurements of plant physiological processes (e.g. leaf gas exchange) or gross, long- term measurements of carbon and water balance (e.g. net primary productivity, evapotranspiration). As Johnson et al. point out in the introduction to their chapter, both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, but neither has been completely satisfactory. During the last 10 years, another set of tools to probe the ecophysiology of plants has become widely used. This set of tools, the stable isotope composition of plants, has the potential to combine the advantages of traditional techniques and provide quantitative, integrated, and rather direct measurements of how plants acquire and utilize two of their most important resources, carbon and water. This book provides a comprehensive but discerning summary of how the relative abundance of stable isotopes within plants indicates plant physiological processes and how this information can be exploited to investigate basic and applied issues of plant performance.

Stable isotopes have been incorporated into research programs that span a wide breadth of disciplines, a breadth reflected by the large number of chapters (33) and authors (61) in the book. Individual chapters cover the range of plant growth forms and environments, from lichens to herbaceous annuals to conifers and from the tropics to the deserts. The authors use plants of economic importance, such as major grain crops, forage plants, and timber species, as well as plants in natural ecosystems as model systems for their investigations.

The book is divided into five parts. Part I provides a synopsis of the broad interests in carbon-water relations as well as a short but interesting history of stable isotopes in plant sciences. But the primary focus of this first part is the four chapters authored by O'Leary, Vogel, Farquhar and Lloyd, and Flanagan. These carefully written chapters detail the physiological and biological processes that provide the fundamental basis for the use of stable isotope and should be required reading for anyone wishing to utter "delta l3C." The middle three parts are devoted to how stable isotopes, in particular carbon, have been utilized by ecologists, agronomists, and plant breeders, but in many ways the division into three parts is artificial. For example, I as an ecologist expected that the chapters in Part II, entitled "Ecological Aspects of Carbon Isotope Variation," would provide interesting ideas, but the chap- ters in Part III, entitled "Agricultural Aspects of Carbon Isotope Variation," also were pertinent to my research interests; an agronomist would likely express the con- verse of this statement. A central theme in both sections was how variations in carbon isotope composition have advanced our understanding of physiological responses to natural changes in environment. Parts III and IV, the latter entitled "Genetics and Isotopic Variation," also share common themes: what is the genetic basis for variation in carbon isotope discrimination, what is the heritability of this variation, and where and how can this information be used in plant breeding programs? Up to this point in the book, most of the text has focused on the stable isotope of carbon and its relationships to water use efficiency, i.e. the tradeoff between carbon gain and water loss. The final part of the book, entitled "Water Relations and Isotopic Composition, "focuses on the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. The amount of text devoted to these isotopes is small not without good reason: many confounding effects are still being investigated, as exemplified by the chapters by Lin and Sternberg and by Yakir et al. Nonetheless, the comprehensive review chapter by Dawson coupled with the detailed case study by Thorburn and Walker demonstrate that the stable isotopes of water provide significant information.

My major criticism of the book is that the text lacks a chapter on sampling protocol, i.e. a concise, comprehensive


list of "do's, don'ts, and confounding effects." The systematic examination of discrimination processes in Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 should alert researchers to potential pitfalls in sampling protocols, and many chapters (especially Chapters 11, 13, 17,21, and 22) explicitly describe factors that need to be considered before sampling. Thus, one could argue that this criticism is more a matter of convenience than a necessary suggestion, but a problem with new technology is that a proportion of new users invariably miss some of the precautions and limitations of that technology. A chapter on sampling protocol would likely minimize this proportion, and thus maximize the accumulation of knowledge. Two minor criticisms, that the introductions of many chapters are repetitive and that the text has occasional lapses in consistency (e.g. some chapters differ in terminology and notation), are not serious enough to distract the reader. If the mark of a good book is the number of new ideas that it generates in the minds of its readers, then I would rate this book as very
good. - Robert S. Nowak, University of Nevada, Reno


The Polymerase Chain Reaction - K. B. Mullis, F. Ferre, and R. A. Gibbs, eds. 1994. ISBN 0-8176- 3607-2, 458 + xiv pp. (cloth US $79.00, paper US $45.00). Birkhauser Boston, PO Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386
When Kary Mullis was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, he appeared in the news- papers wearing a wet suit rather than the customary white lab coat of scientific celebrities. And instead of carrying a staid flask or pippetor, he had a surf board in his hands! Regardless of his irreverent style, I was eager to learn what sage advise the inventor of the polymerase chain reaction might impart to practitioners of the powerful but often perplexing art of PCR. However it soon became clear that I was not going to learn how PCR works from Mullis, for in the book's preface, he readily admits that "I didn't work on the book because I was busy" (p. xiii). His major contribution appears to have been inviting many of his friends (often researchers at private biotechnology institutions in the San Diego area) to write chapters. These are sandwiched between Mullis' peculiar preface and the book's final chapter containing his recollections of the 1991 trial in U.S. Federal Court over the validity of the PCR patent. His description of his experiences at the trial makes for amusing reading, if one does not mind the potshots he takes at a famous biochemist and key witness for DuPont, the company that challenged patent number 4,683,202. It is Mullis' outrageous comments that forced the publisher to add a disclaimer that "the opinions expressed herein reflect those of the author only"! Despite his sometimes unprofessional style, Mullis does provide interesting insights into the process of scientific discovery. Along the way, he nicely reviews the work done on in vitro DNA synthesis in the early 1970s, and explains why (in his opinion and that of a jury) this did not constitute an earlier invention of in vitro DNA amplification. A companion chapter describes the history of the commercialization of PCR from the perspective of Ellen Daniell, the "director of licensing" for Roche Molecular Systems, present owner of the PCR patent. A dissenting viewpoint and criticism of the current licensing policy is found in a foreword by James Watson. Like Mullis, Watson is a Nobel Prize winner who does not hesitate to speak his mind.

The above sections constitute a good introduction to the history and legal status of PCR. To learn about the PCR process itself, one must turn to the other 33 chapters. Nineteen chapters are grouped under the heading "Methodology." Topics covered include the cloning of PCR products, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, nonisotopic detection, instrumentation, and DNA sequencing. The chapter by Michael Frohman entitled "Cloning PCR products" is an excellent example of the type of informa- tion one would hope for in a volume like this. Frohman gives the theoretical background, pros and cons of various cloning strategies, specific recommendations, and de- tailed protocols for all of the described cloning procedures. In particular, his description of the technique he pioneered (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) is the best I have seen. A similarly satisfying treatment is provided by Jamel Chelly and Axel Kahn on reverse transcriptase PCR and mRNA quantitation. Like Frohman, these authors were responsible for the innovative procedures described in their chapter, resulting in extremely authorative accounts. Another excellent chapter is en- titled "Automating the PCR process" (H. R. Garner). Although most researchers will not need to process 10,000 PCR reactions in a day, as described here, they will find an illuminating discussion "dispelling PCR myths."

Unfortunately many of the remaining methodological chapters are not as well-executed. The level of detail in the protocols varies greatly. There is no standard format for


their presentation, making quick reference difficult. No protocol at all is given for the increasingly important technique of direct sequencing of PCR products. I was also disappointed that one critical component of PCR success, primer design, does not merit its own chapter. In the chapter, "Manipulation of DNA by PCR" (K. Hayashi) it is only stated that various software programs are avail- able for primer design, but "even the best program is not perfect." Furthermore, no programs are referenced, and no advice is given on how to improve on a poor primer. Novel applications of the PCR process continue to be published at an astonishing rate. Thus it is inevitable that certain "hot topics" will not be covered, and others will have been eclipsed by the time the book is published. For example, the two chapters on nonradioactive detection of PCR (which are largely redundant) include no references after 1991, and thus only refer briefly to the powerful new dimeric flourochromes that have subsequently become popular. Some chapters appear to have been updated through 1993, but rapidly developing topics such as "long PCR" are nowhere to be found.

Most of the methodological chapters are of general interest. However a few are weakened by too narrow a focus, such as the chapter entitled "Preparation of nucleic acids for archival material" (D. Shibata). Although the title is broad, the author only treats the study of formalin- fixed, paraffin embedded, medical specimens. Likewise, half of the fourteen chapters included under "Applications" have a strong medical focus, dealing with disease diagnostics and the assessment of therapy effectiveness. As these issues concern our own species, many readers will have a general interest in them. On the other hand, I suspect that most PSB readers will turn first to "Genetics, plants, and the polymerase chain reaction" by Bruno Sobral and Rhonda Honeycutt.

The authors, both at the California Institute of Biological Research in La Jolla, California, devote much of the chapter to their use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in plants, and provide a good review of the literature through 1992. The use of PCR to identify and follow plant symbionts and pathogens is briefly treated, while the applications of PCR in plant ecology, population genetics, and phylogeny are scarcely mentioned.

Plant biologists may be puzzled to find that the clumsy acronym AP - PCR (arbitrary primer PCR) is used in favor of the clever and more familiar RAPD (it's fast). The two methods were published simultaneously in 1990. Although RAPD has become the commonly used designation, the editors of this volume have opted for AP-PCR. I refer you to Mullis' preface for some interesting comments on why this choice was made. An overview of AP- PCR is also found in a chapter by John Welsh and Michael McLelland, the inventors of this technique.

Among the remaining chapters, 'The application of PCR to forensic science" (B. Budowle et al.) is good background reading for a subject that is currently in the news. It is too bad that they do not cite a recent case in which RAPD fingerprinting of seed pods found in a defendant's truck were matched to a "key tree" at a murder site (SCIENCE 260: 894-895, 1993). "Recreating the past by PCR" (Matthias Hoss et al.) introduces the burgeoning field of ancient DNA analysis. While capturing the excitement of this research, it includes a useful summary of precautions that must be taken when working with ancient DNA. Alas, this chapter is also outdated, written before the publication of sequences from 35-40 million year old plants (NATURE 363: 677, 1993) and 120- 135 million year old insects (NATIJRE 363: 536-538, 1993) preserved in amber. Finally, the chapter "Non biological applications" (G. Dollinger), describes the potential use of PCR for detection of DNA added as a submicroscopic label for commercial objects. As Mullis points out in his preface, the author neglects to reference a scene in the movie Blade Runner in which a similar technology is demonstrated.

In summary, the 68 contributing authors and three editors of The Polymerase Chain Reaction have produced a book with a few excellent treatments of specific topics, some good advice on the use of PCR, descriptions of several fascinating applications, and amusing (or infuriating, depending on your point of view) anecdotes from the inventor of the process. Nevertheless, this is not the definitive treatment of the subject nor is it an adequate reference for many PCR protocols. Subscribing to the free journal BIOTECHNIQUES and the Internet news group BIONET.MOLBIO.METHDS-REAGNTS would be economical alternatives for answering your questions and keeping up to date with the polymerase chain reaction. - Aaron Liston, Oregon State University.




The Scent of Orchids: Olfactory and Chemical Investigations - R. Kaiser. 1993. ISBN 0- 444-89841-7, 259 pp. (cloth US$175). Elsevier Science Publishers, Molenwerf 1, P. O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Flowers are botanical advertisements, and orchid flowers are multimedia presentations. The extensive radiation of floral morphology and adaptations for pollinators in this huge family have captured the fascination of scientists for centuries. Kaiser's passion for this group is evident throughout this sumptuously produced book, and the ardor is expressed in many ways.

This is really three books in one. The first book is a succinct exposition on orchid floral biology and how the biochemistry of scents are studied. This section is much less detailed and comprehensive than similar treatments in, for example, Arditti's Fundamentals of Orchid Biology (1992) or van der Pijl and Dodson's Orchid Flowers, Their Pollination and Evolution (1966), and consequently has little new for ecologists familiar with the basic story of orchid floral structure.
But this first "book" does open the door to reproductive ecology and functional morphology to uninitiated readers who would be attracted to the second book: a magnificent collection of color plates of orchid flowers chosen to typify the family's diversity throughout the world. This second section of the book is arranged by geographic provinces, and the discussions of each genus include some pollination biology, some range information, often horticultural importance, and, always, a discussion of the scent, its biochemistry and perception (at least by a hominid nose). Kaiser is an expert photographer and the pictures' technical quality could not be surpassed. I imagine the high cost of this book is determined, in large part, by the production costs of the illustrations, done in Switzerland. I honor the technical and aesthetic achievement as I apply for a second mortgage to get a copy of the book for my father-in-law.

The third "book" is a most technical discussion of the biochemistry of orchid scents, Kaiser's professional specialty, and the most useful scientific function of the work. The author has a long analytical summary of known scents from many genera, much of this has own research, and this will be the most up to date and comprehensive listing available in the technical literature. This is much more inclusive, for example, than the analogous list in Arditti's 1992 Fundamentals. I see this section as necessary reference material for organic chemists interested in natural products and metabolic pathways in plants, and for pollination biologists learned the proximate attractions for floral visitors. Kaiser is so expert in this material that he assumes that the reader knows what many biochemicals smell like, and is apt to write, "strongly reminiscent of eugenol and benzyl acetate" to describe a scent, which sent this curious pollination biologist scurrying to biochemist colleagues who I have avoided for years to find out what this means. Sometimes they knew, but this is arcane knowledge to most of us. Kaiser often uses nontechnical descriptions of odors, "melon aspect in the top note," "reminiscent of overripe fruit and... wine yeast," an attempt to reach a broader audience, but still difficult to understand. Language has always been a poor vehicle for the subtle differences among natural odors; perhaps a greater background in biochemistry would serve us all well. Tell that to the typical Chanel perfume customer.

Kaiser is aware of these communication problems and suggests an important characterization of all floral scents. Four categories, "images," are suggested: white-floral; rosy-floral; ionone-floral; and spicy-floral. These are groups of rather well known odors put into classes, to allow more precision in verbal descriptions of scents. The biochemical and taxonomic associates of each "image" are presented clearly in a section beginning on page 40. Although the author understands that he dealing with only one aspect of the attractiveness of orchids to their pollinators, I am concerned that the readers may forget that much of the biochemical attraction of flowers may not be perceived by us. An insect's perception can be more precise than ours for many floral products. The pheromones, for example, that attract the entrained insect males to sexually deceptive, "pseudocopulatory," orchid species are completely unperceived by us, yet elicit the most rapid and direct response by the pollinators, each to a different orchid species.

The uncovering of the scent biochemistry is critical to evolutionary studies, and one hopes that workers will exploit Kaiser's work to more precise research in this field. For example, the alpha taxonomy of orchids, based largely on floral morphology, could be improved if one could sort out scent-morphs, then see if different pollinator guilds respond differently to the morphs. If the scents cause reproductive isolation, Kaiser's work will be a boon for systematics, as well as the perfume industry. Many orchids are isolated only by prezygotic mechanisms, hence the ease people have in creating hybrids, and scent attraction must be a large part of the natural history of species separation. For example, Phalaenopsis violacea is listed as having a "Malaya-type" and a "Borneo-type" that differ by scent, floral color and structure. Surely this is a taxon to focus in on to sort out the links between floral characters and speciation processes.

Given the many appeals of the book, its photographs, its hard biochemistry, and the author's enthusiasm for the subject which comes through at so many places in the book, I suspect that the work will find several audiences in the natural product community and among orchid fanciers, many of whom would be happy and able to pay the price.
- Steven N. Handel, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey.


Arabidopsis: An Atlas of Morphology and Development - J. Bowman, ed. 1994. ISBN 0-387- 94089-8 (cloth US$69.00) Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus NJ 07094
It is well known that Arabidopsis thaliana is an important organism in plant development and molecular biology. Arabidopsis became a "model plant system" in the late 1980s and is being increasingly used by plant biologists today. Plant molecular biologists like to use Arabidopsis because it has the smallest genome known among angiosperms and because it contains very little dispersed repetitive DNA. Other advantages include its small size, rapid life cycle (&-8 weeks seed to seed), its fecundity (one plant can produce up to 10,000 seeds), and the ready ability to create mutants from the plant. Many of these mutants have been used to investigate important processes in plants such as gravitropism, phototropism, and reproductive development.

The emphasis in this book, as the title suggests, is on the photographs. There are 167 plates, and each plate typically has about six figures, so the book is encyclopedic in nature. The editor himself has provided numerous figures, but he also enlisted the help of about 60 scientists to provide material for the atlas. Figures include photo- graphs of whole plants or plant organs, light micrographs (brightfield, Nomarski, and fluorescence), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The figures are both from recently published articles, and some were produced directly for this book. There are some very spectacular photographs in this atlas such as a cryo-scanning micrograph of a leaf surface and scanning electron micrograph of pollen release and germination. As one would expect from a Springer-Verlag publication, the quality of photographic reproductions is good to excellent.

The book is divided into eight chapters: vegetative development, roots, flowers, pollen, ovules, pollination, embryogenesis, and pathogens. Each chapter consists of several pages of introduction followed by photographic plates. The plates first illustrate wild-type structures and development, and then introduce several mutants related to the topic of the chapter. A comprehensive list of references that is current up to 1993 is included in the atlas. While congratulating editor Bowman for doing a very good job with this book, 1 have several criticisms. Firstly, the book seems to be more oriented toward reproductive development, and several interesting aspects of vegetative development (e.g. root cap and hypocotyl structure) are not treated. While the quality of the vast majority of photographs is very high, the prints of some micrographs are too small, and thus important details of structure are difficult to resolve. There also are numerous examples of wasted space on photographic plates where more than 50% of the page is blank space (e.g. plates 1.23, 6.1, 7.4), although this may have been because of the format in which figures were provided by various contributors.

Despite having these limitations, Arabidopsis: An Atlas of Morphology and Development will serve as a useful reference and resource for graduate students and researchers. If you are working with Arabidopsis in your lab or are using it as a teaching tool, this atlas is a must for your personal library. 1 also recommend this beautifully illustrated and informative book for acquisition by university libraries and hope that it gains wide distribution. - John Z. Kiss, Miami University, Oxford, OH

Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Approach - D. E. Fosket, 1994. ISBNO-12- 262430-0 (cloth, no price given) Academic Press, 525B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego CA 92101- 4495
Genetic and molecular analyses of plant development have utilized model organisms to understand specific developmental processes. Results obtained in the last few years have been stunning and the body of literature has grown immensely. The author is to be com- mended for undertaking the marathon task of "putting it all together" into one text suitable for the junior and senior undergraduate level.

This book attempts to do it all. No prior knowledge of either plants, genetics, molecular biology, or cell biology is presumed. As a result, the book seems a little diffuse in its content and some of the introductory material may not be new to students who have taken an introductory Biology course where sufficient emphasis was placed on plant structure, and basic cell and molecular biology. However, even such introductory chapters have interesting information, e.g., the sections on homeotic mutations and differential growth in chapter 2, and correlation of genome size with organismic complexity and levels of ploidy in chapter 3. The chapter devoted to cell biology is a whopping 70 pages-but the information presented is accompanied by numerous micrographs and line drawings (more on figures and figure legends later).

The last five chapters in the book are devoted to aspects of growth and development. One gets an encapsulated plant-physiological view of development in two of these five chapters. Development from the organ and plant perspective is summarized in two chapters. The student may feel a little overwhelmed with all the information in this section since it is here that most of the newest and latest genetic and molecular analyses of sexual incompatibility, embryonic development, meristems, heterochrony, flowering, and leaf development are discussed. A chapter on plant host-pathogen and symbiotic interactions concludes the text.

It must be emphasized that the information presented in this text is very current (and includes references up to 1993). Each chapter has extensive general and specific


references that are quite comprehensive. If accompanied by judiciously chosen primary literature and a secondary reference text such as Plant Development by Steeves and Sussex, the book would be a good text for a molecular development course.

I discovered that the book has a few specific problems. For all of us generalists out here, the book mentions in the introductory chapter that "... no single higher plant is truly representative of all higher plants. As a result, it would be unwise for molecular biologists to focus their attention completely on Arabidopsis, excluding all other species." Yet in the text, molecular analyses from a few model species are presented in great detail without an accompanying discussion of what implications, if any, these results have for other plant species or alternative modes of development. The line drawings and reproductions are clear and plentiful (but none in color). The figure legends are plagued with problems that I hope will be taken care of in the next edition of this otherwise excellent book.
- Neelima Sinha, Boston University


Introduction to Plant Population Biology - J. W. Silvertown and J. Lovett Doust. 1993. ISBN 0- 632-02973-0, 210 pp. (kivar US$39.95) Blackwell Scientific Publications, 238 Main St., Cambridge MA 02142
Although there has been a slight title change and an additional author, many readers will recognize this book as an update of Jonathan Silvertown 's (1987) Introduction to Plant Population Ecology, 2nd ed. (Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, UK). However, it differs substantially from the earlier work and in many ways can be regarded as a new text rather than a simple revision.

In keeping with a "central aim" to "bring the genetic and ecological branches of plant population biology closer together," there are chapters on "Variation and its Inheritance" and "Ecological Genetics" in addition to ecologically oriented chapters on "Intraspecific Interactions," "Population Dynamics," and "Competition and Coexistence." The dynamics of structured populations and metapopulations are also discussed in separate chapters. The final two chapters explore "life history evolution": the first considers sex and mating systems, an area absent from the earlier book; the second covers "birth, growth and death," much of which was covered in the "Evolutionary Ecology" chapter of the earlier book.

As delineated in the introduction, the two principal organizing themes are evolution and population dynamics. With the new information on ecological genetics and mating systems, the authors succeed in providing a thorough yet succinct overview of plant population biology within only 178 pages of text. As such, this book would be an excellent one to give to a beginning graduate student interested in plant populations. However, as with any introductory text, by necessity many topics such as quantitative genetics and phenotypic plasticity can only be covered in brief. A student interested in more detail needs to go elsewhere. Fortunately, an extensive bibliography of over 750 entries provides excellent access to much recent literature. My only criticism here is that some important key references are missing-for example, any potential student of the subject would need to be familiar with J.L. Harper's (1977) influential Population Biology of Plants (Academic Press, London) and anyone needing additional information on quantitative genetics of plants would probably want to know about the Mitchell-Olds and Rutledge review thereof (AMER. NAT. 127: 379, 1986).

In their use of plant examples, the authors have been quite democratic, covering most life forms and a wide geographical distribution. Theoretical ideas and hypotheses are supported (or not) by the liberal use of examples from the published literature.


Much recent information is used, but classic studies like Clausen, Keck, and Heisey's (1948) common garden experiments are also noted where appropriate. However, it should be noted that this is a book about higher terrestrial plants, and the words "algae," "moss," and "fern" are not even listed in the index.

Although there is no glossary, important terms are generally printed in boldface and clearly defined as needed. Each chapter is also followed by a summary that highlights critical terms and concepts. Mathematics are kept to a minimum, but there are a few boxed portions of the text that offer more detail on topics like matrix and sensitivity analysis. The prose is generally clear and typographical errors are rare. I detected only one factual error (Amphicarpaea bracteata, a legume, is mistakenly listed as Amphicarpum, a grass genus). The writing contains some catchy phrases: 'There is enough sex and death in the plant kingdom to fill a thousand and one nights of storytelling, but the Scheherazade of botany has still not made her appearance" (p. 1) and 'The early plant catches the light" (p. 13) are two examples from the first chapter.

In short, this text would be useful in a weekly graduate seminar designed to introduce plant population biology and for any ecologist or botanist with a need for an introduction to the subdiscipline. Anyone planning to teach a full-length course in plant population biology would certainly need to supplement the text with additional readings. The material covered consists mostly of basic research and applied biologists may not find this text useful because potential applications are not pro- vided. For example, the practical relevance of metapopulation dynamics to conservation biology is never developed. However, the intellectual foundation needed to apply population biology is provided and the book should be useful to anyone doing or planning to do botanical research in ecological systems as it gives a concise overview about what is presently known (or not known!) about the biology of plant populations.
- G. P. Cheplick, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater

La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest - L.A. McDade, K.S. Bawa, H.A. Hespenheide, and G.S. Hartshorn, ads. 1994. ISBN 0-226-03950-1, 485 pp. (cloth; $90.00), 0-226-03952-8 (paper; $29.95) University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL. 60637.
At last. A compilation of the accumulated 25-plus years of research at the La Selva Biological Station. Located in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica, La Selva is a premier field station in the Neotropics. It is owned and operated by the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS), a consortium of North American, Puerto Rican, and Costa Rican academic institutions. Bought from Leslie Holdridge in 1968 as a 587 ha 'farm' of primary and secondary forest and small Cordia, pejibaye, cocoa, and coffee plantations, La Selva has grown to be a 1,536 ha field station, producing research of world renown in tropical biology. This collection of 26 chapters is a review of, and tribute to, the tremendous variety of research completed and underway at La Selva. It is filled with fascinating observations and facts that will whet the appetite of any biologist. Among the many tidbits that fascinated me were: the density of dioecious trees at La Selva is almost precisely twice that of hermaphroditic species (in the chapter by M. and D. Lieberman); althoughPentaclethra is the dominant tree species of this forest and an important nitrogen fixer, no one has measured the rate of nitrogen fixation by this species (Parker); butterflies and grasshoppers at La Selva are more specialized in their diets than their temperate counterparts, though treehoppers are not (Marquis and Braker).

Long in the planning and compilation, this edited book is a valuable and important contribution to tropical biology. As a veteran La Selva researcher, I read this book in total fascination and interest and with fond remembrance of the people and forest there; however, I predict that it will be valuable and enjoyable reading for anyone interested in tropical biology. It is not a book for the



layman like Tropical Nature by Forsyth and Miyata; the chapters describe research at La Selva and are filled with tables and figures of results. Fascinating natural history stories are reduced to single sentences, which will capture the interest of the truly interested, but pass by the un- trained biologist. Although each chapter is punctuated with "little is known about the ecology of this group" and "more work is needed in this area," it is obvious that a tremendous amount ~ known about the biotic and abiotic environments of La Selva. The authors are careful to point out the areas of weakness in their field and each chapter contains an exceedingly useful section entitled "Future research."

This collection nicely complements two other popular books on tropical biology: Janzen's Costa Rican Natural History and the Leigh et al. 's Ecology of a Tropical Forest (about Barro Colorado Island in Panama). The former is a compilation of species descriptions of a subset of the organisms found in the variety of forests of Costa Rica. The latter is a series of chapters about the effects of seasonality (wet, dry) on a variety of systems on BCI (herbivory, frugivory, seed germination, flowering, tree falls, insects, etc.). The value of La Selva is that it documents the biotic and abiotic features of a tropical rain forest that is relatively aseasonal. In addition, La Selva is more diverse in its approach than the book on BCI, containing chapters on the systematics and general biology of the plants and various animal groups found there, and chapters on conservation and human impact.

The book is divided into six sections. 1) Abiotic environment and ecosystem processes (climate, soils, nutrient avail- ability and recycling). 2) The plant community (vegetation types, demography, spatial patterns, gaps, physiological ecology, phenology, and reproductive biology). 3) The animal community (butter- flies, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds,
mammals, population biology). 4) Plant- animal interactions (herbivory, frugivory). 5) The human environment (history of colonization and conservation of the region, agricultural systems, forestry). 6) A set of appendices (a description of the research productivity and administration of La Selva and checklists of the plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds). Each chapter is written by the La Selva authority on the subject and so presents the most reliable information in each area. The chapters and their contribution to the book are almost uniformly of high quality. The chapters by McDade and Hartshorn (history), Parker (soil nutrients ), Hartshorn and Hanunel (the flora), Fetcher, Oberbauer, and Chazdon (plant physiology), DeVries (butterflies), Marquis and Braker (herbivory), and Butterfield (history of land use in the region) are outstanding contributions; well-written, chock-full of information, and current (though this list certainly reflects my own interests). Only a few chapters are dry and dated, in particular the chapters by Buss (fish) and the Liebermans (spatial patterns of trees, written in 1987!). Overwhelmingly, though, the authors and editors did an exemplary job. Commentaries precede each section of the book; two of these (by McDade preceding the abiotic and ecosystem section and by Bawa and McDade preceding the plant community section) are outstanding. Reading just these will entice biologists to consume the entire book.

The strengths of La Selva lie in its comprehensive- ness, the high quality of the majority of its chapters, the "Future Research" section of each chapter, the commentaries by McDade and Bawa & McDade, and the appendices. Unlike Leigh et al.'s book on BCI, La Selva contains appendices of species lists. I can easily imagine these pages being photocopied by all OTS students and researchers planning to go to La Selva. The various appendices within each chapter are also invaluable, like the appendix of the sexual system, breeding system, and pollinators of various plants at La Selva. And for anyone who has been there and wondered about the hierarchy of housing or the logic behind the zoning of the forest, McDade's appendix on the administration of La Selva will be helpful; this appendix should also be read by anyone planning a field station. In addition, the chapters on conservation, reforestation, and land-use of the region certainly broaden the perspective of the book. There is



tremendous emphasis on the role that La Selva and OTS must play in the future of conservation biology in Costa Rica.

I would have preferred (as would anyone wanting to photocopy only certain chapters to take with them to the tropics, I suspect) a bibliography to accompany each chapter, rather than a single one at the end of the book. With bibliographies for each chapter, it becomes obvious what reading is essential to become current on flowering phenologies or herbivory, for example. As it is, a very large and impressive bibliography is presented, which a specialist will have to weed through to find pertinent papers. The book is remarkably free of errors and typos (though I do wish Crump et al. 1992, cited in Donnelly's chapter, was in the bibliography!). Somewhere in this book there should be a list of the research support available to visiting scientists: lab facilities and equipment. I suspect this was not included because it would become dated quite rapidly and the instruments that are there in 1994 may not be working or available in 1996, but nowhere does it become obvious that the lab facilities are exceptional and generally open to use by scientists.

I can imagine readers using this book for four reasons. First, as a reference on specific organisms and systems (particularly in conjunction with Janzen's book). For instance, if I were interested in herbivory in tropical systems, I'd certainly read Marquis and Braker's chapter before coming to Costa Rica. Second, to get ideas for research. If I were interested in herbivory but felt that all the interesting questions had been asked (if not answered) already, I'd read the "Future research" sections of pertinent chapters. Third, as confirmation of and references for anecdotal information and famous OTS stories (yes, there are several papers cited that document that the adult Dendrobates pumilio do deposit unfertilized eggs in the leaf axils of bromeliads where their offspring are maturing). And finally, as a backbone for comparative tropical ecology. Orians ends the book with a chapter of review and synthesis, emphasizing the need for parallel studies to be done in a variety of tropical forests to determine where generalizations are applicable and where they break down. This book provides a substantive and comprehensive 'germ' for such comparisons. I think: this book should be required reading for anyone contemplating research at La Selvaor in Costa Rica. Frequent comparisons of La Selva to BCI, Cocha Cashu (Peru), and Manaus (Brazil) should make it of interest to most Neotropical biologists. The paperback is quite affordable, making the common deterrent to buying new books (price) almost a non-issue.
Helen Young, Barnard College, New York



& Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAil, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly!--Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

Ecology and Management of Invasive Riverside Plants deWall, L.C., L.E. Child, P. M. Wade & J.H. Brock 1994. ISBN 047194257X (cloth US$95.(0) John Wiley & Sons, 605 3rd. Ave., New York NY 10158

Economic Botany
Citrus Davies, F.S. & L.G. Albrigo 1994. ISBN 0- 85198-867-9 (paper US$33.00) University of Arizona Press, 1230 N Park Ave., Suite 102, Tucson AZ 85719- 4140

Crop Protection and Sustainable Agriculture Zadoks, J.C., R. Rabbinge, M.l Jones, M. Upton an 1993. ISBN 0-471-93944-7 John Wiley & Sons, 605 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10158

*Plant Breeding Reviews Vol. 12 1 Janick, ed. 1994. ISBN 0-471-57344-2 (cloth US$IIO.00) John Wiley & Sons, 605 - 3rd Ave., New York NY 10158

*Horticultural Reviews Vol. 16 1 Janick, ed. 1994. ISBN 0-471-57337-X (cloth USIIO.00) John Wiley & sons, 605 - 3rd Ave., New York NY 10158

*Fungal Physiology, 2nd ed. Griffin, D. H. 1994. ISBN 0-471-59586-1 Wiley-Liss, Inc., 605 - 3rd Ave., New York NY 10158-0012

Handbook for Rhizobia Somasegaran, P. & H.J. Hoben 1994. ISBN 0-387-94134-7 (cloth) Springer- Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus NJ 07094

Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis Baker, N.R. & J.R. Bowyer, eds. 1994. ISBN 1-872748-03-1 (cloth US$130.00;UK£65.00) BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd., Becket St., Oxford OXI ISJ, United Kingdom

Ferns for American Gardens Mickel, J 1994. ISBN 0-02-584491-1 (cloth) Macmillam Publishing Company, 866 - 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10022

*Arabidopsis: An Atlas of Morphology and Development Bowman, l, ed. 1994. ISBN 0-387- 94089-8 (cloth US$69.00) Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus NJ 07094

*Fractal Modelling: Growth and Form In Biology Kaandorp, lA. 1994. ISBN 0-387-56685-6 (cloth) Springer- Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus NJ 07094

*Moss Protonema Differentiation Bhatia, S.C. 1994. ISBN 0-471-94438-6 (cloth US$79.95) John Wiley & Sons, 605 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10158

The Development of Flowers Greyson, R.I. 1994. ISBN 0-19-506688-X (cloth US$65.00) Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

*Catalogue of the Botanical Art Collection at the Hunt Institute - Part 5 White, James J & E. R. Smith, Compilers 1994. ISBN 0-913196-42-8 Hunt Institute, Carnegie Mellow University, Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890 (paper)

*Intermountain Flora, Vol. 5, Asterales
Cronquist, A. 1994. ISBNO-89327-375-9 (cloth) New York Botanical Garden, Bronx NY 10458-5126

*Inventory of Rare & Endangered Vascular Plants of California
Skinner, M. & B. Pavlik, eds. 1994. ISBN 0-943460-18-2 (paper US$22.95) California Native Plant Society, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento CA 95814

Livable Planets are Hard to Find Knobloch, Irving W. 1994 No ISBN (paper US$14.00). I. W. Knobloch, 6104 Brookhaven Ln., East Lansing MI 48823-2216

*Plant Identification Terminology: An illustrated Glossary
Harris, J.G. & M.W. Harris 1994. ISBN 0-9640221-5-X (paper $17.95US) Spring Lake Publishing Co., P.O. Box 266, Payson UT 84651 &t


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